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New York State Education Department 

New York State Library 




A. J. F. van Laer, Archivist 





Mrs Alan H. Strong 






Regents of the University 
With years when terms expire 

1913 Whitelaw Reid M.A. LL.D. D.C.L. Chancellor New York 

1917 St Clair McKelway M.A. LL.D. Vice Chancellor Brooklyn 
1919 Daniel Beach Ph.D. LL.D. - Watkins 

1914 Pliny T. Sexton LL.B. LL.D. - Palmyra 
1912 T. Guilford Smith M.A. C.E. LL.D. - - Buffalo 

1918 William Nottingham M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. - Syracuse 

1910 Charles A. Gardiner Ph.D. L.H.D. LL.D. D.C.L. New York 

1915 Albert Vander Veer M.D. M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. Albany 

191 1 Edward Lauterbach M.A. LL.D. - - New York 
1909 Eugene A. Philbin LL.B. LL.D. - New York 

1916 Lucian L. Shedden LL.B. - - - Plattsburg 

Commissioner of Education 

Andrew S. Draper LL.B. LL.D. 

Assistant Commissioners 

Howard J. Rogers M.A. LL.D. First Assistant 
Edward J. Goodwin Lit.D. L.H.D. Second Assistant 
Augustus S. Downing M.A. Pd.D. LL.D. Third Assistant 

Director of State Library 

James I. Wyer,.Jr, M.L.S. 

Director of Scienc'e and State Museum 

John M. Clarke Ph.D. LL.D. 

Chiefs of Divisions 

Administration, Harlan H. Horner B.A. 

Attendance, James D. Sullivan 

Educational Extension, William R. Eastman M.A. M.L.S. 

Examinations, Charles F. Wheelock B.S. LL.D. 

Inspections, Frank H. Wood M.A. 

Law, Thomas E. Finegan M.A. 

School Libraries, Charles E. Fitch L.H.D. 

Statistics, Hiram C. Case 

Visual Instruction, De Lancey M. Ellis 

d. or 0. 

State Library, Albany, N. Y ., June 17, 1907 

Hon. Andrew S. Draper 

Commissioner of Education 

Dear sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith and recom- 
mend for publication the Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts which 
have been translated by, or under the direction of, Mr van Laer, 
Archivist of the State Library, who has edited the entire work. 

These manuscripts are of great importance in connection with the 
early history of the Dutch colonies in New York State and especially 
cf Albany and vicinity. Their publication in translation should be 
of interest not only to historical students generally but also to every 
native New Yorker who has any curiosity concerning the historic 
origins of the State. 

Very respectfully 

Edwin H. Anderson 


State of New York 
Education Department 

commissioner's room 

These documents constitute very satisfactory primary evidence 
of many of the doings of the Dutch authorities; of Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer, the patroon, and of the settlers of the Hudson river val- 
ley, particularly that part in the neighborhood of Albany, in the 
thirty years following the beginning of the year 1629. Their par- 
ticular value is not in the fact that they tell us what the history 
writers think the first settlers of our State did, but in the fact that 
the chief actor, the man who dealt with the first settlers, tells us 
about the everyday matters which the bookmakers have not thought 
of sufficient public interest to search out and print. The original 
documents were found in Holland. There is no lack of both ex- 
ternal and internal evidence of authenticity and the fact that they 
have been translated and arranged by, or under the personal direc- 
tion of, Mr Arnold J. F. van Laer, the Archivist of the State 
Library, leaves no room for doubt of their accuracy as here pre- 
sented. The State of New York can well afford to publish such a 

Election of interesting historical documents. A happy incident 
Inected therewith appears in the fact that the committee of the 

Board of Regents who arranged with the owners of these papers 
for their publication was composed of two direct descendants of 
early settlers of the regime concerned, viz, Dr Albert Vander Veer 
and Mr Robert C. Pruyn, now much respected residents of the 
city of Albany. Publication at a time when elaborate preparations 
are being made for celebrating the three hundredth anniversary ot 
the discovery of the Hudson river is both opportune and timely. 

Commissioner of Education 

Albany, N. Y., June 21, 1907 



List of illustrations 17 

Introduction 19 

Preface to translations furnished by Mrs Alan H. Strong. . 37 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer and his colony of Rensselaerswyck ; 

by Nicolaas de Roever 40 

June 3 Charter of the West India Company. (Printed in Dutch 

and English) 86 

June 10 Amplification of the charter of the West India Company. 

(Printed in Dutch and English) 116 

Feb. 13 Amplification of the charter of the West India Company. 

(Printed in Dutch and English) 122 

June 21 Agreement between the directors and the chief participants 
of the West India Company. (Printed in Dutch and 

English) 126 

Jan. 13 Notification by Samuel Godyn, Kiliaen van Rensselaer and 
Samuel Blommaert that they send two persons to New 

Netherland to inspect the country 154 

June 7 Freedoms and Exemptions granted to those who will plant 
colonies in New Netherland. (Printed in Dutch and 

English) 136 

7 Registration by Michiel Pauw of a colony on the river of 

Sickenames 154 

iq Registration by Samuel Godyn of the colony of Swanen- 

dael on the bay of the South River 155 

Oct. 15 Registration by Michiel Pauw of a colony on the island 

Fernando do Noronho 155 

22 Registration by Albert Coenraets Burgh of a colony on 

the island of St Vincent 156 

Nov. 1 Registration by Albert Coenraets Burgh and others of a 

colony on the east side of the South Bay 156 

16 Registration by Samuel Blommaert of a colony on the 

Fresh River 157 

19 Registration by Kiliaen van Rensselaer and associates of 
a colony above and below Fort Orange, on both sides of the 

North River 157 

Jan. 10 Registration by Michiel Pauw of the colony of Pavonia, on 

both sides of the North River, from the Narrows north. . 158 




Jan. 12 Instructions to Bastiaen Jansz Krol 158 

Extract of same 700 

16 Instructions to Wolfert Gerritsz 161 

Extract of same 700 

Feb. 1 First combination of colonies in New Netherland and shares 

each partner is to have in them 164 

Apr. 1 7 Registration by Samuel Blommaert of a colony on the 
island of St Martin or on Barbados, among the Caribbean 
Islands x 66 

Aug. 13 Certificate of purchase from the Indians of land on the 
west side of the Hudson River from Smacks Island to 
Moenemin's Castle and of tract of land on the east side 
opposite Castle Island and Fort Orange 166 

Sept. 16 Symon Dircksz Pos, councilor in New Netherland, to 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer 169 

Oct. 1 Agreement between the patroons, Samuel Godyn, Albert 
Coenraets Burgh, Samuel Blommaert and Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer (with postscript of March 2, 1639) 171 

Nov. 7 Registration by Kiliaen van Rensselaer and his copartners 

of a colony on Sable Island 175 

Dec. 21 Registration of various colonies with the Chamber of 

Middelburg 176 


Jan. 12 Agreement between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Marinus 

Adriaensz van der Veere 176 

Extract of same 674 

Feb. 17 Agreement of Marinus Adriaensz van der Veere with Jasper 
Ferlyn van der Gouw; memorandum of similar agree- 
ments with Claes Brunsteyn van Straelsundt, Jan Tyaerts 
van Franicker and Cornells Maesen van Buyrmalsen. 

dated May 27, 1631 179 

May Certificate of purchase from the Indians of land on the west 

side of the Hudson River between Beeren Island and 

Smacks Island iSt 

" 16 Extract from minutes of the Chamber of Amsterdam. 
Request of Kiliaen van Rensselaer for transportation of 

Marinus Adriaensz van der Veere and others 784 

" 19. Extract from minutes of the Chamber of Amsterdam. 
Request of Marinus Adriaensz van der Veere for permit 
to go to New Netherland and action on this request and 

that of Kiliaen van Rensselaer of the iOth 185 

" 27 See entry for Feb. 17, 163 1. 
July 2 Agreement between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Andries 

Christens^ and others 18ft 

Extract of same 675 

7 Extract from the minutes of the Chamber of Amsterdam. 
Request of Kiliaen van Rensselaer for permission to send 


163I PAGE 

July 7 over to New Netherland colonists and animals, and 

granting of same 189 

" 7 Names of colonists sailing in de Eendracht 190 

" 9 Memoranda of payments to colonists and- for tools sent by 

them 191 

Jan. 1 Inventory of stock on farm no. 3, island of Manhattan .... 192 
June 15 Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Gerrit 

Theusz de Reux 193 

Extract of same 675 

15 Memoranda of the engagement of certain farm laborers. . 195 

27 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 196 

July 1 Power of attorney to Wouter van Twiller to administer the 

oath of schout to Rutger Hendricksz van Soest 201 

1 Power of attorney to Rutger Hendricksz van Soest to ad- 
minister the oath of schepen to Roelof Jansz van Master- 
land, Gerrit Theusz de Reux, Marinus Adriaensz van der 
Veere, Brant Peelen van Nijkerck and Laurens Laurensz 

van Coppenhagen; the schepen oath 202 

20 Memoranda from Kiliaen van Rensselaer to^ Wouter van 

Twiller 204 

20 Instructions to Rutger Hendricksz van Soest, schout, and 

the council of the colony of Rensselaerswyck 208 

Extract of same 701 

20 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Coenraet Notelman 213 

20 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Dirck Cornelisz Duyster 215 

20 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Bastiaen Jansz Krol 217 

20 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wolfert Gerritsz 218 

20 Memoranda about letters to Albert Dieterinck and Jacobus 

van Curler and about Rutger Morris 219 

20 List of animals in the colony of Rensselaerswyck 220 

20 List of the men on the farms 222 

20 Inventory of goods and cattle sold by Peter Minuit to 

Wouter van Twiller and Kiliaen van Rensselaer 223 

20 Bill of sale of increase of animals on farm no. 3, on the 
island of Manhattan, by Pieter Bijlvelt to Kiliaen van 

Rensselaer 225 

20 Promissory note of Kih'aen van Rensselaer to Pieter Bijlvelt 
for increase of animals on farm no. 3; receipts for pay- 
ment on same, dated Feb. 24, 1634 226 

20 Bill of sale of animals and implements on farm no. 3, on 
the island of Manhattan, by Pieter Bijlvelt to Kiliaen 

van Rensselaer .., 227 

27 Promissory note of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Bijlvelt 
for animals and implements on farm no. 3 ; receipts for 
payments on same, dated Nov. 11, 1632. and Feb. 24, 
1634 228 


1632 PAGE 

July 27 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 229 

Nov. 11 See entry for July 27, 1632. 

Pieter Bijlvelt to the copartners of the colony of Rensselaers- 

wyck 234 

Nov. 25 Memorial presented by Kiliaen van Rensselaer to the 

Assembly of the Nineteen of the West India Companv. . 235 
Feb. 24 See entry for July 20 and 27, 1632. 
Mar. 4 Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Jacob Albertsz 

Planck 250 

Extract of same 676 

i o Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Michiel Pauw. 254 
Apr. 5 Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Cornelis 

Teunisz van Breuckelen 255 

13 Further contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and 

Michiel Pauw 257 

15 Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Lubbert 

Gijsbertsz van Blaricum 258 

15 Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Hendrick 

Conduit van Coninghsbergen 260 

20 Names of persons ready to sail in de Eendracht 263 

20 Invoice of goods sent to the colony 263 

23 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 266 

26 Memorandum of the engagement of Hendrick Carstensz van 

Norden as farm laborer 288 

" 27 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Coenraet Notelman 288 

" 27 Protest of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to the West India Com- 
• pany on account of the detention of the animals of 

Gerrit Theusz de Reux and Pieter Bijlvelt 290 

" 27 Instructions to Jacob Albertsz Planck, schout 292 

Extract of same 701 

27 List of papers given to Jacob Albertsz Planck 296 

29 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to the Director and Council in New 

Netherland 297 

30 Order of Michiel Pauw to Kiliaen van Rensselaer for pay- 

ment of bill 299 

May Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Roeloffsz 300 

2 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 300 

June 21 Arbitration of accounts of Pieter Bijlvelt and Kiliaen van 

Rensselaer 301 

30 Examination of Bastiaen Jansz Krol 302 

July 20 Bill of Michiel Pauw to Kiliaen van Rensselaer for his share 

in expenses of patroonships in New Netherland 305 

20 Account of the jurisdictions, management and condition of 

the territories named Rcnsselaerswyck 306 

21 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 312 

21 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jehan Raye 313 


1635 PAGE 

May 24 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 313 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 315 


Jan. 10 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Coenraet Notelman 317 

Aug. 26 Contract with Pieter Cornelisz van Munnickendam, Claes 
Jansz van Naerden and Albert Andriesz van Frederiek- 

stad (extract) 676 

26 Contract with Reynier Thijmensz, Dirck Jansz, "etc." 

(extract) 677 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 319 

Instructions to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnickendam 

(extract) 702 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 323 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wolfert Gerritsz 331 

List of papers and memoranda sent by Kiliaen van Rensse- 
laer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 331 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 333 

Kiiiaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 336 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest . 33 7 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 338 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 339 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 341 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 342 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 342 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 343 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 344 

Dirck Corssen Stam, Jan Tiepkesz Schellinger and Hendrick 

de Forest to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 345 

Jan Tiepkesz Schellinger to his wife, Trijn Janse Bruigh. . . . 346 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 347 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Joost van Sandwech 348 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Joost van Sandwech 349 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Joost van Sandwech 349 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnicken- 
dam ^ 35° 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 351 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 353 

Log of the ship Rensselaerswyck on its voyage from Amster- 
dam to New Netherland and return, Sept. 25, 1636-Nov. 

7. 1637 355 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Peter Minuit 389 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 391 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 392 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 393. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Peter Minuit 395 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 396 






























































































" 13 

" 13 

" 13 

" 13 

June 11 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer .to Jacob Albertsz Planck 396 

K'liaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 39S 

Inventory of goods consigned to Jacob Albertsz Planck by 

the ship het Wapen van Noorwegen 399 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 400 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 402 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Ulrich Lupoltt 404 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnick- 

endam 406 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Mauritz Jansz van Broeckhuysen 408 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Albert Andriesz • . . . 409 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 410 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 411 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 416 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Cornells Melyn 419 

Petition of the officers and crew of het Wapen van Noor- 
wegen to lighten the ship 419 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Joost van Sandwech 420 

Willem Kieft to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 421 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jonkheer Gerrit van Arnhem. . . . 424 

See entry for Oct. 1, 1630. 

Ordinance of Director and Council of New Netherland, pro- 
hibiting the sale of firearms to Indians and requiring 
vessels sailing to or from Fort Orange, the South River 

or Fort Hope, to obtain a permit 426 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 427 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 427 

Commission'to Arent van Curler as secretary and book- 
keeper of the colony of Rensselaersv. yck 433 

Commission to Cornells Teunisz van Breuckelen as repre- 
sentative of the patroon 435 

Commission to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnickcndam as re- 
ceiver of tithes and supercargo of the vessel 436 

Permit to Maurits Jansz van Broeckhuysen to settle as 

farmer on de Laets Burg 437 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 438 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnicken- 

dam 443 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Albert Andriesz 446 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Wolfertsz 448 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Ulrich Lupoltt 449 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 449 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Matthijs Muller (heading only) . . 450 


Aug. 3 











May 3 


• " 







Ordinance of the patroon concerning the sale and export of 

furs, grain, etc 450 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler ._ 452 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 456 

Instructions to Cornells Teunisz van Breuckelen as repre- 
sentative of the patroon 459 

Extract of same 702 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jonkheer Gerrit van Arnhem.. . . 463 
Memorandum of matters for cousin de Casembroot to bring 

to the attention of Secretary Musch 466 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Alberts/. Planck 467 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muvss;irt 167 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart p>S 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 471 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 472 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 473 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 4S5 

" 30 Order of Wouter van Twiller to Aert Willemsz 490 

June 16 Instructions to Arent van Curler as secretary and book- 
keeper of the colony of Rensselaerswyck 490 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Cornells Teunisz van Breuckelen. 495 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnicken- 

dam 497 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Michiel Jansz van Scrabbekercke. 499 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Albert Andriesz 50c 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Reyer Stoffelsz 502 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Maurits Jansz van Broeckhuy- 

sen 503 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jan Cornelisz 504 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Albert Andriesz 506 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 508 

Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, prohibiting 

storing grain and tobacco without inspection 515 

Memorandum of papers sent to the colony in the care of 

Crijn Cornelisz van Houten 515 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 5 1 6 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to the Chamber of Amsterdam of 

the West India Company 518 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 520 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jonkheer Gerrit van Arnhem. . . 524 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 527 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 528 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 535 

Resolution of the States General empowering Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer to dispose of his lief of Rensselaerswyck by 

will 536 
















. 10 




























2 5 







































, 21 















Apr. 6 

May 14 
June 3 



Letters patent empowering Kiliaen van Rensselaer to dis- 
pose of his fief of Rensselaerswyck by will 537 

Johannes de Laet to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 539 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Louis Saulmon 543 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 543 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem van Galen 545 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 545 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Adriaen van der Donck 517 

Commission to Adriaen van der Donck as officer (extract) . . 703 

Instructions to Adriaen van der Donck as officer (extract) . . 703 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 548 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 540 

Order of Wouter van Twiller to Aert Willem sz 552 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 552 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 554 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Cornells van der Donck 554 

Order of the West India Company to Job Arisz, skipper of 
den Coninck David to transport Antony de Hooges, Jan 

Verbeck and family, and others 555 

Instructions to Antony de Hooges (extract) 704 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 556 

Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, prohibiting 

sale of firearms and ammunition to the Indians 565 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 566 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Adriaen van der Donck 571 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 572 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Cornells van der Donck 573 

Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck regulating trade 573 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Cornelis van der Donck 574 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 575 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 576 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 578 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem van Galen 579 

Journal of Antony de Hooges on his voyage to New Nether- 
land in den Coninck David, July 30-Nov. 29, 1641 580 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Cornelis van der Donck O03 

Contract with Abraham Staas, surgeon (extract) 678 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes Megapolensis 604 

Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Johannes 

Megapolensis 606 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Cornelis van der Donck 608 

Memoranda from Kiliaen van Rensselaer for Johannes Mega- 
polensis (>0 9 

Contract with Evert Pels, brewer (extract) 679 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Antony de Hooges 620 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 621 


1642 PAGE 

Sept. 1 1 Willem Kieft to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 623 

Oct. 10 Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, prohibiting 
freemen and private traders from coming with their ves- 
sels within the limits of the colony 626 

iS Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, prohibiting 
inhabitants of the colony from trading with the " resi- 
dents " without special consent 627 


Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, prohibiting 

export of goods without special consent and forbidding 
people who come to live or hunt in the colony from leaving 

without making a contract 628 

Jan. 12 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Hendrick Willemsz 629 

12 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes Megapolensis of Coe- 

dijck 629 

Mar. 9 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Adriaen van. der Donck 630 

13 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes Megapolensis 645 

16 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Oloff Stevensz 655 

" 16 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 656 

" 16 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 658 

18 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Antony de Hooges 669 

July 9 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 670 

18 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 671 

22 Sons of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jan Bastiaensz 672 

22 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes Megapolensis of Coe- 

dijck 672 

22 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 673 

Aug. 6 Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart 673 

" 25 Contract with Cornells Segersz van Voorhout (extract). . . . 679 

25 Extracts from agreements and contracts between Kiliaen 

van Rensselaer and his colonists, Jan. 12, 1631-Aug. 25, 

1643 674 

26 Commission to Nieolaes Coorn as commander and commis on 

Rensselaers Steyn and to Jan Dircksz van Bremen as 

skipper of the vessel 680 

Extract of same 704 

Sept. 2 Placard warning private traders not to sail into the colony 
and setting forth new trade regulations in connection 

with the staple right of Rensselaers Steyn 682 

5 Redress of the abuses and faults in the colony of Rensse- 
laerswyck 686 

" 8 Notice to be served on private traders who contrary to the 

patroon's orders sail into the colony 697 

Extract of same 705 

" 8 Extracts from instructions and commissions issued by Kili- 
aen van Rensselaer, Jan. 12, 1630-Sept. 8, 1643 699 

" 10 Account of arrmunition for Rensselaers Steyn 70 


1643 PAGE 

Sept. 16 Proper remedy against the abuse of outstanding accounts 

in the colony of Rensselaerswvck 707 

Aug. 9 Account of grain delivered by Teunis Dircksz van Vechten 

to the West India Company 715 

" 13 Sentence of banishment pronounced on Adriaen Willemsz. . 715 
" 31 Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck regulating the 

picking of hops 716 

Dec. 26 Ledger of the accounts of the ship het Wapen van Rensse- 

laerswycic, Oct. 20-Dec. 26, 1644 717 

May 8 Ordinance concerning the fur trade issued by the officers 
at Fort Orange in conjunction with the court of the 

colony of Rensselaerswyck 722 

Aug. 4 Johannes de Laet and Samuel Blommaert to Albert Coen- 

raets Burgh, with reply 724 

Nov. 20 Resolution of the States General on the petition of Samuel 

Blommaert and others 725 

Apr. 26 Resolution of the States General in the matter of Johannes 

van Rensselaer and others 725 

May 3 r Reply of Samuel Blommaert and Johannes de Laet to the 

States General 726 

June 4 Resolution of the States General in the matter of Johannes 

Van Rensselaer and others 729 

July 3 States General to Jan van Wely~and Wouter van T wilier. . 729 
Nov. 5 Resolution of the States General on a petition of Samuel 

Blommaert and Johannes de Laet 730 


Mar. 26 Sentence of Claes Andriesz 731 

Aug. 25 Lease of land at the south end of Greenbush to Cornelis 

Hendricksz van Nes 762 


Inventory of animals in the colony sent over by Jan Baptist 

van Rensselaer 732 

Memorandum of farms in the colony 740 

Aug. 28 Renewal of lease of farm to Cornelis Teunisz van Brcuckclen 

(Cornelis Anthonisz van Schlick) and Jean Labatie. ... 752 
Sept. 14 Renewal of lease of farm on Papscanee Island to Claes Cor- 

nelisz van Voorhout 767 

M 29 Lease of Castle Island to Cornelis Segersz van Voorhout. . 777 


Feb. 15 Renewal of lease of island opposite Bethlehem to Jan 

Reyersz van Houten 7 7 r 

May. r Renewal of lease of farm and wafer power to Evert Pels. . 759 


1653 PAGE 

May 29 Bill of lading for three parcels of furs shipped from New 

Amsterdam by Jan Baptist van Rensselaer in de Elbinck. 743 
Nov. 8 Petition of Anna van Welv and others for appraisal of 

houses and lots in Amsterdam belonging to the estate of 

the late Kiliaen van Rensselaer, with appraisers' report. . 744 
Jan. 29 Offer of lease of grist and sawmills on the fifth creek to the 
-Feb. 2 highest bidder and memorandum that it has been granted 

to Jacob Jansz Plodder 746 

Mar. 7 Lease of farm north of the fifth creek to Johan de Hulter. . 751 

May 1 Lease of farm in Greenbush to Aert Jacobsz 763 

June 2 Agreement about changes in above lease of Jacob Tansz 

Flodder 748 

23 Renewal of the lease of farm called de Hoogeberch to Gijs- 

bert Cornelisz van Breuckelen 769 

July 20 Lease of farm west of the creek of Castle Island to Jean 

Labatie 775 

Nov. 18 Lease of farm between the two creeks to Jan Barentsz 

Wemp 7^5 

Dec. 14 Lease of water power of the upper mill on the fifth creek to 

Barent Pietersz and Tennis Cornelisz van Spitsbergen . . 749 
Mar. 1 Transfer of lease of maize land from Abraham Stevensz to 

Barent Pietersz and extension of the lease 749 

Apr. 10 Transfer of lease of farm from Pieter Winne to Eldert 

Gerbertsz Cruyf 772 

Aug. 3 Permission to Barent Pietersz and Teunis Cornelisz van 

Spitsbergen to erect another sawmill on the fifth creek. . 750 
Sept. 30 Lease of water power on the mill creek south of the farm 

occupied by Jan Barentsz Wemp to Abraham Pietersz 

Vosburgh and Hans Jansz van Rotterdam 754 

Mar. 29 Settlement of accounts, 1638-57, of the patroon and Teunis 

Dircksz van Vechten 766 

Apr. 28 Lease of horses to Thomas Higgins, called Compeer 780 

Mav 1 Renewal of lease of farm south of Greenbush to Teunis 

Dircksz van Vechten 764 

May 1 Lease of land on island opposite Beverwyck to Arcnt An- 

driesz 758 

Tulv 12 Agreement of the council of Rensselaerswyck to pay tithes 

to the West India Company 781 

Sept. 10 Adjustment of fire losses on farm of Aert Jacobsz at Beth- 
lehem 774 

t 1 Agreement about lease of a parcel of land on the east side 

of the river, opposite den sack, to Goossen Gerritsz and 

Thomas Jansz 758 













Memorandum that the water power opposite Bethlehem is 

not leased yy Q 

Memorandum that Jan Helmsz has not renewed his lease. . 772 
Memorandum that Eldert Gerbertsz has not renewed his 

sawmill lease 772 

Memorandum of farm of Cornelis Cornelisz van Voorhout. . 775 
Memorandum that Albert Andriesz has not renewed his 

lease 775 

Sept. n Extracts from leases of farms, sawmills, etc. 1650-58. . . . 746 

Oct. 6 Sibout Kiewert~to notary in Holland 783 


June 28 See entry for May 15, 1671, 


Oct. 26 Petition of the schout, burgomaster and schepens of New 
Amsterdam to the Director and Council of New Nether- 
land for the convocation of delegates from the several 
towns to consider the state of the province; with the 

resolution on the same 784 

Nov. 3 Delegates to the convention at New Amsterdam to Jan 

Baptist van Rensselaer and Johannes Pietersz van Brugh 785 
3 Delegates to the convention at New Amsterdam to the 

Chamber of Amsterdam of the West India Company. . . 787 
10 List of papers sent to Jan Baptist van Rensselaer and 
Johannes Pietersz van Brugh in the name of the delegates 

to the convention at New Amsterdam 788 

10 Burgomaster and schepens of New Amsterdam to Jan 

Baptist van Rensselaer and Johannes Pietersz van Brugh. 789 

Apr. 28 Insurance policy on the ship het Gekruijste Hart, and lading. 790 


May 15 Jan Ilendricksz van Gunst to B. Coornhart, notary at 

Amsterdam 792 

15 Power of attorney from Jan Hendricksz van Gunst to B. 
Coornhart, to collect money from Aeltje Marchal and 

others 793 

15 Note of hand, dated June 28, 1662, of Aeltje Marchal to 

Jan Hendricksz van Gunst 795 

July 6 Accounts and invoice of the ship de Witte Kloodt 795 

Brant Schuyler to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 803 

List of settlers of the colony of Rens^elaerswyck, 1630-58. . 805 
Former Dutch coins, weights and measures and their 

equivalents 847 

Index, ,*... , ., ,, 851 



Merchant's mark of Kiliaen van Rensselaer 67 

Mark of the colony of Rensselaerswyck 85 

Last page of Uryhcden ende Exemption (Freedoms and Exemptions) 

Amsterdam 1631 152 

Signature of Kiliaen van Rensselaer 163 

Notarial copy of extract from minutes of the Chamber of Amsterdam 

of the West India Company, July 7, 1631 189 

Memorandum of the engagement of certain farm laborers, June 15, 

1632 196 

Last part of inventory of goods and animals sold by Peter Minuit to 

Wouter van T wilier and Kiliaen van Rensselaer, July 20, 1632 224 

Promissory note of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Bijlvelt, July 20, 

1632, with receipt of February 24, 1634 226 

List of persons who are to sail by the ship de Eendracht, April 20, 1634. 2D 3 
Order by Michiel Pauw to Kiliaen van Rensselaer for payment of bill, 

April 30, 1634 299 

Last lines of letter from Dirck Corssen Stam, Jan Tiepkesz Schellinger 

and Hendrick de Forest to Kiliaen van Rensselaer, January 8, 1637... 345 
Entries in log of the ship Rensselaerswyck, November 1 and 2, 1636.... 360 
Last part of letter of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Peter Minuit, December 

2 9- i€>S7, and first lines of letter of same date to Willem Kieft 395 

Order of the West India Company to Job Arisz, skipper of den Coninck 

David, to transport Antony de Hooges and others, July 10, 1641... 556 
Waerschovwinge, Verboth aide Toe-latinghe, weghens de Colonie van 

Renselacrs-wyck (Warning, Prohibition and Permission concerning 

the colony of Rensselaerswyck), September 2, 1643 682 

Title page of Van de Abuysen ende Faulten in de Colonie van 

Rensselaers-wijck (Redress of the abuses and faults in the colony of 

Rensselaerswyck) . Amsterdam 1643 686 

Insinuatie, Protestatic, ende Presentatie van weghen den Patroon van de 

Colonie van Rensselaer s-wijek (Notice, Protest and Permission on 

behalf of the patroon of the colony of Rensselaerswyck), SeptemDer 

8, 1643 697 


Signatures of Samuel Blommaert and Johannes de Laet 728 

Petition of Anna van Wely and others for appraisal of houses and lots 
at Amsterdam belonging to the estate of the late Kiliaen van Rens- 
selaer, with appraisers' report, November 8, 1653 744 

Last part of letter of burgomaster and schepens of New Amsterdam to 
Jan Baptist van Rensselaer and Johannes Pietersz van Brugh, Novem- 
ber 10, 1663 789 

Signature of Jan Hendricksz van Gunst 793 

Map of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, about 1632 In pocket 

New York State Education Department 

New York State Library 


A. J. F. van Laer, Archivist 


The present work contains translations of a collection of manu- 
scripts which on examination will prove one of the most valuable 
sources of information for the history of early Dutch settlement in 
the state of New York. The collection comprises a great variety 
of papers, including journals of voyages, deeds, leases, contracts, 
accounts and inventories of cattle ; but the most important item is 
a volume containing copies of letters, memorials and instructions 
written between the years if.30 and 1643 by Kiliaen van Rensselaer, 
the founder of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, to his colonists, to 
officials of the West India Company, to his copartners and to the 
States General. Nearly all the papers relate primarily to the estab- 
lishment and the early development of the colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck, but incidentally they touch on many matters relating to settle- 
ment in other parts of the province of New Netherland as well. 

History of the manuscripts. The papers have been handed 
down in the Holland branch of the van Rensselaer family and are 
at present owned by Jonkheer H. J. J. van Rensselaer Bowier and 
Jonkheer M. W. M. M. van Rensselaer Bowier, the surviving sons 
of the late Vice Admiral van Rensselaer Bowier, who inherited the 
papers from his mother, Sara van Rensselaer, the last of the name 
in Holland. 

The first person to use the papers for historical purposes was 
Mr Nicolaas de Roever, late archivist of the city of Amsterdam, to 
whose prolific pen and keen interest in matters pertaining to 17th 
century Dutch history so many valuable articles are due. Mr de 
Roever learned of the existence of the papers in 1888 and in 1890 
published in Oud Holland, a periodical devoted to the history of 
Dutch art, literature and industry of which he was the editor, a few 



of the most important documents, as appendixes to two articles on 
Kiliaen -ran Rensselaer en rjijne kolonie Rensselaerszvijck, which in 
narrative form give a summary of the contents of the papers up to 
1641. Other articles were to follow, hut owing to Mr de Roever's 
death were not written. The articles appear to have attracted at- 
tention in this country about 1896. They contained much that was 
either new or at variance with long accepted notions as to events 
in the early days of the colony and hence aroused curiosity as to 
the extent of the collection and the nature of the material which 
remained unpublished. In 1902, Miss Ruth Putnam made a special 
trip to Holland to investigate the matter, and on her return gave 
an account of her experiences in the November number of the 
Bibliographer. It proved that the papers, shortly after the death 
of Mr de Roever in 1893, naf l Deen returned to the family and in 
1895 were loaned by an elder brother of the present owners, since 
deceased, to a friend by the name of J. F. Pieters, who took the 
papers to America and there, assuming the name of Pieters van 
Wely, attempted to dispose of them at private sales. Mr Pieters 
however did not succeed and finally, leaving the papers in the hands 
of Mr George Waddington of New York, returned to Holland, 
wdiere he shortly after died. Efforts were made by the van Rens- 
selaer Bowicr family to recover the papers from his widow but not 
sufficiently pressed to disclose where the papers had been left and 
for some years nothing more was heard of them. In January 1903, 
the present editor learned from the late Mr John V. L. Pruyn that 
manuscripts of doubtful origin, relating to the colony of Rens- 
selaerswyck and going by the name of van Wely papers had been 
left in the hands of his friend Mr Waddington. Concluding that 
these must be the missing' van Rensselaer Bowier papers to which 
Miss Putnam had just called attention, he secured through Mr 
Pruyn permission to examine the papers at the State Library and, 
by comparison with the documents published by Mr de Roever, re- 
moved all doubt as to their identity. The fact was reported to Mr 
Waddington and his permission obtained to communicate with Mrs 
van Rensselaer Bowier, the widow of the late admiral. It so hap- 
pened that just then Mrs Bowier and her youngest son were on 
their way to make a brief visit to this country. They were ex- 
pected to stay a few days with. Mrs Alan H. Strong, of New 
Brunswick, N. J., and news of the whereabouts of the papers was 
sent to them there. The owners immediately rcpicvincd the papers 
but, finding that no one intended to contest their claims, abandoned 
further legal action and entered into the following amicable agree- 


merit with the Regents of the University of the State of New- 
York : 

an agreement entered into July 29, 1903 between John De Witt Peltz of 
Albany, N. Y., representing- Hugo Jan Jacob Van Rensselaer-Rowier and 
Marten Wilhelmus Marius Magdaltts Van Rensselaer-Bowier, and the Board 
of Regents of the University of the State of New York, concerning the 
custody, use and disposition of certain documents and papers obtained by 
Mr Arnold J. F. van Laer from one Waddington of New York City which 
have been the subject of litigation in the Supreme Court in Albany county. 

First. \t is agreed that the documents above referred to shall be trans- 
lated and published as a bulletin by the Regents of the University, together 
with so much of the original as the library committee may deem desirable, 
together with Mrs Strong's translation of the unfinished DeRoevcr printed 
articles relating to these documents with a preface by Mrs Strong, but such 
translation and preface shall be subject to the revision and approval of the 
library committee of the Regents before publication. 

Second, Mrs Strong shall be permitted to copyright her translation and 
preface before publication by the State, if it can be done under the laws 
of the State and rules of the Foard of Regents. 

Third. Mrs Strong and the Messrs Van Rensselaer-Bowier shall each 
receive free of charge 25 copies of the completed "work, being 50 copies 
in all. 

Fourth. The original documents shall be left in the custody of the 
Regents until February 1, 1904, for the purpose of the translation and pub- 
lication above referred to and for no other purpose, and shall then be re- 
turned to John De Witt Peltz, Esq., as representative of the owners. 

Fifth. This agreement shall not be valid until it receives the written 
approval of Mrs Strong. 

Jno DeWitt Peltz 

Robert C. Pruyn ) Committee of 

Albert Vander Veer ) the Regents 

I hereby approve the above agreement. 

Susan de Lancey van Rensselaer Strong 

The papers received from Mr Waddington consisted of the fol- 
lowing : 

Van Rensselaer Bowier manuscripts 

Numbers in curves are those on backs of documents. Number of pages given after each 
entry refers to written pages only. 

i 1629, Jan. 13-1643, Aug. 6 Letter Book of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

i83f. (366p.) 34x23cm. 

Marked on the outside: N°. A. Rensselaers Wijck Gclecgen Jnde Noort- 
reviere van Nicunederlandt. Bound in vellum with green linen cove 

The greater part of the writing in the Letter Book appears to be the work 
of three or four different clerks employed by the patroon in the course of 
the years 1629—43. Here and there a document is entered in another hand 
and in all some 14 or 13 different hands may be counted. The date of 
each letter and the name of the person to whom it is addressed are usually 
written by the patroon and marginal notes, additions and corrections, also 111 
his handwriting, indicate that the majority uf the letters have been revised 
by him personally. 

2 (36) 1630, Sept. 16 Letter : Symon Dircksz Pos, councilor in New 

W'therland, to Kiliaen van Rensselaer. i^4p- 

Printed in Oud Holland, 1890, 8:70-71. 

3 (25) 1631, May Certificate of purchase from the Indians of land on 

the west side of the Hudson River between Beeren Island and 
Smacks Island. 33?/>x3Scm. 

Parchment. Also in Letter Book, f. ib, and in Dutch Patents, vol. GG, 
p. 9-1 1. 


4 (4) 1632? Petition: Pieter Bijlvelt to the copartners of the colony 

of Rensselaerswyck. 2p. 
Much eaten by ink. 

5 (5) 1632, July 20 Bills of sale of animals, increase of animals and 

implements on farm no. 3, on the island of Manhattan, by 
Pieter Bijlvelt to Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 2p. 

In the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. Also in part in Letter 
Book, f. 24. 

6 (6) 1632, July 27 Promissory note of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter 

Bijlvelt for animals and implements on farm no. 3 ; receipts for 
payments on same, dated Nov. 11, 1632, and Feb. 24, 1634. '/p. 

In the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

7 (39) 1632, July 20 Promissory note of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter 

Bijlvelt for increase of animals on farm no. 3; receipt fur pay- 
ment on same, dated Feb. 24, 1634. i^P- 

In the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

8 (1) 1634, Apr. 30 Order of Michiel Pauw to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 

for payment of bill ; receipted by Reynier Pauw. y^p. 

9 (3) 1C34, July 20 Bill of Michiel Pauw to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 

for his share in expenses of patroonships in New Netherland. ip. 

10 (2) 1634, June 21 xAxbitration of accounts of Pieter Bijlvelt and Kiliaen 

van Rensselaer by Michiel Pauw and Hendrik Hoochcamer. ip. 

11 (19) 1636, Sept. 25-1637, Nov. 7 Log of the ship Rensselaerswyck on 

its voyage from Amsterdam to New Netherland and return. 55p. 

Marked on outside: Joercnacl voocr ijan ticpks Sclicllinger (Journal for 
Jan Tiepkesz Schellinger). 

12 (35) 1637, Jan. 8 Letter : Dirck Corssen Stam, Jan Tiepkesz Schel- 

linger and Hendrick de Forest to Kiliaen van Rensselaer, ip. 
Written from Ilfracombe, Devon, England. 

13 (20) 1637, Jan. 9 Letter: Jan Tiepkesz Schellinger to his wife, Trijn 

Janse Bruigh. 

Written from Ilfracombe. 

14 (44) 1638 Petition of the officers and crew of het Wapen van Noor- 

wegen to Cornells Melyn to lighten the ship. ip. 

15 (38) 1638, Aug. 14 Letter: Willem Kieft to Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 3p. 

16 (43) 1639, Mar. 31 Ordinance of Director and Council of New Nether- 

land, prohibiting the sale of firearms to Indians and requiring 
vessels sailing to or from Fort Orange, the South River or Fort 
Hope, to obtain a permit, ip. 

Also in N.Y.Col.Mss, 4:36. and translation printed in Laws ant Or fi- 
nances of New Netherland, p. 1S-19. 

17 (18) 1640, July 19 Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, pro- 

hibiting storing grain and tobacco without inspection. 20X3iJ^cm. 
Same in 18. 

18 (58) 1640, July 19-1644, Aug. 31 Copies of certain ordinances published 

in the colony of Rensselaerswyck. I2p. 

Cofia ran Eenige placcaten gefiubliceert Jnde Colonic Van Rensselaers 
Wijck. N°: T: In the handwriting of Antony de Uooges. 

19 (29) 1641, Feb. 5 Resolution of the States General empowering Kiliaen 

van Rensselaer to dispose of his fief of Rensselaerswyck by 
will. ip. 

Translation printed in Col. Hist. N.Y. 1:124. 


20 (40) 1641, Feb. 5 Letters patent empowering Kiliaen van Rensselaer to 

dispose of his fief of Rensselaerswyck by will. 52x67cm. 

Parchment. Translation printed in Col. Hist. N-Y. 1:124. 

21 (7) 1641, Feb. 8 Letter: Johannes de Laet to Kiliaen van Rens- 

selaer. 3p. 

22 (9) 1641, July 10 Order of the West India Company to Job Arisz, 

skipper of den Coninck David, to transport Antony de Hooges, 
Jan Verbeeck and family, and others, ip. 

Printed blank. 

23 (17) 1641, July 18 Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, pro- 

hibiting sale of firearms and ammunition to Indians, ip. 
Same in 18 and 31. 

24 (8) 1641, July 30-Nov. 29 Journal of Antony de Hooges on his voy- 

age to New Netherland in den Coninck David. i6p. 

Journael gehouden opt Schip den Coninck David, gedestineert naer A ieu .'- 
Ncderlandt Anno 1641. 

2 5 (37) 1642, Sept. 11 Letter: Willem Kieft to Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 3p. 

26 (15) 1642, Oct. 10 Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, pro- 

hibiting freemen and private traders from coming with their 
vessels within the limits of the colony. 323/2x41011. 
Same in 18. 

27 (48) 1643, Aug. 26 Commission to Nicolaes Coorn as commander and 

commis on Rensselaers Steyn and to Jan Dircksz van Bremen 
as skipper of the vessel. * 2p. 

28 (22) 1643, Sept. 10 Account of ammunition for Rensselaers Steyn and 

the arsenal, ip. 

Reeckeninge vande Amonitie voor Rensselaers Steijn en Wagenhuijs 
[ Wapenhuijs]. 

29 (16) 1643 Ordinance of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, prohibiting 

export of goods without special consent and forbidding people 
who come to live or hunt in the colony from leaving without 
making a contract. 2p. 

Same in 18 in same handwriting. 

30 (13) 1644, Dec. 26 Ledger -of the accounts of the ship het Wapen van 

Rensselaerswyck. 6f. 

Schult Boeck Voor Reeckcninghc Vant Schip het Wapen Van Rcnsslaers- 
Wyck. N°. M: 

31 (14) 1645, May 8 Ordinance concerning the fur trade issued by the 

officers at Fort Orange in conjunction with the court of the 
colony of Rensselaerswyck; also, ordinance of July 18, 1641 ; 
also, account of grain delivered by Teunis Dircksz van Vechten 
to the West India Company, dated Aug. 9, 1644. 3p. 

32 (46) 1647, Aug. 4 Letter: Johannes de Laet and Samuel Blommaert 

to Albert Coenraets Burgh, with reply. 2p. 

Papers 33-44 arc copies made in 1649 for use in settling the claims 
of the late patroon's copartners in the colony of Rensselaerswyck 

33 (41) 1629, Jan. 13-1630, Nov. 7 List of the colonies registered with the 

Chamber of Amsterdam, abstracted for the Assembly of the 
XIX, in Zealand, Dec. 21, 1630. 3p. 


34 (42) 1629, June 19-Nov. 19 Extract from the Register of resolutions 

passed by the directors of the Chartered West India Company, 
Chamber of Amsterdam. 2p. 

35 (52) 1629, Nov. 19 Registration by Kiliaen van Rensselaer and asso- 

ciates of a colony above and below Fort Orange, on both sides 
of the North River, ip. 

36 (49) 1630, Jan. 12-1643, Sept. 8 Extracts from instructions and com- 

missions issued by Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 6p. 

37 (32) 1630, Feb. 1 First combination of colonies in New Netherland 

and shares each partner is to have in them. 2p. 

38 (51) 1631; Jan. 12-1643, Aug. 25 Extracts from agreements and con- 

tracts between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and his colonists. 5p. 

39 (31) 1648, Nov. 20 Resolution of the States General on the petition of 

Samuel Blommaert and others, ip. 

40 (30) 1649, Apr. 26 Resolution of the States General in the matter of 

Johannes van Rensselaer and others, ip. 

41 (60) 1649, May 31 Reply of Samuel Blommaert and Johannes de Laet 

to the States General. 2p. 

42 (26) 1649, June 4 Resolution of the States General in the matter of 

Johannes van Rensselaer and others, ip. 

43 (27) 1649, July 3 Notification from the States General to Jan van 

Wely and Wouter van Twiller. ip. 

44 (28) 1649, Nov. s Resolution of the States General on a petition of 

Samuel Blommaert and Johannes de Laet. ip. 

45 (59) 1650, Aug. 25-1658, Sept. 11 Extracts from leases and agreements 

relating to the farms, sawmills, plantations and other property 
in the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 64P. 

46 (47) 165 1 Inventory of animals in the colony sent over by Jan Baptist 

van Rensselaer. 19P. 

47 (23) 1653, May 29 Bill of lading for three parcels of furs shipped 

from New Amsterdam by Jan Baptist van Rensselaer in de 
Elbinck. J^p. 

Printed blank. 

48 (50) 1653, Nov. 8 Petition of Anna van Wely and others for appraisal 

of houses and lots in Amsterdam belonging to the estate of the 
late Kiliaen van Rensselaer, with appraisers' report, ip. 

49 (34) 1659, Oct. 6 Letter: Sibout Kiewert, of St Christopher, to notary 

in Holland about the sale of a grave [at Amsterdam?]. y 2 p. 

50 (56) 1663, Oct. 26 Petition of the sellout, burgomaster and schepens 

of New Amsterdam to the director and council of New Nether- 
land for the convocation of delegates from the several towns 
to consider the state of the province; with the resolution on 
the same. 3p. 

51 (54) 1663, Nov. 3 Letter: delegates to the convention at New Amster- 

dam to Jan Baptist van Rensselaer and Johannes Pietersz van 
Brugh. 2p. 
52' (55) 1663, Nov. 3 Letter: delegates to the convention at New Amster- 
dam to the Chamber of Amsterdam of the West India Com- 
pany, ip. 


53 (54 a ) J 663, Nov. 10 List of papers sent to Jan Baptist van Rensselaer 

and Johannes Pietersz van Brugh in the name of the delegates 
to the convention at New Amsterdam, ip. 

54 (57) 1663, Nov. 10 Letter: burgomaster and schepens of New Amster- 

dam to Jan Baptist van Rensselaer and Johannes Pietersz van 
Brugh. 1 p. 

55 (24) 1665, Apr. 28 Insurance policy on the ship het Gekruijste Hart 

and lading, ip. 

Printed blank. 

56 (45) 1671, July 6 Accounts and invoice of the ship de Witte Kloodt. 


57 (33) 1671, May 15 Power of attorney from Jan Hendricksz van Gunst 

to B. Coornhart, notary at Amsterdam, to collect money from 
Aeltje Marchal and others. 2p. 

58 (33a) 1671, May 15 Letter: Jan Hendricksz van Gunst to B. Coorn- 

hart, notary at Amsterdam. 2p. 

59 (33^) 1671, May 15 Note of hand, dated June 28, 1662, of Aeltje 

Marchal to Jan Hendricksz van Gunst. J^p. 

60 (53) 1696, Dec. 30 Letter: Brant Schuyler to Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 


Printed documents accompanying above manuscripts 

61 (11) 1629, June 7 Freedoms and Exemptions for the patroons, masters 

or private persons who will plant any colonies in and send 
cattle to New Netherland, drawn up for the benefit of the 
General West India Company in New Netherland and for the 
profit of the patroons, masters and private persons, up. 

Uryhedcn ende Exemptien voor de Pairoonen / Meestcrs ofte Particu- 
Keren / die op Nieu-Nederlaiuit eenighe Colonien ende Vee sullen planten 
geconsidereert ten dienst Tan de Generate West-Indische Compsgwe in 
Nieu-Nederlandt / ende het voordeel van de Patrooncn / Meesters ende 

62 (21) 1643, Sept. 2 Placard warning private traders not to sail into the 

colony and setting forth new trade regulations in connection 
with the staple right of Rensselaers Steyn. 

Broadside 41x28cm, letterpress 37. 8x24. 4cm. 

Entitled: Waerschovwinge, V.erboth, ende Toe-latinghe, weghens de 
Colonie van Renselaers-zvyck (Warning, Prohibition and Permission con- 
cerning the colony of Rensselaerswyck). 

63 (12) 1643, Sept. 5 Redress of the abuses and faults in the colony of 

Rensselaerswyck. I4p. 20x15.5cm. 

Redres Van de Abuysen ende Faulten in de Colonie van Rcnsselaers- 

64 (10) 1643, Sept. 8 Notice to be served on private traders who con- 

trary to the patroon's orders sail into the colony. 

Broadside 41.3x33cm, letterpress 31.4x22cm. 

Entitled: Insinuatie, Protcstatic, ende Presentatie van wcghen den 
Patrooti von dc Colonie van Rensselacrs-wijck (Notice, Protest and Per- 
mission on behalf of the patroon of the colony of Rensselaerswyck). 

No. 13, 15, 17, four documents in 18, 23, 25-29, 36, 38, 50-52 and 54 
of the above list were accompanied by recent transcripts appar- 
ently made for Mr Nicolaas de Roe\er. 


Judging' from a statement by Miss Putnam, that " not even a 
stray sheet relating to the American colony of Rensselaerwyck " 
was found among the papers which she examined at Amsterdam, 
it is probable that the above listed papers include all the documents 
used by Mr de Roever with the exception of four, namely : the 
Protest to the West India Company, April 27, 1634, and the Exam- 
ination of Bastiaen Jansz Krol, June 30, 1634, both printed in 
Oud Holland; the Certificate of purchase, August 13, 1630, now 
in the hands of the Hon. John Boyd Thacher; and the Journal of 
a trip to the Senecas, in 1634, which is apparently the same as 
the document secured by Gen. James Grant Wilson at Amsterdam 
in 1895, and printed by him under the erroneous title of "Arent 
van Curler and his Journal of 1634-35." 

Translations. Of the papers received from Mr Waddington 
transcripts were at once made and the originals, in accordance 
with the agreement, returned to Mr Peltz as representative of the 
owners on February 1, 1904. The work of translation was there- 
upon begun and. the present volume is the result. It contains in 
chronologic order complete translations of the papers received 
and, by way of introduction, translations of Mr de Roever's articles, 
furnished by Mrs Strong, whose connection with the work is ex- 
plained in a separate preface. It is fair to say these latter trans- 
lations and those of the documents given by Mr de Roever as 
appendixes, which were also furnished by Mrs Strong and are 
printed in their proper chronologic place, have been carefully 
revised by the editor, who has introduced such changes as he 
deemed necessary and must therefore be held solely responsible 
for whatever errors are found in them. A few discrepancies be- 
tween the translations of these appendixes and the text as printed 
in Oud Holland are due to the fact that this text does not always 
exactly follow the original but words have been omitted or mis- 
read and headings have been changed to conform to a general 
style of editing. In all such cases the translation has been made 
to agree with the original. 

The original plan was to print the entire body of manuscripts 
both in Dutch and English but a more careful examination of the 
nature and condition of the papers soon made it evident that no 
such elaborate treatment was required or even desirable. One 
reason for this is that the prolixity of the patroon and the repe- 
tition of the same matters in letters to different individuals, make 
one feel the need for condensation rather than for duplication of 
the material ; another reason is that the very repetitions afford in 


themselves opportunity for verification of the statements made; 
and yet a third, that the copies in the Letter Book, which contain 
many errors and frequently continue for pages without punctua- 
tion, make difficult reading which would benefit none but the most 
expert in the Dutch language and therefore not warrant the great 
expense of printing involved. These, statements however do not 
apply to the documents concerning the organization and internal 
management of the West India Company nor to the charter of 
Freedoms and Exemptions ; these are printed at the beginning of 
the present work and, on account of the importance of each article, 
the difficulty of interpretation always connected with law, and the 
fact that other translations differing materially from the present 
have been printed before, it has seemed desirable to give the Dutch 
text as well as the translation. As shown in the footnotes to these 
documents, neither the charter of the West India Company nor its 
amplifications nor the Agreement between the directors and chief 
participants are found among the Van Rensselaer Bowier manu- 
scripts. They have been included because a knowledge of their 
contents is essential to the correct understanding of certain allus- 
ions in the patroon's writings and because no satisfactory trans- 
lations were available elsewhere. 

In regard to the preparation of this work it may be said that 
correctness of interpretation has been the chief aim of the trans- 
lation and that occasional awkwardness of construction must be 
ascribed to the impossibility of making smooth and idiomatic 
English out of the unusually involved and clumsy passages which 
occur in the original. Phrases that were in any way obscure or 
that seemed particularly important have been cited in footnotes. 
Names of persons have been given as in the original, including 
apparent designations of trade or place of origin, in order that 
the reader might have the benefit of the entire form as it occurs. 
From this rule depart the names in Mr de Roever's articles, which 
are printed in Oud Holland with a comma between the patronymic 
and the preposition van, as RUTGER HENDRIKSZ, van Soest, 
and which for this reason have been given in the present work by 
translating van into from, as Rutgcr Hendrikss, from Soest. 
Italics have been used throughout to indicate that the spelling of a 
word follows the original, the only exception to this rule being 
the word com mis, which is written also as commies, commijs, 
commys and comys, but for which it seemed desirable to adopt a 
standard form. This term commis, when used in the sense of 
agent, whether in the colony, at the fort or elsewhere, but not 


when used in the sense of supercargo of a vessel, has heen retained 
only after considerable hesitation and because no satisfactory Eng- 
lish term seemed available. O'Callaghan, Brodhead and other 
writers have translated it as commissary, which is not bad when un- 
derstood in the sense of a person having charge of stores or pro- 
visions, except for the fact that it creates confusion because the 
same word has been used by these writers and by the early English 
colonial governors in their official instructions to render the Dutch 
term commissaris, applying to the magistrates of the local court at 
Albany. The term commis has distinctly a commercial flavor and 
the fact that the commisen in the colony of Rensselaer swyck and 
at Fort Orange had also, and necessarily, a certain measure of ad- 
ministrative power does not alter the circumstance that they were 
primarily trading agents. The term factor comes perhaps nearest 
to it, but is objectionable because it literally corresponds to the 
Dutch term factoor which is not used in connection with the 
colonial establishments in New Netherland. Wishing to avoid the 
confusion of the term commissary, and not thinking it advisable 
to introduce the word factor, the best solution seemed to be to 
retain the word commis. Strictly speaking, the word commis need 
not have been italicized any more than schout, schepens and 
other Dutch terms which occur in the text but, inasmuch as the 
term commis was a new feature in English rendering of New 
Netherland terminology, it seemed best to make this exception 
and give the reader the benefit of knowing in each case which 
was the particular word used in the original. 

Historical value. The value of the Van Rensselaer Bowier 
manuscripts as an historical source lies in the authenticity of the 
information conveyed no less than in the circumstance that for 
part of the period covered they are, with the exception of a few 
land patents, some extracts from the records of the States General 
and the meager accounts in de Eaet, Wassenaer and de Vries, the only 
available material for the history, not only of the colony of Rens- 
selaerswyck, but of settlement in other parts of New Netherland 
as well. The papers consist for the greater part of the writings 
of the man who for the first 16 years of the life of the colony 
managed its affairs from his- home at Amsterdam and contain 
therefore first-hand information as to the plan and motive of the 
successive steps taken in building up the settlement which has 
played such a conspicuous part in the development of the province. 
The letters of ECiliaen van Rensselaer antedate by four years the 


earliest business accounts and by 13 years the earliest administrative 
records that have been preserved among- papers of the Van Rens- 
selaer family in this country, cited by previous writers and in the 
present work as the Rensselaerswyck manuscripts, and from the 
nature of the case contain much about conditions in the colony that 
was hitherto either unknown or imperfectly understood. It is true 
that the papers inform us about the patroon's intentions as to what 
should be done, rather than about what actually took place, but on 
the whole a very satisfactory insight into the gradual development 
of the colony is afforded. Nothing is more interesting than to trace 
the growth of the settlement from feeble beginnings to a large and 
flourishing estate; to watch the increase of population, the multipli- 
cation of trades, the extension of duties and powers of administra- 
tive officers and the final organization of a system of local govern- 
ment which is unique in the history of the province. With respect to 
all these matters the present papers furnish information which is 
completely at variance with the statements about the establishment 
of the colony made by O'Callaghan and the numerous other writers 
whose accounts may be traced back to his. In reading these ac- 
counts one receives the impression that with the exception of the 
district of Papscanee practically all the land included in the later 
manor of Rensselaerswyck, situated on both sides of the river and 
covering a tract 24 miles long by 48 miles wide, was bought as early 
as 1630; that the same year no less than 20 settlers came over; that 
immediately a fully organized court with Jacob Albertsz Planck as 
sellout was established and that, also in 1630, Arent van Curler took 
up his duties of commissary-general or superintendent of the colony. 
The papers printed in this volume show that nothing of the sort took 
place. Nearly all the land of the colony, till the purchase of 
Papscanee in 1637, was on the west side of the river ; and instead of 
all being bought in 1630, a part was not bought till May 163 1. In- 
stead of 20 settlers, but ten sailed for the colony in 1630, and no 
schout or magistrates were appointed till 1632, it being moreover 
doubtful whether the first sellout, Rutger Hendricksz van Soest, ever 
took the oath and held court. As to Jacob Albertsz Planck, he did 
not become schout of the colony till 1^34, and Arent van Curler, 
then 18 years of age, was sent out as his assistant in 1637. The 
truth of the matter is that the contentions between Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer and the West India Company regarding the right to the 
fur trade and the various difficulties laid in the way of transporta- 
tion of cattle ami implements by members of the board of directors 


who were opposed to the policy of agricultural colonization so 
impeded the progress of settlement that, in 1634, the patroon was 
quite ready to abandon the entire enterprise if the Company would 
pay him the price asked. The uncertainity which existed regarding 
the prospects of the colony is strikingly illustrated by the entire ab- 
sence of letters for the year 1633; at the cn ^ °f I0 34 matters seem 
to have been adjusted and from that time the affairs of the colony 
moved steadily forward. By 1636 three farms had been established 
and the patroon made arrangements to send a large number of colo- 
nists by a ship equipped at the joint expense of himself and 
Gerard de Forest. This increase in the population soon made it 
necessary to make more ample provision for the administration of 
the colony. Planck held the office of schout as well as that of com- 
mis } thus combining the chief judicial and executive office with the 
business management of the colony. In neither capacity was he 
particularly successful and in 1639 the patroon decided to make a 
change. Not finding it easy to induce " people of capacity," as he 
calls them, to accept his propositions, he for the time being en- 
trusted judicial and business matters to the joint care of three ge- 
committcerden, or commissioners, namely, Arent van Curler, Pieter 
Cornelisz van Munnickendam and Cornells Teunisz van Breuckelen, 
who exercised their functions till the arrival of Adriaen van der 
Donck in 1641. Van der Donck acted in the capacity of schout till 
1646, when he was succeeded by Nicolaes Coorn, who in turn was 
replaced in 1648 by Brant van Slichtenhorst, the first director of 
the colony. Among the Rensselaerswyck manuscripts has been pre- 
served a complete record of the court presided over by van Slich- 
tenhorst till April 10, 1652, when Director General Stuyvesant es- 
tablished in Fort Orange a court of justice for the village of Bever- 
wyck, independent of that in Rensselaerswyck ; for the study of the 
powers and duties of the officers that preceded van Slichtenhorst, 
we must fall back on the instructions'contained in the present papers, 
which on that account have especial value. 

It may here be said in passing that the court of the colony, while 
it existed till 1665, when Gov. Nicolls consolidated the courts of 
Albany and Rensselaerswyck, had apparently rarely if ever occasion 
to try cases after 1652, when the principal settlement of the colony 
was erected into a village with separate jurisdiction, and that at a 
later date, when the Dutch patroonship bad been changed to an 
English manor, the practice of referring cases to the courl at Albany 
had become so firmly established that the lords of the manor never 


seem to have cared to exercise their right to hold court leet and 
court baron, granted them b}' the Dongan patent of 1685. The 
question whether this right was actually exercised or not is of pecu- 
liar interest because it was one of the most distinct survivals of the 
feudal privileges for which the first patroon at all times fought so 

The letters of Kiliaen van Rensselaer break off abruptly in 1643. 
As already intimated above the patroon lived till 1646, and it is likely 
therefore that another letter book, containing accounts of transac- 
tions between these two dates was at one time in existence. That no 
such book is available is especially regrettable because the year 
1643 n iarks an interesting period in the history of the colony when 
owing to the fur trading privileges granted by the second charter 
of Freedoms and Exemptions many people flocked to the colony and 
the patroon was obliged to issue the most vigorous instructions 
to maintain his rights. Such a book would therefore not only have 
shown us the effect of these instructions but doubtless also have 
given us more definite information than we now possess about the 
closing years of the administration of Adriaen van der Donck and 
have thrown light on the relative importance of the settlement on 
the east side of the river where the patroon intended that all me- 
chanics should dwell and the first church should be erected. 

New Netherland history. Among matters found in the papers 
that are of interest outside of the local affairs of the colony may be 
mentioned the fact that Pavonia was bought by the Company as 
early as 1634, and not as is generally believed in 1637; the new 
light thrown on Peter Minuit whose contract for the sale of cattle, 
entirely in his own handwriting and in good Dutch though with 
distinctly German spelling, is found in the Letter Book ; side lights 
on the administration of Wouter van Twiller and Willem Kieft, 
to whom the patroon addresses a number of letters ; the fact that 
Hendrick de Forest, the supposed founder of the town of Harlem, 
did not, as stated by Riker, arrive in the fall of 1636, but in the 
spring of 1637; the confirmation of the tradition concerning the 
origin of the name of Storm van der Zee, the eldest son of Albert 
Andriesz Bradt ; and the fact that Bastiaen Jansz Krol was director 
general of New Netherland from March 1632 to April 1633, between 
the administrations of Peter Minuit and Wouter van Twiller. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer. To many people the biographical in- 
terest which attaches to the writings of Kiliaen van Rensselaer will 
seem one of the most valuable features of the collection. These 

32 new York state library 

writings indeed reveal in a striking way the personality of the man 
who figures prominently in the history of colonization as the 
founder of the only successful patroonship that ever existed in 
New Netherland, but of whom beyond the fact that he managed 
this patroonship and that he was a merchant and director of the 
West India Company hitherto practically nothing was known. The 
letters show the patroon in his relations to people of every degree, 
to men in important official positions and to his subordinates in the 
colony, to his copartners and to his various young relatives who 
owed their position to his influence; they therefore afford abundant 
opportunity for displaying his qualities of heart as well as his 
views regarding the questions of policy of government of the 
province and the immediate management of the colony. Not the 
least interesting for a view of the patroon's characteristics and the 
spirit in which he ruled the colony will be found the letters of 1640 
and 1 64 1, in which he explains to his copartners his idea of the 
patroonship and tenaciously resists all infringements of the rights 
conferred on him by the charter of Freedoms and Exemptions of 
which he appears to have been one of the principal framers. The 
question has been raised occasionally whether the first patroon ever 
came to this country. The present letters show beyond the possi- 
bility of doubt that Kiliaen van Rensselaer did not visit his colony 
in person between 1630 and 1643, and the records preserved among 
the Rensselaerswyck manuscripts make it equally certain that he 
did not do so between the last named date and his death in 1646. 
It would have been appropriate to add a portrait to this voluminous 
collection of writings of the first patroon, but unfortunately none is 
known to exist, that which is occasionally represented as his like- 
ness being clearly of about a century later than the time of the 

List of settlers. In view of the incompleteness of the list of 
settlers of the colony of Rensselaerswyck furnished by Mr de Roe- 
ver, who had access to the Van Rensselaer Bowier manuscripts only, 
and the many errors in the similar list published by O'Callaghan, 
whose researches were confined to the Rensselaerswyck manuscripts, 
it has seemed worth while to prepare from the two sources named an 
entirely new list, which should adequately illustrate the growth 
of the colony and furnish a reliable means of identification of the 
persons mentioned in the present papers. This list will be found 
at the end of the volume. It covers the period of settlement up 
to 1658, when the' papers in the volume strictly relating to Reus- 


selaerswyck cease. The list gives in brief form as far as they 
could be ascertained the principal data as to name, date of arrival, 
occupation and place of origin of each individual settler and throws 
much new light on the large proportion of elements other than 
Dutch that entered into the population of the colony. 

Map of Rensselaerswyck. Frequent references in the patroon's 
writings to streams and tracts of land in the colony which are no 
longer known by their former names, made it seem useful to add to 
the present work a photographic reproduction of an early map of 
Rensselaerswyck on which these topographical features can be lo- 
cated. The original is among the Rensselaerswyck manuscripts. 
It is a manuscript map on parchment, 22^ by 70 inches in size, 
and represents the land along the Hudson River from Barren 
Island, just south of Coeymans, to the mouth of the Mohawk. 
Lithographic copies of the map have been published in Moulton's 
History of Nezv York, O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland and 
in Munsell's Annals of Albany. The map is without date or maker's 
name. On the strength of an entry of the payment by Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer of six rixdollars to " Gillis van Schendel, for one map 
on parchment and four ditto on paper, of the islands and other 
tillable lands situated in my colony," occurring under date of 
February 8, 1630, in a copy of an account among the Rensselaers- 
wyck manuscripts, the map is commonly ascribed to Gillis van Schen- 
del and to the year 1630, but as an inscription on the map refers 
to the purchase of land from Beeren Island to Smacks Island, which 
took place in 1631, it is evident that the entry of the payment must 
either have been placed under the wrong date or else refer to 
another map. Statements by Kiliaen van Rensselaer in a letter to 
Johannes de Laet, June 27, 1632, in a memorandum to Wouter van 
Twiller, July 20, 1632, and in a letter of same date to Dirck Cor- 
nelisz Duyster indicate that the map was probably executed in 
Holland, shortly after July 20, 1632, from rough drafts and sur- 
veys of different parts of the colony furnished at various times by 
Philips Jansz van Haerlem, Crijn Fredericksz and Albert Diete- 
rinck. Of these men very little is known. Philips Jansz van Haer- 
lem is mentioned by David Pietersz de Vries, in his Korte Historiacl, 
p. 142, as a young man whom he engaged in June 1635 to P^ ot his 
vessel from Sandy Hook to New Amsterdam and who formerly 
had been in his service in the East Indies. Crijn Fredericksz is men- 
tioned in Nicolaes van Wassenaer, Historisch Vcrhael, vol. 3, part 
12, p. 37b, under date of November 1626, as an engineer who staked 


out the fort at New Amsterdam. Albert Dieterinck appears to 
have been commis at Fort Orange. 

A few features of the map call for special mention. The scale to 
which the map purports to be drawn is 1674 inches to the Dutch 
mile, or 3^ inches to the English mile. This makes the distance 
from Beeren Island to Moenemin's Castle, which on the original 
map is equal to 673/2 inches, exactly 4 Dutch miles, or the extent of 
territory allowed on one side of a navigable river by the fifth article 
of the charter of Freedoms and Exemptions. As a matter of fact, 
however, the distance between these two points is not 4 Dutch 
miles, or 18.44 English miles, but about 22V2 miles, so that the 
actual scale of the map is only 3 inches to the mile. The central 
and lower portions of the river are fairly accurately drawn, but 
the upper part is wrong. Especially puzzling is the wide creek 
designated as Rcnselaers Kill, which would seem to represent the 
Mohawk River but does not occupy the right position. Perhaps 
the most plausible explanation of this error is that the compiler, at 
about that point, joined two separate maps and, from his un familiar- 
ity with the topography of the locality, failed to connect the south 
branch of the Mohawk, indicated on the one map at the falls, with 
the outlet marked on the other map, and then, from some statement 
regarding the direction of the river, continued this outlet straight 
into the country. It will be noticed that of most creeks only the 
mouths are indicated and that of others, which are traced for some 
distance into the country, the direction bears as a rule no relation to 
the configuration of the ground, which was probably sketched in 
from some high point after the survey of the shore line and the is- 
lands had been completed. Up to 1636, but three farms existed in 
the colony. The castles faintly shown near the names of Godijns 
Burg, Renselaers Burg, De Laets Burg, etc. represent therefore no 
actual settlements, but merely indicate the places where the patroon 
intended that farms should be established. At the time the map was 
drawn, the land bought for the colony of Rensselaer swyck was al- 
most entirely limited to that on the west side of the river ; all that 
was owned on the east side was a small tract opposite Fort Orange. 
Curiously enough, the name Rensselaerswyck has been so placed 
as to cover exactly this territory belonging to the colony. 
The inscriptions at the top of the map are as follows : 
Left shield. A.° 1630 adij 28 Iulij, heeft Killiaen van Renselaer 
doen coopcn vande Natirn genaemt de Mahikans hare Landerijen 
ende Iurisdictie van dien gclcgen aende Westsijde vande Noord- 
Rievicr besnijd n ende denoorden het Fort Orangen, vol gens de beze- 


gelde brieven voor Dierecteur ende Radcn der geotroijeerde West 
Indische Comp. in Nien Nederland gcpasscertdoor Cottomack ende 
Nawanemit, Abanizenc, Sagisquzva ende Kanamoack op den 8 
Augustij A° 1630. Item van Nazoanemit int particulier sijne Lan- 
derijen genaemt Semesseeck gelegen aende Oost zijde vande Rie- 
vier voorsz. tegen over het fort Orangen soo boven als beneden ende 
van Pactanock de Meulen kil noord-waerd aen tot Negagonce toe. 
Anno 1630, on the 28th day of July, Killiaen van Renselaer caused to 
be purchased from the nations called the Mahikans their lands and 
the jurisdiction thereof, situated on the west side of the North 
River, south and north of Fort Orange, according to the sealed con- 
veyance executed before the director and council of the Chartered 
West India Company by Cottomack and Nawanemit, Abantzene, Sa- 
gisquwa and Kanamoack, on the 8th of August, Anno 1630. Also 
from Nawanemit individually his lands called Semesseeck, situated 
on the east side of the river aforesaid, opposite Fort Orange, above 
as well as below, and from Paetanock, the mill creek, northward to 
Negagonce. [This description differs from that in the certificate 
of August 13, 1630.] 

Left scroll. Tegen over het Fortt op de Zuijd-Hoeck van de 
Laets Eijland is veel gevogelt te schieten van Gansz, Szvanen, End- 
vogels, Kranen ende Calcoenen, houden Boschzvaert in. Insgelijckx 
de Hertten ende ander wilt. Daer sijn oock Wolven, maer niet 
groot oft honden zvaren. Opposite the Fort, on the south corner 
of de Laets Island, many birds are to be shot, such as geese, swans, 
wild ducks and cranes, and turkeys are found in the woods. Also 
deer and other game. Wolves are found there also, but not large, 
like dog's. 

Central scroll, under the van Rensselaer arms. Op de Laets Eij- 
landt sijn veel hooge ende rechte boomen bequaem otn riemen van 
te maken, vande Maquaas canmen (principael inde Winter) Hertten 
Vleesch genoeg krijgen dat vett ende schoon is, ontrent 3, 4, oft 5 
handt Zeezvan voor een hcrt. souden geem hertten tegen melck oft 
booter ruijlen, is bequaem te roocken oft in Pekel te Leggen. On 
de Laets Island are many tall and straight trees suitable to make oars 
from. From the Maquaas (especially in the winter) plenty of 
venison can be obtained that is fat and fine; about 3, 4, or 5 hands 
of seawan for a deer. They would be glad to exchange deer for 
milk or butter. The meat is fit for smoking or pickling. 

Right scroll. Inde Vierde kill sijn snoecken ende allerleij Visch. 
de Steur isser cleijnder als bij de Manathans men kander vande 
Wilden voor een mes een koopen. In the fourth kill [designated on 


the map as Bloemaerts Kill and apparently corresponding to the 
present Patroons Creek] are pike and all sorts of fish. The sturgeon 
there is smaller than at the Manathans. One can be bought from 
the savages for a knife. 

Right shield. A° 1630 den 8 April heeft Killiaen van Renselaer 
nock then koopen van Paep Sickene Komptas Noucoutamhat en 
Sickonosen have landerijen genaemt Sanckhagag streckende twee 
dagh reijsens te landivaert in van liet Beeren Eijland tot Smacks 
Eijlandt. Anno 1630, the 8th of April, Killiaen van Renselaer 
caused further to be bought from Paep Sickene, Komptas, Noucou- 
tamhat and Sickonosen their lands called Sanckhagag, stretching two 
days' journey inland, from P>eeren Island to Smackx Island. [For 
different date assigned to this transaction, see footnote to the cer- 
tificate of purchase of May 163 1.] 

The names Bijlaers Dael, Weelijs Dael, Twillers Dael and Paf- 
raets Dael, given to the respective districts on both sides of the 
river, above and below Fort Orange, commemorate the names of 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer's first wife, Hillegonda van Bijlaer; of his 
second wife, Anna van Wely; of his only sister Maria, wife of 
Rijckaert van Twiller and mother of Wouter van Twiller ; and of 
his mother, Maria Pafraet. 

For permission to reproduce the map, the editor is indebted to Mr 
William Bayard Van Rensselaer. 

In closing, the editor wishes to state that while in the present 
work it has frequently been necessary to call attention to errors in 
the work of Dr E. B. O'Callaghan, it has by no means been his 
intention to detract from the great merits of the pioneer work which 
this gentleman accomplished. In spite of many inaccuracies, 
O'Callaghan's History contains to this day the. only full account of 
the colony of Rensselaerswyck based on original sources and all 
who use it must needs be under obligation for the very material 
help afforded. The time has come however for a revision of many 
of the statements made and it is hoped that the present volume wiil 
aid in inducing some competent investigator to study the whole 
subject afresh and produce a work that will more nearly answer 
the requirements of the present time. 

The special thanks of the editor are due to his assistant. Mi- 
Peter Nelson, for most efficient aid given throughout the prosecu- 
tion of the work. Mr Nelson has read the entire manuscript and 
suggested many changes which have helped to smooth out awkward 
constructions, clear up doubtful passages and otherwise make the 

translation more readable. . _ _ T 

A. J. F. van Laer 


In the summer of 1890 I visited Amsterdam as the guest of my 
kinsfolk, the family of the late Vice Admiral Jonkheer van Rens- 
selaer Bowier. The admiral had died a few months before, but his 
widow, born Jonkvrouwe van Beresteyn, of the ancient family of 
Bois-le-Duc, Brabant, with her three sons, made me most welcome. 
At their house, no. 91 Helmerstraat, I met the archivist of Amster- 
dam, the late Mr N. de Roever, editor of the magazine Oud Hol- 
land. To him Admiral van Rensselaer Bowier had entrusted the 
task of editing the important manuscripts inherited by the admiral 
through his mother, Sara van Rensselaer, last of her name in Hol- 
land, from her ancestor, the famous first patroon. 

In many interesting interviews, Mr de Roever outlined his idea 
of bringing these papers to public notice and a plan was formed 
whereby I was to have his writings on the subject translated into 
English and published in America. I was to study both modern 
and old Dutch and secure competent assistance. In pursuance of 
this idea, I made some individual researches and took many photo- 
graphs which were to illustrate the combined work. The sudden 
and lamented death of Mr de Roever put an end to these plans. 
We were in correspondence to the last. The van Rensselaer Bowier 
family desired me to fulfil my promise to him and it was my inten- 
tion to proceed with the publication of these papers, whatever 
might be the expense and trouble. But through the treachery of a 
false friend, the documents were purloined in Amsterdam and dis- 
appeared for over eight years, being vainly searched for until they 
finally appeared in America, where they had been pledged for a small 
sum by their abstractor, who died soon after without reclaiming 
them. These original documents have been recovered by their own - 
ers. and the publication, to which Mr de Roever so fondly looked 
forward, is now in the hands of the University of the State of New 
York. By arrangement with the Regents I have been allowed to 
fulfil my promise to my departed friend, by rendering his unfinished 
work into English to the best of my ability. 

For assistance in my studies and for valuable information, I have 
to thank the kind offices of Domine P. J. van Melle, of Nijkerk, 
Holland ; Professor A. Raap, of Hope College, Michigan ; and Miss 
Helen W. Ludlow, of Hampton Institute, Virginia. I venture to 
give the genealogically curious the following facts relating to the 
Holland branch of the van Rensselaers and the line through which 
the much talked about documents came to their present owners. 



Richard van Rensselaer, the fifth son of the patroon and his fourth 
by Anna van Wely, became burgomaster and treasurer of Vianen 
after his return from America, where he had played an important 
part after the death of his brother Jeremias, the director. He 
married Anna van Beaumont and died at Vianen in 1695. He had 
six sons and one daughter. They were Kiliaen, Anthonie, Jan, 
Richard, Eleanor Herberdine, Franqois and Jeremias. The daugh- 
ter married Dominus Wilhelmus Pekstok. Kiliaen, the eldest son, 
married Sara Maria Backholt, and had five sons and five daughters, 
of whom only one son and one daughter married. The son, Johan 
Baptist van Rensselaer, married Anna Cornelia de Bruyne and left 
no issue. The daughter, Anna Maria van Rensselaer, married 
Isaak Dusart. 

Richard van Rensselaer's second son, Anthonie, married Bertha 
Pekstok. They had three sons and three daughters : Richard, Cath- 
erine, Anna Elizabeth, Cornelis, William and Anthonie. All died 
young or unmarried except William van Rensselaer, who married 
Cornelia Judith Cramer, They were the parents of three sons and 
three daughters : Anthonie, Jan Jacob (died in infancy), Magdalena, 
Jan Jacob, Hendrick Willem, Richard and Bertha. Jan Jacob van 
Rensselaer married Susanna Catherina Beel isnyder and left one 
daughter, Johanna Jacoba Sara van Rensselaer, who married Jonk- 
heer Jan Bowier. She left ten children, of whom the eldest, Vice 
Admiral Marten Wilhelmus van Rensselaer Bowier, was granted by 
royal letters patent his mother's name in conjunction with his pater- 
nal cognomen, with permission to transmit the same with the arms 
of both families to his lawful heirs as van Rensselaer Bowier. 

The van Rensselaer Bowier family is therefore fully entitled to 
the name of the Holland van Rensselaers at the present day. 

The youngest son of Richard van Rensselaer, of Vianen, was Jere- 
mias, who married Elizabeth de Swaart at Nijkerk, January 18, 
1728. She was the daughter of Nelle Maria van Rensselaer (who 
was daughter of the young patroon, Johannes van Rensselaer, and 
Elisabeth van Twiller) and Johan de Swaart of Amsterdam. Jere- 
mias and his wife, Elizabeth, lived at Amsterdam and had one son, 
Richard, who married Geertruy Buytenhuys. They had four sons : 
Jeremias, Cornelius, Johan and Richard. Three died unmarried; 
the eldest, Jeremias, married Judith Henrietta Duval. He died in 
Nijkerk April 11, 1819. His three sons all died young; his wife 
survived him. In his will Jeremias van Rensselaer stated that ex- 
cept his wife he left no heirs save the family in America. It was 


true that he was the last male of his name since his second cousin, 
Jan Jacob van Rensselaer, had died not long before, but he ignored 
the fact that Jan Jacob had left a daughter, Sara van Rensselaer, 
then unmarried, who was a much nearer relative than the kinsfolk 
across the seas and who had inherited through the direct male line 
of five generations much of family interest and value from the 
elder line of Anthonie, Richard's second son, whereas Jeremias came 
from the youngest son of Richard. 

So that if the question were worth disputing, there was still a 
van Rensselaer left in Holland, albeit only a woman. From the 
alliance of the van Rensselaer and Bowier families sprang a worthy 
representative in the person of the vice admiral, who was aide-de- 
camp to the late king of Holland and enjoyed the personal friendship 
of that monarch and of his son, William, Prince of Orange, the elder 
brother of Queen Wilhelmina. • Other members of the Bowier family 
who have the blood but not the name of van Rensselaer, have 
married into the van Beusekom, van Heemstra and Sanders families, 
residing in Utrecht, Amsterdam, Nijmegen and Hilversum. 

The Bowier family was founded in Holland by Ralph Bowyer, 
of the family of the Duke of Northumberland. He came to the 
Low Countries with the Earl of Leicester's expedition in the days 
of Queen Elizabeth. He acquitted himself bravely, married a Dutch 
lady, and his descendants, in 1815, became enrolled among the nobil- 
ity of Holland. 

Vice Admiral and Madame van Rensselaer Bowier have had five 
children, of whom Johannes Jacobus Christian Gysbertus van Rens- 
selaer Bowier died as midshipman, first class, of the royal navy; 
Cormar van Renselaer Bowier died in 1895 and Maria Clemente 
died young. The two surviving sons, Hugo Jan Jacob van Rens- 
selaer Bowier and Marten Wilhelmus Marius Magdaltis van Rens- 
selaer Bowier, are the present owners of the documents described by 
Mr de Roever in the following articles. 

Susan de Lancey van Rensselaer Strong 

" Inwood," Nezv Brunszvick, N. J. 
January 1, 1906 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer and his colony of Rensselaerswyck i 


Late archivist of the city of Amsterdam 


Toward few men of note of our glorious past have our biog- 
raphers been so unjust as toward the merchant of Amsterdam whose 
name stands at the head of this article. Surely this is to be attrib- 
uted to the fact that, thus far, so little attention has been paid to 
the history of commerce. And it is just in this field that an im- 
portant place should be assigned to Kiliaen van Rensselaer, because 
he, being engaged in the West India trade, had not only the courage 
to found a colony on the American plains and in the woods along the 
North River and to use his capital for its welfare, but, more especi- 
ally, because he possessed energy enough to push the work once be- 
gun, notwithstanding many disappointments. 

The honor which we Hollanders, through ignorance, have denied 
him has, however, been given him in abundant measure by the 
descendants of those who were the earliest settlers of those regions. 
The memory of this citizen of Amsterdam is honored and revered 
across the ocean. American historians have already made public 
much that is worth knowing in regard to his colony, but they had 
not the means of throwing light upon his personality and upon the 
spirit in which he ruled his settlement. This is not unnatural ; it 
could appear only from his own papers, whicn were not deposited 
in any American archives because van Rensselaer remained a mer- 
chant at Amsterdam all his life and directed his New Netherland 
possessions while living at the thriving Y. Had this not been the 
case he would have had no need for employing agents, nor for giving 
them instructions, nor for writing letters, and in return they would 
have had no need to send reports and missives to the motherland 
for the information of the patroon. The archives which remained 
in his office on the Keisersgracht relating to the administration of 
Rensselaerswyck must by degrees have become important. These 
papers might perhaps have shared the fate of many private archives 
and at some time been torn up, had not first a long lawsuit with 
some of those who were entitled to a share in the territory, and 
later some no less stubborn disputes with members of the family 
kept the possessors awake to their importance. When the eigh- 

1 Printed in Dutch in Olid Holland, 1890, 8:29-54, 241-59. 


teenth century dawned, however, all this was past and peace re- 

The Dutch van Rensselaers continued to be great merchants and 
wealthy citizens, but across the sea the American relatives, to whom 
now the colony exclusively belonged, rose to the dignity of great- 
nobles, who lived like princes on their domains. Their sons were 
received with open arms in the republic, as often as they — partly 
to maintain the old bonds of blood-relationship — journeyed east- 
ward across the waves. The old papers formed thus a natural point 
of common interest. So they continued to be preserved in part, al- 
though it could not be unknown to any of their possessors that they 
had lost their practical value. 

A hundred years later, however, they had already been consigned 
to a small chest in the garret. The Dutch van Rensselaers were ex- 
tinct in the male line. One of the daughters gave her hand to a 
nobleman of an English house whose forefathers had settled in 
Holland in the middle of the seventeenth century and served with 
honor in the army of the republic. The tradition of the great de- 
serts of Kiliaen lived on in the Bozvier family, and Jonkheer M. W. 
Bozvier, later vice admiral and commandant of the navy yard at 
Amsterdam, assured the name of van Rensselaer new life by uniting 
it to his own. 

The remaining fragments of the family archives came now into 
his possession. He preserved them with reverent care for he under- 
stood their importance, although he remained a stranger to their 

It was through a visit to him in the spring of i883 that I became 
acquainted with the little chest. He eagerly embraced my pro- 
posal to arrange and analyze these papers and willingly granted me 
the privilege of publishing such of them as I deemed fit. It grieves 
me that the estimable man has not lived to see my plans accom- 
plished, of which this article is a beginning. 2 

This little chest contained the title deed of the territory of the 
colony, 3 the Letter Book 4 of Kiliaen van Rensselaar, begun in 1634 

2 I consider it my duty to express my gratitude to his wife, the dowager Madame 
van Rensselaer Bowier, born van Beresteyn, for the kindness wherewith she left the 
papers in my care. N. de R. 

Vice Admiral van Rensselaer Bowier died in July 1889, and is buried in the family 
plot in the cemetery of Utrecht. S. de L. v. R. S. 

8 Mr Bowier thought that one of these documents was the title deed of the island on 
which New York is situated. I did not question this until afterwards, when I became 
convinced that it related to another island, located higher up in the North River. N. 
de R. 

4 Mr de Roever calls the book the Memoriaal; a full translation appears in the present 


and continued till 1643 ; the documents in the suit before the court of 
Holland, which was prosecuted after the death of Kiliaen between 
the guardians of the young patroon and some interested parties ; 
some journals, reports and printed documents, and a number of 
papers of a personal nature, which would be indeed valuable as 
data for an accurate genealogy, but which are unimportant for our 
purpose. The Letter Book and documents in the lawsuit contain 
matters concerning the enterprising Amsterdam merchant and his 
colony remarkable enough to be here mentioned. I can only give 
a few in full. The opportunity to publish many of the letters, in- 
structions and memoranda copied in the Letter Book will come- 

About three quarters of an hour southwest from Putten looms 
up on the heath of the Veluzve the Renselersberg, where in olden 
times the freemen of the " Mark " assembled to settle their common 
affairs and where also the bishop, on his visitation, was paid the 
tax out of the church property. Near this, about a quarter of an 
hour from the manorial castle of Hell, lay the estate from which 
the family, which held land there until far on in the seventeenth 
century, derived its name. They belonged undoubtedly to the 
landed gentry and seem to be of one stock with other families 
which, like them, bear the cross molin in their coats of arms. 5 

The family spread in the neighborhood of the original estate, so 
that we find in Nijkerk orphanage trustees of this name who may 
have been nearly related to our merchant of Amsterdam. 

The father of Kiliaen, Hendrick van Rensselaer Kiliaenss, 6 was 
captain of a company of foot soldiers and died June 6, 1602, at 
Ostend. In after years, Kiliaen caused a monument to be erected 
on his grave and that of his brother Johan, born at Nijkerk, who 
also was a captain and who died at Deventer, February 7, 1601, 
after having fought in Friesland. On this monument, which was in 
the last named city, Kiliaen caused to be carved the eight quarter- 
ing^ of the arms of the brothers. 7 

5 The earliest mention we have found of the name is made by Jhr. Th. van Riemsdyk, 
in his treatise, Het Veluwsche Landgericht, page 150. He cites from the proceedings 
of the Klaarbank at Englander-holt a suit between Hendrik v. Moerselaar and Alydt v. 
Renselaer circa 1450. S'. de L. v. R. S. 

8 The great-grandmother of Kiliaen, mother of the Kiliaen whose namesake he was, 
seems to have been a Luxoel. An estate of the same name still exists in the vicinity of 
Putten. N. de R. 

The great-grandmother of Kiliaen van Rensselaer, the first patroon, was Derykebia 
(Dorothea) van Luxoel. S. de L. v. R. S. 

7 The monument above referred to as being in Deventer is in the old church at 
Nijkerk. It is a large double slab covering a vault. No interments have been made in 


From the marriage of Hendrik with Maria Pasraat 8 were born 
two children, Kiliaen van Rensselaar and Maria, who gave her hand 
to Ryckacrt, or Richard van Twitter. 

It was probably while Hendrik van Rensselaer lay there in gar- 
rison that Kiliaen came into the world at Hasselt in or about the 
year 1580. The death of his father, a few years later, was perhaps 
the reason that his guardian caused him to be educated as a 
merchant. No better opportunity presented itself than to bind him 
out as an apprentice, after the custom of those days, with a relative, 
who lived in the Nes near the Kleine Vleeschhal. This relative, 
Wolfert van Bijler Wijnandss, was a jeweler who had formerly 
lived in London and had now established himself, with a capital of 
nearly a hundred thousand guilders, in Amsterdam, where through 
the settlement of an entire colony of South Netherland diamond 
polishers, the trade in gems had greatly developed. In those days 
the diamond trade was nearly always combined with the trade in 

this vault since 1815. A staircase leading to the gallery has been built directly over it. 
Through the courtesy of Rev. P. J. van Melle, in August 1890, I was allowed to have 
a photographic reproduction made of the entire slab with its interesting armorial quart- 
erings. They are in a state of excellent preservation. The staircase, while hiding the 
grave so that it is nearly forgotten, has saved it from the fate of many similar memorials 
in old churches where the tread of feet for many generations has nearly obliterated 
the carving. 

The brothers were twins. Their names and rank with date and place of death are 
given in Dutch with a long Latin epitaph. There are two coats of arms at each corner, 
making eight lines of descent, with the names of the families, viz: Renselaer, Luxoel, 
Wenckom, Schoute, Indyck, Graef, Hell, Bylaer. At the top are two large coats of 
arms, with elaborate quarterings of these and other related families, and at the bottom 
the coat of arms finally adopted as his own and always used by the patroon. The crest 
is the well known burning basket and in all appears the cross of the Rensselaers. The 
Dutch and Latin mottoes of Niemand Zonder and Omnibus Effulgior do not appear. 

The Dutch inscriptions on the stone run thus: 

Den 7 Februar. 1601 starf binnen Deventer den erntvesten manhaften Hopman Johan 
Van Renselaer en alhier begraven. 

Den 6 Januar. 1602 starf binnen Oestende den erntvesten en manhaften Hopman 
Hendrick Van Renselaer en alhier begraven. 

The Latin inscription reads thus: 
D. OP. Max. S. 

Johannes et Henricus A Renselaer fratres germaniuter Que viveret turmae pedestris 
ductor ac magnis muliisque in Rempub-ac Patriam meritis clarus Me Daventriae hie 
Ostendae in statione sua ad ultimum vitae spiritus fortiter persistens oppetiit posteris 
acriterna gloria cognatis et affinibus magno sui desiderio relicto. Et licet separatis ac 
diversis locis res gerentes Mors oppresserit. Hoc tainen maiorum monumento utrumque 
componendum pietatis erga opt-Parcntum utque Patruum memor Kilianus A Renselaer — 
Henrici F. Moerens curavit. 

These words follow: Tot Memorie heeft Kiliaen Van Renselaer dit Were doen maken 
(Kiliaen Van Renselaer has caused this work to be done for a memorial). S. de L. 
v. R. S. 

8 This name is indexed in Oud Holland as Maria Pafraet, which is probably right, as 
Pafraets Dae! appears on the early map of the colony. Richard, Albert and Johannes 
Pafraet were famous 15th and 16th century printers at Deventer. 


pearls, articles of luxury and rarities of every description. The 
Dutch jewelers found a ready market for their valuable wares at 
the imperial court and the smaller German courts. 

And so we find Kiliacn, in March 1608, taking care of the busi- 
ness of van Bijlcr at Prague. When he writes to him about it, he 
takes the opportunity to impart some political news concerning the 
strained condition of affairs at that time at the court of the zealous 
Romanist, Rudolph II, the lover of pomp and art, whose dominion 
over his hereditary estates was disputed by his brother Matthias 
with such success that, but a few months later, the Austrian and 
Hungarian crowns slipped away from him, while he could retain 
the possession of Bohemia only by granting religious freedom. As 
a contemporaneous report from a well informed observer, the fol- 
lowing has its value : 

" Matters here at the court are going backward and are much 
worse than two months ago, for His Majesty is much disturbed and 
melancholy because of this Hungarian and Austrian business and 
no one dares to speak to him concerning it, fearing disfavor; where- 
fore he receives little consolation. His Majesty has taken 30,000 
ducats in specie out of his treasury and has sent Mons r de Telly 
with them 10 leagues from Vienna to enlist 1500 horse and 3000 foot 
soldiers, who have been discharged at that place, and he is enlisting 
more men everywhere; also here in Prague he has secured 500 
horse for his guard and protection, saying that he wishes to show 
that he is the Roman emperor; and His Majesty once almost de- 
termined to go to Presburg in person but is now opposed to this. 
Also the Hungarians, the Austrians, the Silesians and the Moravians 
have made a covenant and league together to the effect that peace 
with the Turks shall be observed, that the archduke Matthijas shall 
be accepted as absolute governor and that religious peace shall be 
maintained ; they have sent their envoys to England, Denmark, the 
Netherlands and other places to state that, in their opinion, these 
proceedings have not the least tendency to belittle His Majesty's 
person or reputation. They have also 24,000 men in the field, for 
Archduke Matthijas has opened the arsenals and put the arms in 
the hands of the Hungarians and has written to the Bohemians that, 
if they manifest enmity to him, he will pursue them with fire and 
sword. What will come of all this, God knows ; apparently civil 
war will follow, if matters be not speedily adjusted. God give His 
Majesty wisdom and understanding to direct this for the best. The 
Imperial Diet at Ratisbon refuses to grant any contribution, and the 


pope, the king of Spain and the other Catholic princes dissuade His 
Majesty from consenting thereto, which otherwise were the best." 

A commercial house of no less importance was owned by Johan 
pan Wely, a son of one of the sisters of Wolfert van Bijlcr. 9 He 
also, as well as his brother Willem, or Wilhelmo, who thoroughly 
understood diamond cutting and had earlier been engaged in it him- 
self, were held in high regard at the imperial court, where they 
often tarried, as well as by Prince Maurice. Kiliaen was also re- 
lated to them. 

Whether uncle van Bijlcr gradually retired from business, con- 
tinuing to keep his eye on the silk-cloth business of his wife, Anna 
Willekens, and making his nephew van Rensselaer his successor, it 
is difficult to say ; it is certain that we find Kiliaen doing business 
a few years later under the firm name Kiliaen van Rensselaer & Co. 
His partner was Jacques I'Hermite, the younger, son of the later 
admiral, who married, in 1613, Theodora van Wcly. The firms 
combined under the name of Jan van IVcly & Co. February 28. 
1614, to deal in jewels. Jan van IVclij contributed one half of the 
capital, 192,000 guilders, of which van Rensselaer had an eighth 

There is a curious clause in the contract whereby the trade in 
spices and India goods was excluded, " though the appearance of 
gain be great," if not undertaken with every one's approval. This 
shows once more to what degree the large commercial houses were 
engaged in the India trade. The contract stipulated that at the 
death of 7a/; van Wely the remaining members of the firm should 
continue the partnership entered into for six years. His murder, 
therefore, caused no change in the business, but it seems that at the 
expiration of that time, van Rensselaer at least began again on his 
own account. 

A man of, for that time, such substantial fortune, partner in a 
great commercial house, might well permit himself the luxury of 
entering the married state. On the 23d of July, 1616, we see him 
appear before the Commissioners of Matrimony to ask for the 
registration of the banns of marriage with Hillcgond van Bijlcr 
Jansdr.. then residing at Utrecht, niece of the childless Wolfert, 
who. had promised her in advance a legacy amounting to 12,000 

"Wolfert van Bijlcr was first married to Clara Vroeylicx, of Ghent. In 1591 he 
married Catharina Bollcs, the wealthy widow of Fabiaen de Vliet, in London, and in 
rS94 he married again at Amsterdam, Anna Willekens, widow of Thomas Hawkins, •>. 
linen draper. Their daughter Eleonora married Johan van Wclij in 1597. N. de R. 


In the same year the young husband purchased a couple of lots 
on the east side of the recently dug Kcizcrsgracht, between Hartcu 
and Wolvcn streets, on which he built a house. To occupy this 
house, on which he hung out the sign of " the Crossed Hart," he 
left his dwelling on the Oudezijds Voorburgwal. 

Their happy married life lasted for nearly 10 years. Two sons, 
Hcndrik, who seems to have died in childhood, and Jehan van Rens- 
selaer, baptized September 4, 1625, in the Oudc Kcrk, were the 
fruits of this union and survived the mother, who died and was 
buried in the Oude Kerk, January 1, 1627. 10 

We have just observed how even jewelers, in the first years of 
the opening East India trade, sought to profit thereby. The prac- 
tical spirit of the Dutch merchant could not fail to point out to him 
the way to the riches of the West Indies and Africa. During the 
truce, 11 our merchants had sailed unmolested to the West Indian 
parts and received no letters of marque to take prizes from the 
enemy. Before the war began again, people realized that the West 
India trade might bring great prosperity to the country and that 
more power might be developed against the Spaniard to his greater 
damage, if thenceforth the merchant should no longer steer west- 
ward singly with his armed ship or in company with others, but if, 
after the manner of the large and prosperous East India Company, 
a company for carrying on commerce with the West Indies, Africa 
and Australia could be organized, which might, like the sister com- 
pany, act as the war-waging power in those parts and be supported 
by the treasury, ships and troops of the state. 

After long years of preparation the charter was granted, June 3, 
162 1, and the subscription list was opened. It is known that sub- 
scriptions did not come in very rapidly at first on account of the 
exclusion of the salt trade from the charter. When, however, this 
difficulty was removed, the full amount was soon subscribed. 

The Chamber of Amsterdam, " because thence came the most 
money," 12 had the largest number of directors, who were to admin- 
ister four ninths of the entire capital of the Company. There were 
20, each of whom had to contribute at least 6000 guilders. Next 
to the board of directors, there was a body of chief participants, 
each of whom had the same amount invested in the Company. They 

"'From the inscription in the burial book it is evident that Kiliaen had changed his 
signboard to conform to his coat of arms, by painting in a white cross. N. r>E R. 

There was a daughter, Maria, born of this union. She seems to have died young. 
ITcr name appears in an old family chart. S. de L. v. R. S. 

11 Twelve years' truce, 1609—21, between Spain and the United Netherlands. 

l - Resolutions of Holland and West Friesland, Sept. 30, 1621. N. de R. 


took no part in the daily management, yet, as the representatives 
of the stockholders, no resolutions of any importance could be taken 
without them. The annual report and accounts were also submitted 
to them. In due time the stockholders were granted a permanent 
representation in the board of directors by the stipulation that the 
first two vacancies should be supplied from the ranks of the chief 
participants. 13 

The first chief participant who was thus received into the Cham- 
ber was Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 1 * From this it appears at once 
that he was included, at the first subscription, among those who, 
comprehending the vital importance of the matter, had subscribed 
at least 6000 guilders. That his fellow stockholders were satisfied 
that they could entrust their interests to no better person, their con- 
fidence in him evinced ; furthermore, he was generally known and 
reported as an unusually clear-headed man, an able and practical 
merchant, who did not limit himself to his own branch of trade. 

Unfortunately we are only able to judge of his position in the 
important matters considered in the meetings from a single docu- 
ment of his own authorship, written a few years after the organ- 
ization of Rensselaerswyck. This memorial was presented by him 
to the directors November 25, 1633. I shall give it hereafter as an 
appendix. 15 It is noteworthy as a document for the history of the 
Company, both because from it we learn what interests were to be 
subdued before the Company decided to establish a colony in New 
Netherland and because we find in it the reason for the partial 
monopoly of the fur trade and the organization of colonies under 

From it we learn to know van Rensselaer as the man who pro- 
posed to curtail the fur trade, in order that the Company might con- 
tinue to draw profit from it, which they would lose in case the 
supply of skins should become too great and the animals should be 
killed off too fast by the hunting of the savages ; also as the man 
who, in connection therewith, made the plan to colonize New 
Netherland, not by hunters but by farmers, and in this manner to 
make of it, as it were, a station for ships from the West Indie? 

'- 1 Amplification of the charter of the W. I. Co., Feb. 13, 1623. N. de R. This refer- 
ence is erroneous; the provision that the first two vacancies should be supplied from tht 
ranks of the chief participants is found in art. 6 of the Agreement between the directors 
and chief participants, June 21, 1623, printed on p. 126-35. 

14 Agreement between the directors and chief participants, June 21, 1623. art. 6, ir 
connection with the list of directors in de Laet's Jaerlijck Vehael van de Vcrricliting'mn 
der W. I. C. N. de R. 

tt Printed on p. 235—50 of this volume. 1 


and Brazil, where supplies of grain, cattle and provisions might 
be obtained instead of returning for them to the mother country. 
The Company would thereby be relieved of the great expenses con- 
nected with a direct transportation of such indispensable articles to 
these distant countries, which cost was not met by the profits of the 
fur trade. He predicted that they would be obliged to abandon 
New Netherland if this course were not adopted. However logic- 
ally this plan may have been conceived, there were many even 
among the directors who drew great profits just from the freighting 
of the outgoing ships laden with all kinds of commodities for which 
there was demand in the West Indies and Brazil ; and who, esteem- 
ing their personal gains higher than the welfare of the Company, 
pitted themselves against the plans of van Rensselaer. When, how- 
ever, he succeeded in gaining the favor of the majority and in 
causing a number of farmers to emigrate to the island Manhattas, 
the minority found pleasure in being able to point out the fact that 
matters in the new farming colony did not proceed as desired. 
They tried to make van Rensselaer suffer for this and at the same 
time to force the abandonment of the Company's system already 
adopted. They succeeded so far in this that van Rensselaer and his 
fellow commissioners having special care of the affairs of New 
Netherland were obliged to take upon themselves the colonization 
without expense to the Company, which they said they were not 
disinclined to do, provided the Company would grant them Free- 
doms. 10 

Without allowing their own profit to have the strongest influence, 
they wished to extend the chance for gain to each individual stock- 
holder. The greater the number of colonies started, the better. 
This was to the interest of the Company. The minority, not in- 
tending to allow the future patroons to pluck the fruits which the 
colonies promised, haggled over the Freedoms drafted by the latter 
and even desired that the fur trade should be monopolized by the 
Company, which had not been the case heretofore. The majority, 
however, did not consent to this and adopted propositions more 
favorable to the patroons. The amount of opposition which fan 
Rensselaer was obliged to endure from this minority is summed 
up in the memorial in detail. The fall of Zivanendal and the fail- 
ure of other colonies are therein explained. 

10 On March 28, 1628, the Freedoms and Exemptions were first established. They 
were, however, so limited that those who had felt inclined now declared themselves indis- 
posed to organize colonics on that basis and urged other measures. After much consulta- 
tion more favorable conditions were given, on June 7, 1629. See Appendix A [p. 235-50 
of this volume]. N. de R. 


The above facts are enough to teach us to respect the merchant 
who so justly apprehended the needs of the Company. 

It was in the midst of the strife of these opinions, about a year 
after the death of his wife, that, on the 14th of December 1627, 
in the Nieuive Kerk, he married Anna van Wely, daughter of his 
former partner, Jan van Wely, and related to himself as well as 
to his former wife. We know that the court jeweler of Prince 
Maurice was very rich. Anna, who had three brothers, undoubtedly 
bore quite a fortune with her to the altar, which, though she wedded 
with marriage settlements, served to enlarge the business capital 
of her husband, as did also the inheritance which Kiliacn, as well as 
both his wives, received from uncle van Bijlcr. 

In the meantime our jeweler seems to have conceived the idea 
of bringing into cultivation the waste lands of his native country. 
While, on the one hand, in the United Provinces people were gain- 
ing fertile fields by diking in and draining pools and lakes of every 
description, there were others who expected far more profit from 
the reclamation of the heaths. In 1619, Dom Emanuel, prince of 
Portugal, endeavored to obtain a patent from the States of Holland 
for the reclamation of the heaths and woodlands of Gooiland. 16 * 
After that had been refused him, advocate Ingels and his partners 
had better success and began in 1625 the laying out of 's Graven- 

Whether Rensselaer also came under the influence of the spirit 
of the age, it is certain that in 1620 he began the cultivation of 
some heath lands in the Gooi, which he continued after he had be- 
come the owner, June 16, 1628, of the estate Crailo, near Huisen, 1 " 1 
to which he added a large stretch of mostly unreclaimed land. So, 
at any rate, we are informed by Jan Jeremias van Rensselaer, 
known as a poet in the second half of the last century, in his 
Kraillo Hofdicht (1770). 

To the original success which rewarded his reclamation of the 
Sandy, by no means tractable, soil of the Gooi, may be attributed the 
fact that he could discern no difficulty in beginning on a very large 
scale an agricultural undertaking on the almost virgin fields and 
plains of New Netherland, when, as we have already observed, the 
Company decided according to the second article of their charter 
'' to promote the peopling of those fruitful and unsettled parts," 

"" District in the southeastern part of the province of North Holland, comprising the 
city of Naarden and the villages of Blarikum, Bussum, 's Graveland, Ililversum, 
Huizen. J.aren and Muiderberg. 

17 Communicated by Mr A. N. J. Fabiits, archivist of Naarden. N. de R. 


to allow the colonizing to be done by private enterprise, retaining 
only that of the island Manhattan purchased in 1626 from the 

In the resolution for the organization of colonies by private indi- 
viduals, it was stipulated 18 that those who had declared themselves 
disposed thereto, might send two persons thither to examine the 
country. On January 13, 1629, the directors, Samuel Godijn, 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Samuel Blommaert, had already re- 
quested that it be noted that, as they intended to plant colonies, they 
would send Gilles Houset, sailor, and Jacob Jan-sen, cooper, to New 
Xetherland, in order to report what they should find. The follow- 
ing directors presented themselves successively as patroons : Michiel 
Pauzv van Achttienhovcn, over the region bordering on the river 
Sickcnames (June 7) ; Godijn, the region bordering on the west 
side of the South River (June 29) ; Pauzv again, the island Fer- 
nando Moronho (October 15) ; Albert Coenraetsz Burgh, the island 
of St Vincent (October 22) ; Burgh again, the region on the east 
side of the bay of the South River, over against Godijn (November 
1, 1629) ; Blommaert, the region on the Fresh River, which he im- 
mediately christened Blommaerts River (November 16) ; Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer, the region on the North River above and below Fort 
Orange on both sides of the river, including the islands therein, and 
downwards as far as was resolved by the Assembly (November 
19) ; Pauzv again, a region on the North River westwards including 
Machackinachoors land and the Hamclshoofden on the east side 
(January 10, 1630) ; ia Blommaert again, one of the islands, St. 
Martin or Barbados (April 17) ; Godijn again, the island Toriugo 
(August 28, 1630) ; van Rensselaer again, the island du Sable, 43 ° 
or 44 north (November 7). All these persons sat as commis- 
sioners for New Netherland affairs. 

In the Chamber of Zealand, six persons declared themselves as 
patroons: Johan dc Moor, for Tabago and the territory of the 
Amazon; Abraham van dc Pcrrc, for Bcrbice; Claude Provost foi 
Cajana; Jan van Ricn for Ouaro, and Jan van der Goes for 

We must how inquire what conditions the Company had granted 
that caused the aforesaid persons to decide to undertake the coloniz- 
ing of these partly inhabited, partly wild, lands. 

18 This stipulation was repeated in art. i of the Freedoms and Exemptions. N. de R. 
''The bounds of the colony of Pavonia as here given are incorrect. See registration 
of the colony on p. 158. 


The patroons agreed each to send 50 persons, above the age of 
15, to their respective dominions within four years after their ap- 
plication as patroons. The concession would lapse in case this 
condition were not fulfilled. The patroons of the colonies on the 
North River recognized the staple-right of the Company on the 
island Manhattas and the monopoly of the fur trade in those regions 
where the Company had commisen. 20 They declared that they would 
abstain from the weaving of woolen, linen and cotton goods. 

They were also under obligation to purchase of the natives those 
lands which belonged to them and were within the bounds of the 
colony, as the Company itself, and to collect funds for the support 
of a minister and schoolmaster, and finally they were to conform to 
a general scheme of government to be framed by the Nineteen. 

Over against these obligations, truly not severe, stood far-reach- 
ing rights of deep significance. 

Of the whole dominion assigned to them, which they might ex- 
tend, if they chose, to four leagues along the coast or along one 
side of a river and two leagues along both sides of such a river, 
and as far inland as the situation would allow, and which they 
might exchange for another if it proved little adapted for colonizing 
and farming, the patroons would be sole proprietors, as also of 
whatever the land might prove to contain, such as mines, marble 
quarries, precious stones and metals. Over this dominion, which 
they should hold as a perpetual fief from the Company, they should 
have jurisdiction in optima forma, including power of capital pun- 
ishment, save for appeal to the director and councilors in New 
Netherland in matters above 50 guilders, and should also have the 
right of appointing magistrates. Further they should possess all 
manorial privileges, the rights of hunting, fowling and fishing, and 
the right of the wind. The colony first settled on a river or on 
an island should have control ; while later colonies could appoint 
councilors to manage affairs relating to the common welfare. 

The colonists, and the wares which they might desire to bring 
over, would be carried going and coming by the ships of the Com- 
pany at a moderate tariff. Cattle and farm implements would be 
conveyed without any charges. In case there were no ships ready, 
the patroons might use their own vessels, provided they took on 
board an officer of the Company, bearing the title of "assistant." 

-"Klsewhere this trade was free, but the Company taxed each skin, whether of beaver, 
otter or mink at the rate of one guilder. The importation of beaver and otter skins 
amounted in 1624 to 4700; in 1625 to 5758; in 1626 to 8130; and in 1627, when the 
average value had dropped from six guilders to 1.60 guilders, to 7890. N. de R. 


They might trade along the entire American coast from Florida 
to Newfoundland if, on returning with their cargo, they recognized 
the staple-right of the Company by the payment of five per cent on 
the goods which were to be shipped to Holland. The cod fishery 
was excepted. They might ship the entire catch directly to neutral 
lands under the supervision of a supercargo of the Company. Of 
prizes taken from the enemy they were to enjoy two thirds and the 
Company the rest. The colonists were not required to pay any 
import duties whatever to the Company for the first ten years. The 
Company was not to deprive the patroons of any of their settlers 
and was even to seize and deliver up those who had run away. The 
Company also promised protection against civil and foreign 
enemies ; for which purpose it would strengthen the fort at the 
Manhattas; while it would also provide the patroons with as many 
negroes as possible, without, however, being bound thereto. 

To the supreme government in New Netherland, consisting of 
director and council, the colonies along each river and on the islands 
might [each] send an agent to care for the common interests. This 
board must further be kept informed by a detailed annual report 
of the condition of each colony. 

This constitution for the patroonship regulated the affairs in New 
Netherland largely in the spirit of the middle ages, which in the 
fatherland still spoke in the feudal system. The patroons were 
mighty vassals who were represented before the lieutenant of the 
feudal lords by their ambassadors, the agents, and granted their 
own fief in mesne tenure to the colonists. It does not surprise us 
at all, therefore, that so many desired to establish themselves in the 
New World as potentates of such importance. It would appear, 
however, to have been by no means an easy task. 

The minority of which I have just spoken had, on the ratification 
of the Freedoms, succeeded in gaining, besides the restriction of 
the fur trade, still another clause by means of which it was possible 
for others than the patroons, though on a much smaller scale, to 
become owners of land in the new colony. 

Tn distinction from the colonists or colonizers, such immigrants 
were called freemen or free merchants. Whoever desired to em- 
bark for New Netherland in this capacity could obtain there from 
the director and council what land they chose and as much as they 
could cultivate, provided they remained at a distance of eight 
leagues from the colonies of the patroons. They were also allowed 
to engage in fishing and to establish salt works, and would enjoy 
the protection of the Company. 


That must have encouraged all those who felt themselves in- 
clined to the state of colonists and were without means and without 
any credit with their more wealthy friends. Every one who could 
simply pay his passage and was able to supply himself with the 
most necessary articles was promised, by the prospect of land- 
holding in the New World, a certain prosperity which he could not 
expect to attain in his native land. 

Not a few offered themselves to go as freemen far across the sea. 
The patroons, however, had apparently some trouble in enlisting 
the required number of colonists, so that the failure of the pro- 
jected colonies may in part be attributed to this fact. 

That van Rensselaer knew how to meet these difficulties is du* 
undoubtedly to his earnest perseverance and energy, perhaps also 
to the more liberal conditions of his grant, but surely also to the 
more favorable circumstances which gave him an advantage over 
the other patroons. 

Owner of extensive lands in the sandy Gooi and, moreover, of 
family estates in the not much more fruitful Veluwe, 20 * where num- 
bers of relatives were landowners and struggled to subsist on 
meager means, his agents needed to employ but little persuasion 
to induce some Gooicrs and Velawcrs to migrate to more fruitful 
regions where the battle with the soil for subsistence would be less 
severe. We should also not lose sight of the fact that he might 
depend on the indirect support of his nephew W outer van Twiller, 2 * 
who had been appointed director of New Netherland in 1632, and 
with whom he engaged in friendly correspondence at a time when, 
in the fatherland, the directors opposed the patroons in every way. 

The report of the agents sent out had not been unfavorable. 
They had selected for van Rensselaer an extensive domain on both 
sides of the North River in the vicinity of Fort Orange, which ex- 
tended 24 miles in length, 40 miles in breadth and covered a surface 
of 700,000 bunders. 22 Since 1625, no colonists lived in or near the 
fort. The location was chosen with care with regard to the fort, 
because in case of danger it would be a sure point of defense and 

- 0& Northwestern part of the province of Gelderland. 

21 Van Twiller was the son of Maria, the sister of Kiliaen. N. de R. 

22 The statement is apparently taken from O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, 
IM24; the miles are English miles and Mr de Roever has erroneously used bunder, 
equivalent to two acres, as translation of acre. Elsewhere, when miles are referred to 
by Mr de Roever, Dutch miles are meant and the word has been translated leagues. 
O'Callaghan's statement, while fairly describing the extent of the colony under the 
patent of Nov. 4, 1685, does not agree with the facts in 1632. As explained in a foot- 
note on p. 167, the land embraced by the first two purchases of Aug. 13, 1630, and 
May 163 1 was almost entirely on the west side of the river. 


retreat and its garrison would be very likely to inspire the natives 
with awe and fear, sufficient to restrain them from attacking the 
colonists, certain as they might be of being pursued by the soldiers 
who were well armed, though few in number. In this manner van 
Rensselaer employed the troops of the Company more or less as 
coadjutors to his colonizing plans. Moreover, he would derive 
profit from provisioning the garrison of over 25 men. He estimated 
their annual support at 100 guilders per capita. Furthermore, the 
fort would become an easily reached market place for the colonists, 
where they could maintain communication with the outer world. He, 
therefore, ever exerted himself to maintain friendly relations with 
the commander of the garrison and the authorities within the walls. 
Little could he suspect that just from this source, through altered 
relations, all manner of unpleasantnesses and difficulties would arise. 

His first act must now be to obtain possession of the land for his 
. colony from the Mahikans, the original owners, who had never been 
willing to sell their territory, not even the ground of Fort Orange. 
After they had been involved, through the instrumentality of the 
commis Daniel van Kriekenbeek, in a bloody war with their neigh- 
bors, the Maquas, and were defeated in 1629, they were found ready 
to dispose of their possessions. 

Two officers of the West India Company in Fort Orange, Bas- 
tiacn Jans.z Crol and Dirk Cornells? Dnyster, specially empowered 
thereto by writing of January 12, 1630, purchased the following 
April 23 a large tract of land on the west side of the river. We 
learn from this writing how this was to be done. They were to 
make payment to the chiefs in the presence of the whole nation, in 
merchandise which they should purchase for his account from the 
Company, and the deed should be acknowledged by the chiefs at the 
Manhattans in the presence of the director and council. Van Rens- 
selaer gave his preference for flat timberless land, of which they 
should purchase as much as they could obtain as far as five leagues 
on both sides of the fort. 24 

Honsset increased this territory, in August, by tracts of land on 
the right bank, located above and below Fort Orange, and also by 
land on the east side of the river. It was also extended by deeds 
of purchase of May 1631 and April 13, 1637. 

The good understanding between the patroons of the Amsterdam 

28 M. de Roever here follows O'Callaglian, who erroneously refers to the purchase of 
1631 as occurring in April 1630. The date of the certificate is May 1631, which is given 
by Mr de Roever as that of a distinct purchase. Cf. note on p. 182. 

24 Cf. note on p. 159. 


Chamber left nothing to be desired; Burgh, Godijn, Blommaert and 
van Rensselaer, before signifying to the directors their willingness 
to start colonies, made an agreement to work the projected colonies 
on joint account, each under the direction of one of them. 25 The)/ 
could, in consequence, soon register such of their colonies as they 
had made preparations to establish. 26 Three persons should each 
have a one fifth share in each colony, while the fourth should re- 
ceive the remaining two fifths, take the responsibility for its man- 
agement and exercise the rights of patroon. 27 The patroons were 
to act in concert, with this understanding, that the managing patroon 
had the disposal of all sums amounting to less than 2000 guilders, 
while a majority of votes was required for sums up to 4000 
guilders, with unanimity regarding expenditures above the latter 

On account of the disputes between the directors and the patroons, 
the colony under the management of Blommaert " was not started 
but remained at a standstill " while those under Godijn and Burgh, 
" after the work had been begun," were " finally sold to the West 
India Company." 28 

Only the colony which was managed by van Rensselaer continued 
to exist under the patroons. His share in this, as we have said, 
amounted to two fifths. He successively purchased from the heirs 
of Godijn, among whom were Jacob and Hendrik Trip, the latter's 
share, so that he soon became the owner of three fifths. The two 
other shares remained, partly in the hands of Blommaert and partly 
in the hands of others, Adam Bessels, Johannes de Laet and Tous- 
saint Muyssaert, the last two being in the place of Burgh, so that 
ultimately each of them owned one tenth. 

It goes without saying that each colony depended upon its man- 
ager, who must, in the first place, comply with the stipulations of 
the Company. In accordance with one of these, 12 or 13 colonists 
must be transported to Rensselaerswyck before the 19th of No- 
vember, 1630. There seems to have been some difficulty in se- 
curing even this number, and when they were found and had ratified 

25 Pauw did not enter into this agreement for his colony Pavonia. There is nothing, 
however, to mark any unfriendly relation with the other patroons. N. de R. 

20 See Appendix A [p. 235—50 of this volume] in regard to the fate of Tortuga, the 
colonies on the bay of the South River, and the proposed colony on the island du Sable. 
N. de R. 

2T In the beginning they seem to have had another division, to which a contract, dated 
Oct. 1, 1630, refers. N. de R. 

28 The cause of this is explained by van Rensselaer in the Memorial, Appendix A 
[p. 235-50 of this volume]. 

The colony Pavonia is not considered in this account. N. de R. 


the notarial contract by signature and mark, and some times even 
the co])y in the Letter Book of the patroon, and had received their 
advance, it often happened that even then some would desert when 
the. lighter was about to depart. 

An agricultural colony without cattle was an impossibility. It 
required careful planning to provide the cheapest way of transport- 
ing animals in order to enable the colonists to engage in farming. 
"If I can get no animals, I shall not succeed in bringing over 50 
persons," exclaimed van Rensselaer in one of his letters. 29 He had 
thus to be constantly on the lookout to obtain them wherever he 
could. The transportation of cattle proved extremely expensive and. 
little effective, since, not to mention the loss on shipboard, many 
died in their new home. The Company, though bound by the Free- 
doms to allow the carrying of cattle, did not make this easy for the 
patroons and only provided stalls for the cattle on deck. We 
willingly believe that they needed the entire hold for their own 

Van Rensselaer now, with true merchant shrewdness, made use 
of a defect in the conditions under which the colonists of the Com- 
pany had settled on the island of Manhattans. He caused Rutger 
Hendrikss, from Soest, 30 one of his colonists, to rent one of the eight 
farms at that place; took upon himself the payment of the Com- 
pany's equity ; ordered the land, which had not yet been cultivated, 
to be farmed ; and assumed the payment of the sum in lieu of which 
the farmer, after the lapse of six years, would have become owner 
of the four horses and the cattle (4 cows, 2 heifers, 6 sheep and 6 
hogs, which had been provided by the Company for each farm), 
with the result that the Company could not prevent him from trans- 
porting these animals to his colony. At the same time he made a 
contract with Wolfert Gen-its, 1 :., from Amcrsfoort, a colonist at the 
Manhattans, who was temporarily in the fatherland, binding him to 
settle during a few months of each year at Rensselaerswyck, in order 
to plant and sow, and at the same time, whenever young cattle were 
offered for sale in New Netherland, to buy them on his account. 
Together with Wolfert and Rntger emigrated Brant Pcclen, from 
Nijkerk, Roelof Jansz, from Maasterland, 31 the latter like Rutger, 

-'•' Letter to van Twiller, July 27, 1632 [p. 229-34I. N. df. R. 

30 See introduction p. 27 for statement regarding form of names used in the prepara- 
tion of this volume. 

al In the Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss, in the Rensselaerswyck Mss and in the N. Y. 
Col. Mss, invariably written Mastcrlant, Masterlandt or Masterland; not Maasterland or 
Macsterland, as spelled by Mr de Roever and other writers. Maesterland occurs ii. 
Groot Placaet Bocck, 1:724, 726, 741, 2384, 2396, 2438 and 8:1248, in connection with 
the herring fishery and has reference to Marstrand, on a small island off the coast of 


as farmer on one of the projected farmsteads, a number of farm 
hands and a shepherd for the 13 sheep, which were entrusted to 
their care during" the voyage. 

Since, as it appears, more cattle were transported by the Com- 
pany than they needed on their eight farms, he agreed with Michicl 
Painv that each should take half of them. Thus again he obtained 
eight horses and seven cows. He brought about all this in Jan- 
uary 1630. 

Now he must think about establishing farmsteads. Under the 
direction of Wolfert and the supervision of Bastiaen Crol, commis 
at Fort Orange, the first farm was to be laid out ; and with the 
assistance of the laborers of the Company, who were put at his 
disposal by the director Pietcr Minuijt for compensation, houses, 
barns, hay-barracks, sheep-cotes and also a boat were to be built 
and bricks and tiles baked. * 

In a short time two were ready, viz, Rensselaer sburg and Lacts- 
burg. It seemed that the affairs of the patroon and his colony were 
well launched. The good understanding between him and the local 
authorities in New Netherland who naturally followed the orders 
of their superiors, the directors in the fatherland, conduced strongly 
to this end. 

In January 1631, he sent Man' 11 us Adriacnsz, from Vccrc, with 
some assistants as tobacco planters, and in July of the same year 
Laurens Laurcnsz, from Kopenhaven, was sent, with another North- 
man, to run the sawmill and grist-mill ; also a number of laborers 
and eight or ten calves. 

Now let us see what terms he offered to his colonists. That 
he did not value each individual equally goes without saying. The 
persons whom he appointed as managers of the farmsteads or 
farmers received during two or three years before the farm could 
be considered to be in good working order, 150 to 180 guilders. 
The patroon defrayed the expense connected with the farm and pro- 
vided cattle, wagons and implements, besides .farm hands who re- 
ceived from 40 to 90 guilders and a boy whose hire amounted to 
from 25 to 40 guilders, and these, during the time of their contract, 

Sweden, near Goteborg. (See Woordenboek der Nedcrlandsche fan!, 5 12210; map of 
Denmark in John Speed, Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain . . . with a pros- 
pect of the most famous parts of the world, London 1676; and Paskaert van t' Schager 
Rak . . . door C. J. Voogt, Gcometra, 't Amsterdam by Ioanncs van Keulen 
[17 10]). If, as may be presumed, Masterland is the same as Maesterland, it is interesting 
to note that Roelof Jansz as well as his wife, the well known Anneke Jans — whose 
mother, Trijn Jonas, appears in a fragment of an account of New Amsterdam, 1639, 
among the Renssclacrswyck Mss, as Trijn Jonas van Mastcrlanld] — were probably not 
Dutch, but Swedes. 


usually three to four years, received an annual raise of from 10 
to 20 guilders and board, which was paid by the patroon. In the 
beginning they were to do everything needed as well as they could 
with the help of the workmen of the Company. When the farm 
was once in full swing, then other regulations came in force. The 
clear gains, after deducting the wages of the farm hands, were di- 
vided biennially between the patroon and the tenant. The former 
remained owner of the cattle but their increase was again divided. 
With the animals thus obtained, the patroon could start a new farm, 
while he could purchase the tenant's half of the cattle according to 
the Company's tariff and the crops according to market price at 
the Manhattans. The mechanics who emigrated as colonists re- 
ceived about as much as the masters of the farms but were to be 
lodged by them and their board was charged to the patroon. When- 
ever they were employed by others, the patroon was to receive one 
half of their earnings. Some of the colonists were to pay their own 
passage ; the less important as a rule, not. Small advantages in the 
shape of advance money and presents were enjoyed by all. It is 
interesting to note that the terms became gradually more favorable 
to the colonists. I mention here only the contracts of the first years. 

Between 1630 and 1632 he transported to Rensselaerswyck on 
these terms, in the first year 10 and in the two succeeding years 12 
persons, not counting children. About one third came from the 
Gcoi and the Veluwe. A few were secured on the Manhattans, 
where might always be found people whose contracts had expired 
or who had not succeeded, and some negroes naturally belonged to 
the number. 32 

The relations between the directors of the Amsterdam Chamber 
and the patroons, however, gradually became less favorable for 
the latter. I have already spoken of the minority who were op- 
posed to the colonization. They alleged that the patroons' aim was 
to monopolize the fur trade and thus to injure the Company. The 
falsehood of this charge is clearly shown by the nature of the colony 
of ran Rensselaer, and furthermore by the contracts made with 
the colonists, which prohibited the fur trade. He writes on July 20, 
1632, to Duystcr, " I have forbidden my people the fur trade ; al- 
though, according to the fifteenth article of the Freedoms, I have 
as much right as others, yet I have done this in order to avoid dis- 
pute with the Company." 33 Notwithstanding the honest inten- 

82 In Appendix D, I give a list of the persons sent by the patroon to his colony until 
[634. N. i>e R. See statement in introduction, p. 32, regarding this list. 
3:1 See p. 216. 


tions of Kiliaeu, the minority increased. It appears that they found 
their spokesman in Marcus de Vogclaer, and that among others 
his side was supported hy the directors Cornells Bicker, Guiliani 
Bartolotti, Hcndrik Broen, Hendrik Hauiel, Marcus van Valcken- 
burgh, Simon van dcr Does and Abraham Oyens. On account of 
the biennial retirement of one third of the directors of the Amster- 
dam Chamber, a temporary change took place in the management. 34 
The minority suddenly grew to a majority and meant to make their 
influence tell. 

At the Manhattans, the Company's young colony, matters were 
not going as well as might be wished. This the opponents of the 
colonization ascertained, but the Company had already gone too far 
to abandon the colony. 

Colonial progress was crippled by the bad relations among the 
local authorities. They neglected the Company's interests in mu- 
tual disputes.' 15 The factions each found their sympathizers at Am- 
sterdam. The director Pieter Minuyt, who had gradually gained 
the patroons' friendship, 30 was now worsted by the intriguing secre- 
tary, Johan van Retnunde. supported by de Vogelaer, who had be- 
come commissioner for New Netherland affairs, and his party. 
The secretary had reported so many grievances, both true and false, 
in his letters, that the directors seemed to judge it advisable to hear 
him and, at the same time, a number of their officers, who under 
the circumstances may well have apprehended that their summons 
was the precursor of the discharge awaiting them in the fatherland. 
This happened about the middle of 163 1. The party of van Rens- 
selaer had still influence enough to bring about the promotion a^ 
director in the place of Minuyt, of the comniis at Fort Orange, 
Bastiacn Crol, whom we have learned to know as the patroon's 

In the meantime, while months passed in hearing and rehearing 
the recalled officers, Kiliaen was contending with difficulties of every 
kind in Rensselaerswyck. One of his two new farmsteads was 
burned; Marinus, the tobacco planter, seemed none too well fitted 
for his task ; his colonists had needed so much grain for their own 
use that one farm lacked winter seed, and besides, his account with 
the Company for goods delivered had become very heavy. But he 

34 Van Rensselaer appears also in 1631 to have resigned as director. N. de R. 

35 The letter (given as Appendix B \p. 169-70 of this volume]) from Simon Dirkss 
Pos, colonial councilor, to van Rensselaer is important for the knowledge of matters there. 
N. de R. 

M Above mentioned letter to van Twiller. N. de R. 


could surmount all these hindrances, since, from the reports ren- 
dered, he perceived that the fields promised abundant harvests 
and, although he had been obliged to abandon the idea of building 
a sawmill, his grist-mill would be the only one in all New Nether- 
land. If his cattle were to furnish dairy products sufficient for his 
own use and that of the garrison at the fort, there would not be 
many animals left for slaughter, hut this difficulty would be [more 
than] met by the natives who would gladly barter for dairy products 
such large quantities of venison that his colonists [after supplying 
their own wants] would have enough to smoke and salt it and make 
of it an article of merchandise at the Manhattans. 

The patroon's endurance was. however, to be still more severely 
tested. Remunde had won his suit before the directors. He re- 
turned to the new fatherland in his old dignity. Crol, who seems 
also to have given cause for dissatisfaction, although, as we shall 
see, he had served the interests of the Company, as he understood 
them, in opposition to those of van Rensselaer, was recalled and 
Wouter van Twiller, chiefly because advocated by Burgh, Read and 
de la Myne. was appointed in his stead. Though this appointment 
could not but be agreeable to the patroon, his uncle, he must have 
been less pleased that Dirk Cornelisz Duysier, commis at Fort 
Orange, was to make room for an instrument in the hands of his 
adversaries, Hans Joriss HitntJuun, a man who had traded with the 
natives at that place in former years, and who, by a shameful cruelty 
committed on one of the chiefs, had made himself much hated by 
the Maquas? 1 

The disputes were not checked by this appointment; but other 
combatants appeared in the lists, which were now opened anew at 
the Manhattans, to the injury of the Company's affairs. 

On his side the patroon again availed himself of favorable cir- 
cumstances. Pieter Minnyt, who had grievances enough against 
the Company, agreed in July 1632 to sell him a number of his cattle; 
the rest were to remain on his farm, of which van Twiller took 
possession. Pieter Bijlvelt, one of the recalled councilors, did the 
same. They both wrote the agreements in the Letter Book of van 
Rensselaer with their own hands. The purchase of the whole in- 

37 Ihmthum was undoubtedly a brother of the Founder of the family of the same name 
at Amsterdam, which became later very important through the fur trade, ami a branch 
of which built the house. ,/<• Bonte Mantel, on the Heerengracht, later occupied by the 
Blind Institute, lluv.thum was already, before the charter of the W. I. C, a licensed 
trader in and about those regions. He caused one of the chiefs of the tribe of the 
M aquas to be put to death by emasculating him. 

Deposition June ,10. 1634, before Notary J. v. J. Ven 1 p. 302I. N, de K. 


ventory of the farm of Bijlvelt soon followed and van Twiller 
agreed to make over a few more animals to the patroon. At the 

same time, he gained a skilful colonist in the person of G err it 
Theusz dc Reus, who had previously managed a farm on the Man- 
hattans, and transferred all his cattle, for which the patroon as- 
sumed the payment due the Company. When, however, the news 
Ot this agreement reached the then director, Crol, he did not con- 
sider himself justified in letting the cattle go without the consent 
of his principals. The opponents of Kiliacn, also, could not per- 
ceive the desirability of the zealous patroon's measures. Many 
were jealous of him, so that only after two years, when these evil 
days were past, did he, hy means of a notice served on the directors, 
succeed in moving them to recognize his right. 88 

From the standpoint of the directors, who must have seen with 
reluctance the subtraction of cattle from their colony, their long 
refusal was certainly intelligible, but as a retaliatory measure from 
the patroon's side, his course might be defended. 

With this addition to his herd, strengthened also by the importa- 
tion of some calves, the patroon might have been able to start three 
new farms in his colony : Wcclysburg and Blommaertsburg, which 
were to be occupied by Brandt Pcclcn and Gerrit dc Rons, and 
Godynsburg. Now it seems that they were first begun in 1034. 
when he was again contemplating the starting of a new farm in the 
immediate neighborhood of Fort Orange. 

The affairs of the other patroons, in which van Rensselaer partici- 
pated, were in a still less desirable condition. New supplies of pro- 
visions and merchandise were necessary but the Chamber of Am- 
sterdam would not consent to this. And the patroon of Rensselaers- 
wyck also met with a refusal (July 20, 1632) when he petitioned the 
directors to permit him to employ for compensation, during their 
free time, the Company's carpenters, smiths and other mechanics, 
for the establishment of a couple of new farms. 

Neither could they be prevailed upon to fulfil the Freedoms which 
guaranteed privileges for the proper transportation of cattle and 
goods; indeed they even went so far as to prohibit the purchase 
by him of goods belonging to the Company which were stored in 
New Netherland, and also forbade their colonists to barter neces- 
saries of life for dairy products and grain. 

Thus almost cut off from the outer world by the management of 
his opponents, our patroon was almost immediately obliged to teach 

ns This notice, which throws some light on the relations between the Company and 
their colonists follows as Appendix C [p. 290-92 of this volume]. N. de R. 


his colony to stand on its own legs. The only persons whom he 
could trust to keep a watchful eye on Rensselaerswyck were his 
nephew van Twillcr and the schout Coenraed Notelman, also a rela- 
tive, who consented to do this in so far as it could be made to agree 
with duty and conscience. 

Yet a new misfortune befell the patroon in the loss of a large 
part of his herd, which were killed by the natives. The Company 
also suffered a loss by the burning of their yacht de Bever. s<J The 
appointment of Hwithum, which was the cause of both these occur- 
rences, was now first clearly proved to have been a mistake. 40 

One of the measures taken at this time (July 1632) by Kiliaen, to 
confirm his authority, was to give his colony, which contained as 
yet but few souls, a judicial system by the appointment of schout 
and schepens. 

The highest and most responsible of the public offices, that of 
schout, he had reserved for Rutger Hendriksz, who, as outward 
sign of his dignity, was to adorn himself with a plumed hat and 
silver-plated rapier on a baldric. In his instructions, however, we 
seek in vain for an explanation of the principles by which he was 
to administer justice. The patroon only orders in general terms 
that the corrections shall be administered " according to the cus- 
toms of this land and especially according to the laws of this prov- 
ince of Holland." It is remarkable that every person could be 
corrected " who should neglect the profit of the patroon." In view 
of the fact that it is doubtful whether our worthy villager from 
ancient Hamcland 41 and our little peasants, who were to demand 
and render justice and some of whom could not even read, were 
versed in the Roman-Dutch law, then in force, or in the practice in 
criminal cases, and that the patroon furnished them with no other 
sources for their instruction and information than a few copies of 
the Freedoms and Exemptions, we may assume that the tribunal 
according to old Germanic custom administered justice according 
to reason and the five senses. In the judicial sphere of activity, 
fortunately, they probably were less occupied than with their daily 

39 See deposition referred to in preceding note. N. de R. 

*° Hunt hum did not long survive these events. In April 1634, he came to blows with 
Cornells van Vorst, director of the colony Povonia, who stabbed him to death (Deposi- 
tion, Feb. 25, 1636, before Notary C. Hoogenboom). N. de R. 

** Homeland; an ancient county with uncertain boundaries. According to A. J. van 
der Aa, Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek, it extended along both banks of the river Yssel, 
so as to cover parts of the present provinces of Gelderland and Overyssel. In calling 
Rutger Hendriksz from Soest a villager from ancient Hameland, Mr de Rocver has 
reference to Eemland, in the province of Utrecht, which by some is held to have formed 
part of Hameland. 


labors in the interests of the patroon for which he gave the schout 
detailed instructions. From these orders it appears directly that 
Rutgcr was charged more especially with the execution of the 
orders of van Rensselaer as regards the management of the colony. 
This was necessary because Wolfert Gerritsz had signified his inten- 
tion to request dismissal from the patroon. 

Roelof Jansz, Gerrit de Reus, Marijn Adriaensz, Brant Peelen 
and Laurens Laurensz, surnamed de Noorman, served as schepens 
and councilors. 4 - Brant Peelen was at the same time to take charge 
of the Sunday services, reading and explaining one of the texts 
from the Bible according to the huispostille Schulteti. One of 
them would keep the Resolution Book. For the rest, their duties 
were not described. Their distinction consisted of a black hat with 
a silver band. They were to be sworn in by the schout, who would 
himself take the oath of office before Director van Tiviller. 

As regards the oath of the schepens, that of Amsterdam was 
literally followed. 415 It was therefore not the patroon's object to 
introduce a new law, specially adapted to his agricultural colony. 
Law appears to have been the least active factor in the early de- 
velopment of Rensselaerswyck. 

At any rate, the colonists did more; the schout raised on his 
farm Rensselaersburg on Castle or West Island, in 1631, 12 mor- 
gens of winter wheat and four morgens of winter rye. The patroon 
reckoned that in three years he would be able to raise more than 100 
lasts. Of the 600 or 800 morgens of arable land in the colony, which 
lay along the river, and which were as good quality as the land in the 
Betuzve 44 or in the Beemster, 45 each promised in the future a har- 
vest of three quarters to one last. The fattening of cattle, however, 
would be of still more importance ; " our greatest profit will come 
from the cattle, for which there are fine and sufficient pastures, for 

42 It is doubtful whether the first schout and schepens appointed by the patroon ever 
qualified, and whether court was actually held in the colony before the arrival of Jacob 
Planck in 1634. The instructions to Jacob Planck, April 25, 1634, state that Director 
van Twiller was to administer the oath as schout to Planck " instead of to Rutger 
henrickssz van Soest, according to previous power of attorney," and further that " at the 
first opportunity he shall choose three schepens from among the fittest of my colonists 
and administer to them the proper oath, so that he can hold court if need be." Cf. 
p. 201, 251, 292, 294, 311. 

43 Compare Handvesten van Amsterdam (ed. H. Noordkerk), p. 111. N. de R. 

44 Betuwe; the fertile district between the Rhine and the Waal in the southern part of 
the province of Gelderland. 

45 Beemster; district north of Purmerend in the province of North Holland, comprising 
about 14,000 acres of exceedingly fertile land reclaimed between the years 1607 and 
1612 by drainage of Beemster lake. For account of the undertaking and the vigorous 
support given it by Willem Usselinx, the founder of the Dutch West India Company, 
see J. F. Jameson's biography of Usselinx in Papers of the American Historical Associa- 
tion, 1887, 2:195-202. 


clearing of land proceeds but slowly from agriculture," writes the 
patroon to Jan dc Lact, 4r ' and he shows the necessity of exercising 
patience and of not ceasing to put money into the business. 

" But," adds the optimistic patroon, " here I am getting too far 
ahead." 47 And so he was. Through all the opposition, his ex- 
pectations were disappointed, and it did certainly take twice as many 
years before that part of the harvest which could be gathered into 
barns and sold approached 100 lasts. 48 

The year 1633, which under the existing unfavorable circum- 
stances could yield little of importance to the patroon and his 
colony, saw the continuation of party strife in the Amsterdam 
Chamber. Three of the friends of van Twiller left their seats when 
their terms expired. They were Burgh, Rcael and dc la Myne. 
Their influence, however, remained and made itself felt, when the 
party which opposed the colonization felt itself strong enough to 
undermine the most important articles of the Freedoms and Exemp- 
tions. They aimed at the fifteenth article, which allowed the pa- 
troons the coast trade in New Netherland and the fur trade, with 
the above named restrictions, and also at the twenty-fifth, by which 
the Company took the colonies under their care. 4!} They could not, 
however, persuade the majority of the desirability of these measures, 
which would undoubtedly have resulted in the ruin of the colonies. 
The Freedoms, at any rate, remained untouched. 50 Neither had 
they success in their attempt to recall the director, van Twiller, who 
hail been brought into disrepute by the secretary, van Remundt. 
The protection of his uncle and of his three friends as well as the 
good will of Frederik dc Vries 51 and of Daniel van Liebergen pre- 
vented Isaak dc Rasiere from succeeding van Twiller. This case 
shows that the ex-directors had still considerable influence, for of 
the persons here mentioned dc la Myne and van Liebergen are the 
only ones who were in office at that time. 

The carrying of freight in the meantime continued to be a dis- 
puted point. In order to promote barter with the natives, the pa- 

40 Letter June 27, 1632 [p. igol. Tan de Lact, associated with Burgh, was patroon on 
the east side of the hay of the South River. N. de R. 

47 ick hope hycr wat voor -mints " ; literally, I run here somewhat before the wind. 

48 The last of grain was reckoned by van Rensselaer at 140 guilders. N. de R. 

m Presumably there is some connection between the proposal to repeal this last article 
and the news of the killing of the cattle of Kiliaen. N. oe R. 

• r '" If the Memorial (Appendix A [p. 235—50 of this volume]) served to avert this danger, 
then we can place the debates over these propositions in the autumn of 1633. N. de R. 

61 He was also secretary of the city. N. de R. 

In 1638, he and David Pictersz de Vries entered into an agreement about establishing 
a colony on Staten Island; they sailed on the ship de Liefde and April 19, 1639, ap- 
peared together before Cornelis van Tienhoven, at New Amsterdam. See D. P. de 
Vries, Korte Hisloriael, p. 147, 162, and N. Y. Col. Mss, 1:98. 


troons wished 10 find storage for large quantities of merchandise 
in the Company's ships, which the Memorial informs us were of 
no great carrying capacity. Perhaps the directors thought this 
would mean too much reduction of the space available for the Com- 
pany's goods ; perhaps they wished to compel the patroons to pro- 
vide themselves with what they needed from the warehouses at the 
Manhattans; possibly they feared that the fur trade would escape 
them if they enabled the patroons to barter on a large scale; it is 
certain that they would only allow goods to the value of a few 
hundred guilders to be taken in. Now the patroons were permitted 
by the eleventh article of the Freedoms to send ships or yachts 
thither themselves, but in this they evidently saw no profit, for as 
yet they could not freight a whole vessel. They felt, therefore, 
too well, that every reference to the authority given them in this 
eleventh article corresponded with a refusal to comply with their 
wishes. And the general opinion of the assembled directors was 
here on the side of de Vogclaer, but they also did not wish to be 
deaf to the representations of van Rensselaer and decided to sub- 
mit the point in question to the judgment of their High Mighti- 

Whether in the beginning there was little prospect that the de- 
mands of the patroons would be granted, and whether van Rens- 
selaer foresaw great expense and difficulty in the suits which, ac- 
cording to the Memorial, he intended to bring against the Company, 
certain it is that in July 1634 he had one of the directors sound 
the feeling of the Amsterdam Chamber with respect to an amicable 
arrangement. Had there ever been any prospect of realizing this, 
the patroon would have been willing to turn the whole colony over 
to the Company. The affair was managed with the needful caution 
and supported by a secret Account of the jurisdictions, management 
and condition* 2 of the colony, dated July 20. In a confidential let- 
ter to his coparticipant, Johan de Laet, 53 he mentions the sum for 
which he would be willing to resign all his rights. Although the 
account book no longer exists, I dare say that the patroon did ask 
not a little too much when he demanded 6000 pounds Flemish. Two 
years later, when matters were in much better shape and he had 
gone to much more expense, he was willing to leave a one tenth 
share 54 to Burgh, when he could have gotten it himself, for 1000 

''- See p. 306-12. 

H Letter of July 21, 1634 [p. 312-13I. N. de R. 

'■' Letter to de Laet, Oct. 6, 1636 [p. 333-36]. N. de R 


guilders. The colony could not yet have been worth much more 
than one quarter of the price which he asked the Company. He ac- 
knowledges, indeed, that he expected to indemnify himself in this 
way for his losses in the exploitation of Zzvanendal. 55 During 
these negotiations two other patroons appeared with their proposals 
to transfer the colonies Zzvanendal and Pavonia to the Company. 
We already know that Zzvanendal was not succeeding very well. It 
could therefore cost the allied patroons but few tears to bid it 
farewell. The Company wished to assure itself of the monopoly 
of the fur trade and could therefore afford to sacrifice something in 
order to buy out the patroon and his partners at that place. But 
that reason did not apply to Rensselaerswyck. Whether it must be 
ascribed to this or whether the patroon withdrew his proposition 
after the temporary mood of dejection had passed away and he had 
changed his mind, I can not decide; however it was, nothing came 
of the sale. It appears that van Rensselaer in the following year 
would not even think of it again and did not regret it. 50 Protected 
as they now were from losses in Zzvanendal, the allied authorities 
determined to devote themselves with new courage to the coloniza- 
tion of Rensselaerswyck. 

The simultaneous attempts which the Amsterdam patroons of the 
existing colonies made to dispose of their undertakings indicate a 
more favorable disposition among the directors. One can not blame 
them, because having experienced their dependence on the prevail- 
ing humor in the council, they did not desire to risk encountering 
a new tide of opposition in a few years but preferred to make use 
of a favorable current. 

This began with the change in the government of the Chamber 
which put the party of de Vogelaer again in the minority. Burgh, 
Read, Fredcrik de Vries, Eduard Man, Schuylenburgh and Bart- 
rinck resumed their old seats. 

It seemed that the supporters of the colonization reckoned them- 
selves strong enough to alter the course in which affairs were being 
steered by de Vogelaer.™ The plan was formed already in April 
" to strike stoutly at the management of Vogelaer." He seems to 
have seen the approach of danger and to have understood that any 
opposition would be useless. He resigned his office of commissioner 

I • tter <>f July 21, 1634 [p. 312-13]. N. DE R. 
"Letter l<> van Twiller, May 2.1, 1635 [p. 315-17]. N. de R. 
"Letter to van Twiller, April 23, 1G34 [p. 266 SSJ. N. Dl R. 


of New Netherland affairs, apparently very unexpectedly, about 
May. 58 

We should be unjust to the directors if we thought that they were 
now going to manage matters in any manner partial to the interests 
of the patroons of Rensselaerswyck. They did not enter upon the 
purchase of the colony. Some points of difference still remained. 
What was the outcome of the intention of Kiliaen to demand legal 
indemnity from the Company, we do not learn. I am personally 
not disinclined to believe that the patroon mentioned this indemnity 
only in order to exert some pressure on the directors, who were con- 
sidering whether or not to deliver over to him his cattle which had 
been held back at the Manhattans, in order that later his proposals 
for the transfer of his colony might more readily find acceptance, 
as the directors would thereby avoid expensive lawsuits. 

But there was now no more question of intentional obstruction. 
This was already shown in April 1634 when he sent by the ship 
de Ecndracht a number of sacks and eight large chests, filled with 
all manner of goods, weapons, farm implements, clothing, seeds, 
provisions and other necessaries, on which vessel at the same time 
embarked his newly recruited colonists, viz, Jacob Planck, from 
Edam, who was to discharge the duties of schout, commis, precentor 
and distiller of brandy, and for whose use a large brandy kettle was 
sent along; Abraham Planck, his son; Lubber t Gijsbertsa, who 
wished to settle in the new colony as wagon maker and who took 
along his wife and children; Cornells Theunisz, who would find 
work enough as carpenter and mason at Rensselaerswyck; and a 
few workmen. 

In one of the chests was stored away also the first "red flag 
with the arms of the colony, to float on the breeze on proper 


"Letter to Sellout PI, inch. May 2, 1634 I P- 300-1]. N. de R. 



We have seen that the patroons got into a dispute with the 
directors of the West India Company over the rights guaranteed 
by the Freedoms and Exemptions, of which the Company wished 
to deprive them 1 by the passage of new articles and regulations, and 
that both parties, apparently unable to agree, left the decision to 
the States General, which appointed a committee to investigate the 

As the successors of the original owners, the patroons considered 
themselves almost sovereigns. They thought they need not obey 
any rules of the Company; that the internal fur trade, as well as 
that on the coast, was theirs by right ; that they need not tolerate 
in their territory any commis to collect the duty on furs purchased; 
that, so long as they did not avail themselves of the right to fit out 
their own ships, the officers of the West India Company in New 
Netherland were at least bound to inform them when there was 
room for their goods in its returning ships ; that the Company 
unlawfully required an oath of the colonists whereby they re- 
nounced the privileges granted them by the patroons ; and, finally, 
that the Company was bound to make good the loss which the 
patroons had suffered from the Company's failure to fulfil the 
obligations of protection and so forth which it had assumed. 

Not all these grievances were brought forward by van Rens- 
selaer. The fur trade, which was the great stumbling block to a 
good understanding between the two parties in the Chamber of 
the Nineteen, he had expressly forbidden, at least to his own colo- 
nists. The promotion of farming was almost the exclusive consid- 
eration for him and his colony, and for this the continued supply 
of colonists, cattle and all kinds of goods for use and trade in the 
colony was a vital necessity. 

For him and his cause everything depended on the opportunities 
for transportation. About this he had to try to come to an under- 
standing with the directors. 

Meanwhile the committee met, heard the parties, and adjourned, 
probably shortly after June 24, 1634, 2 after having postponed the 

1 The grievances of the patroons are described in their memorial to their High 
Mightinesses of June 16, 1634, printed by O'Callaghan, Holland Documents [Doc. ret. 
to Col. Hist. N. Y. 1:86]. N. de R. 

2 Resolutions of the States General of that date. N. de R. 


decision of the matter submitted to their judgment, of which noth- 
ing further is heard. 3 

It is clear that without the action of the committee a settlement 
had been reached between the two parties which is placed in pros- 
pect by Kiliacn in a letter to de Lact as early as July 21. 4 The more 
favorable sentiment toward the patroons existing in the Assembly 
of the Nineteen undoubtedly influenced this action. But perhaps 
no less a consideration was the advisability of keeping friends with 
the patroons and preserving peace at home, since for lack of money 
the Company could not at once prosecute with energy the settle- 
ment of the American colony and, by reason of the competition of 
English traders, ran the risk of diplomatic difficulties with its 
neighbor over seas, whose pretensions to New Netherland were yet 
fresh in memory. These traders, with an ex-Amsterdam merchant 
Jacob Eclkcns 5 at their head, had just chosen for the place of their 
operations the shores near Fort Orange, with which he was 
formerly well acquainted. In some way an agreement was brought 
about and, although we do not know on what terms, the result may 
be traced in the transfer soon after of Zzvancndal and Pavonia 6 to 
the Company, and in the decision of Kiliacn. two years later to fit out 
a ship himself, after his remonstrance had been favorably voted 
upon by the directors. 7 

In New Netherland Director van Twitter kept an eye on his 
uncle's interests. If there were cattle for sale, he bought them for 
Rensselaerswyck, and so did the director of Pavonia for that 
colony. Kiliacn and Michicl Pauw, who seem to have been the 
only interested parties, understood that it was to their mutual ad- 
vantage not to thwart each other in these purchases. Differences 
which had already arisen were laid aside and they pledged them- 
selves on April 13, 1634, to buy and honestly divide between 
themselves " all the animals, horses and cows, old or young, that 
from now on and during six years may be offered for sale in New 
Netherland either by the Company or by individuals, whether in- 
habitants or straneers." s 

8 One of the documents submitted by the patroon to the committee was the important 
Account of the jurisdictions, etc. See Appendix E [p. 306-12 of this volumel. N. de R. 

* See Appendix F [p. 312—13 of this volume]. N. de R. 

'•Jacob Jacobss Eelkens was born at Amsterdam in 1591. Hendrik Eelkens, associated 
with Hans Jorisz Huntum as the first traders in the New Netherland with the Mohicans, 
must have been his brother. N. de R. 

* It is known that Pavonia cost the Company 26,000 guilders. N. de R. 

7 This appears from a list of papers and manuscripts sent to Jacob Planck with the 
letter of Oct. 4, T636, to be found in the Letter Book of van Rensselaer f. 98 [p. 331-32 
of this volume]. N. de R. 

8 Protocol of Notary /. v. d. Ven, Amsterdam [see p. 257-58]. N. de R. 


We have already seen repeatedly how it was the first and only 
endeavor of van Rensselaer to make his settlement a farming 
colony and it appears to me that such was the chief aim of both 
the other patroons. Kiliaen says this in a letter to his schout, 
Jacob Albertsz Planck, dated August 24, 1635 : 9 "We are trying 
to populate the land and in time to spread the teaching of the Holy 
Gospel by many people, while they, 10 on the contrary, employing 
only a few people, look solely for the profits of the fur trade." 
As regards the patroon of Rensselaerswyck, we may decidedly 
contradict O'Callaghan's assertion in his History of New Nether- 
land 11 that they, " losing sight, for the most part, of their first 
duties as planters, diverted their energies and means in competing 
with the Company for a share of the Indian trade." On the con- 
trary, if, as he asserts, " the charter tended, in no small degree, to 
retard the settlement of the province," it was only because the 
directors, in spite of the Freedoms and Exemptions and to avoid 
losing the profits of their own trade, opposed the colonization by 
throwing obstacles in the way of the transportation of people, cattle 
and goods. 

That the patroons were out for their own profit is no cause for 
reproach. This has ever been the mighty impulse of all coloniza- 
tion. But they sought it in another and more honest way than by 
supplanting the Company in the fur trade. The right of the 
patroons to this trade seems to me quite beyond dispute and they 
were there as business men to stand by their rights as soon as there 
was promise of profit. We shall presently see that the fur trade 
had to be thrown open finally in order to attract colonists to the 
Company's own settlements. 

Whether the director's appearance in the promotion of the 
patroon's interests aroused suspicion or other considerations of a 
personal nature entered into the game and were instigated by 
Secretary van Rem uncle, or whether 7'an Twillcr really gave cause 
for complaint in his management of the Company's affairs, can no 
longer be determined. In no wise, however, can I accept the sen- 
tence that American writers have passed upon him. The evidence 
brought against him may be cited as proof of the grievances bul 
its authority may be doubted, since one often meets statements that 
diametrically conflict. That he and lii^ people, but especially the 

■Should be May 24, 1635; see p. 313. 
10 The directors. N. de R. 
"Vol. 1, p. 178. N. de R. 


latter, were no model men, lies in the nature of the case. It was 
surely difficult to rule over a handful of fortune hunters who had 
not crossed the ocean with any noble aim of opening' a wild land to 
cultivation and who, under hard conditions of existence, must lead 
a rude life and who sought rude pleasures. In such circumstances, 
gentleness would have been weakness, least of all to be forgiven in 
the governor of so small a settlement. He was not unskillful in 
the management of the Company's affairs and kept a firm hand 
wherever he judged it needful and it was not his fault if few of 
his measures resulted favorably. O'Callaghan accuses him of seek- 
ing his own gain at the expense of the Company and says that, 
when he left, his farm was the only one in good order. The reason 
of this was that the colonists at the Manhattans left as soon as 
their time was up. They had the right to sell a part of their cattle 
and found the only buyers in van Twiller and the patroons. It 
was natural that the Company's farms should be ruined by this. 
That he did not further the affairs of the patroons at the expense 
of his employers is proved by his keeping back the cattle and the 
implements belonging to Bijlvcld and de Rcux, which had been 
transferred to his uncle, 12 and by the confiscation of the latter's 
grain in behalf of the Company, of which van Rensselaer com- 
plained in 1636 in a letter to Planck, dated October 3d. 

However this may be, evil tongues were at once busy in vilifying 
him to the directors, as they had done before with Minuyt, who, 
angry with the Company, had taken upon himself the establish- 
ment of the Swedish trading company in North America. A letter 
from van Rensselaer to his nephew, dated April 23, 1634, 13 is of 
value for a knowledge of the divisions prevailing in the Amsterdam 
Chamber and from it we can form an opinion of the patroon's 
character and his excellent mental qualities and gain an idea, 
though one-sided, of the intrigues of Secretary van Remunde. 
Although his enemies had at first little success with their endeavors 
to oust van Twiller, three years later, whether justly or unjustly, 
they compassed his downfall. 

Cooperation between the leaders in New Netherland alone could 
have insured the success of the great enterprise, but that was want- 
ing. Precious time slipped away in trivial squabbles. A continual 
change of governors and chief officials was the result. They were 
always recalled after a few years, when they had barely been able 

12 See Appendix G [p. 266-88 o( this volume]. N. de R. 

13 See Appendix G [p. 266-88 of this volume]. N. de R. 


to contrive means for the development of the extraordinarily rich 
resources of the new colony, thereby causing the settlement to 
assume the character of a trading- post for immediate profits rather 
than a seriously planned colony. That the directors could only 
regard the matter in this light proves their shortsightedness. In 
Rensselaerswyck a better example was offered them. 

It seems as if the patroons, when their friendly director was 
attacked, found a needed counterpoise in declarations prejudicial 
to one of the Company's officers, the commandant of Fort Orange, 
Hans Joris. 1 : Hunthitm. They attributed to him the loss incurred 
by Rensselaerswyck in the slaughter of the cattle by the Indians, 
a loss they wished to recover from the Company. Probably on the 
ground of these declarations it was asserted that Hunthum was 
allied with Eclkcns. 

The depositions made in England state the matter quite differ- 
ently. 14 Hunthum was not to experience the evil consequences which 
might result from these suspicions. At the time when these 
attempts for his removal were made in Amsterdam, the man had 
already been dead 35 for several months, and we have no need to 
concern ourselves further as to how the matter might have turned 
out. One of these declarations, however, is so remarkable in 
many respects, besides completing the documents containing the 
correspondence between the two governments, that I have printed 
it here among the appendixes. 

. Meanwhile in Rensselaerswyck Jacob Planck assumed the plumed 
hat and the silvered rapier of the former schout. His instructions, 
dated April 25, 1634, ordered him to choose three schepens, thus 
setting aside the former incumbents, 16 and to seek his knowledge 
from an Ars notariatus, a Damhoudcr Praktycq criinineel, and a 
Manicr van praccdccrcn. With perhaps more prospect of success, 
he was to exert himself in the advancement of farming and the 
increase of the number of farms and cattle. He was bidden to 
consult Director van Twillef about these matters and always to 
preserve good relations with Conraet Notelinan, also a relative of 
the patroon, who had charge of one of the Company's farms at the 
Manhattans, hired by van Rensselaer on account of the cattle. 17 

li See O'Callaghan, Holland Documents, 1:72 et scq. [Doc. rcl. to Col. Hist. N. Y. 
1:72-81]. N. de R. 

15 See note [p. 62 of tin's volume]. N. r>E R. 

1,1 See note on p. 63. 

17 The patroon hoped that the other farm which he had hired would be taken charge 
of by l.uhhnt van Dincklage, who went over as fiscal and officer in April 1634. N. de R. 


The patroon proposed that the council of New Netherland should 
place a guard of two or three men from Fort Orange at his mill, 
which was somewhat remotely situated and in whose safety the 
Company had no less concern than himself. He also asked the 
council to consider whether they would let five or six men from 
the garrison work through the day on a farm he intended estab- 
lishing near the fort, " while they could keep careful watch at 
night." Considering there might be risk of some lack of efficiency 
after a day of field or manual labor, the council seems not to have 
assented to his proposal. 

More than a year and a half was to pass before the patroon 
heard that his new officer and all the goods sent over in the ship 
de Eendracht had arrived at the appointed place. 18 A regular 
communication — a ferry, as van Rensselaer called it when he 
urged its establishment — did not exist, neither does navigation 
seem to have been active. In the absence of news, Kiliaen writes: 1 " 
" the work here is quite unsettled. The directors are very much 
alarmed, many complain bitterly." Rumors of evil spread, that " all 
had perished, people as well as cattle," that the vessel, called the 
" sugar-bark " probably because it had served to carry sugar to 
the fatherland, had been leased by van Twiller to the English ; and 
it seems that some proposed to introduce economies by leaving 
fewer people in New Netherland, which course according to the 
opinion of Kiliaen would only result in misfortune for the whole 

The Company as yet apparently drew no profits from New 
Netherland. Even the furs did not yield enough. It seems to have 
been suspected also that the officials engaged in smuggling and did 
not account to the Company for the real receipts of that valuable 
article. This was plainly the reason why van Rensselaer proposed 
to farm out the fur trade. 20 

The uncertainty regarding the condition of the colony worried 
the directors and led the patroon to decide, for a time, to cease 
sending over colonists and goods. It was as if courage revived 
when news at last came from the far West. The situation was not 
as bad as they had feared. I think it likely that van Rensselaer, 
under the pressure of painful uncertainty, decided to come forward 
and act himself, and when empowered by the Company, he resolved 

18 The ship de Eendracht did not come back to the fatherland till October or possibly 
a month or two later. N. de R. 

"Letter to van Twiller, May 24, 1635. See Appendix J [p. 315-17 of this volume]. 
N. de R. 

-" l.i'-cr to van Twiller, May 24, if.35. See Appendix J \p. 315-17 of this volume]. 
N. DE R. 


to lit out a ship to maintain the connection with liis colony and 
transport goods, marketable in the New World. It seems that we 
must not regard this matter as either very great or very profitable. 21 
I consider Kiliaen too wide-awake a man, if he had thought it was 
so, to go, as he did, into partnership for the vessel's freighting 
with the Leyden merchant and cloth dyer, Gerard de Forest, 
brother of Jesse de forest, who is considered the founder of New 
Amsterdam." The contract, executed before the notary, /. van de 
I 'en, on August 8, 1636, required each partner with his associates 
to share half and half in the purchase of the ship Rensselaer swijek 
and of a cargo worth from 6000 to 7000 guilders, in provisioning 
the ship for 12 persons and in their wages. On the other hand, 
Kiliaen was to pay all the transit charges of colonists destined for 
his colony, but de Forest shared in the patroon's acknowledged 
right to the coast trade between Florida and Newfoundland, in the 
lumber and salt trade and in the letters of marque which he 
(Kiliaen) had received from the Prince of Orange. Should there 
be no opportunity to convey the colonists from the Manhattans to 
Rensselaerswyck, the ship was to go up there directly after its 
arrival. A warehouse was to be hired at the Manhattans for the 
storage of goods. 

The venture amounted to much more than was agreed upon and 
was almost 15,500 guilders. The settlement of the account of 
Gerard de Forest and his associates seems to have been attended 
with much difficulty. The Letter Book of Kiliaen contains many 
letters to Gerard himself and members of his family, which, in 
every shade between entreaty and threats, press for the payment 
of the share put by them into the ship's venture. For more than 
a year Kiliaen was disappointed every time that he reckoned upon 
settlement. Under skipper Jan Tjepkes Schelling, the boat sailed out 
of the Y on September 25, 1636, and put to sea from the Texel 
October 8, with no less than 38 colonists on board, including six 
women. The prosperous voyage, so eagerly desired, did not ensue 

21 It is interesting to hear the words of Kiliaen himself about the profits of this trade. 
" Since I have paid cash for these (goods) without including any expenses for packing, 
boat and lighter-freight, ocean freight, interest, risk, and insurance, damage, etc. (an 
increase which) with your commission (of 5%) amounts to nearly so7'\ therefore (you) 
must sell all such goods as can bear it, somewhat higher than 50%. But I do not wish 
my own people to be charged more than 60% since they must gain it by their hard 
labor. But from other people, for whom I need not care, you may take as much as is 
the market rate and you can get." (Letter to Planck, Oct. 3, 1636 [printed on p. 323-30 
of this volume].) N. de R. 

In quoting this section, Mr de Roevcr abridges the text; that the various chai 
amount to 50% of the first cost is not definitely stated by the patroon, though implied. 

-- Mr Ch. M. Dosy in The Pilgrim Fathers Exhibition of Documents at Leyden relating 
to the Dutch Settlement in North America (August 1888). N. de R. 


The ship met with bad weather, according to the still existing 
Journal, 23 and after tossing to and fro for five weeks had to run 
in to Plymouth and there take refuge. There they must needs 
stay on land and, as ill luck would have it, one of the passengers, 
the blacksmith's helper, became intoxicated in a tavern, and gave 
a death blow to his master. The ship was moored, the rudder 
taken away, and although the criminal was given up, it was the 
9th of January before the Rensselaer swyck could again set sail. 
The journey was pursued in fairly good weather until they 
anchored at the Manhattans on the 4th of March and remained 
there because the river was still closed. The cargo was discharged 
and Hcndrik de Forest, the trader and mate, 24 remained in the 
hired warehouse to carry on trade, while the ship went up the river 
to the colony on the 26th and dropped anchor on the 7th of April 
opposite Fort Orange. 25 There they delivered the smith's coal, 
the millstones for the erection of a grist-mill near the sawmill, and 
other goods not mentioned. While the Rensselaer swijek lay at 
anchor, a yacht laden with grain went down to the Manhattans and 
another with animals arrived. On May 31, the journey was con- 
tinued past the Manhattans to Smith's Island and then back again 
to the former place in order, on August 14, to begin the return 
voyage. They waited at Plymouth for other Dutch ships and 
arrived safely at the Texel, November 7, 1637. 

The detention of more than seven weeks at Plymouth and the 
small profits of the voyage, added to the difficulties with his Leyden 
partner and the proved- disloyalty of the skipper and of the super- 
cargo Dirk Corscn Stain, decided Kiliaen to sell the ship. 26 

The patroon must now look around for other chances of sending 
over his colonists and the goods designed for his colony- So the 
ships with which Director Kieft crossed carried along colonists and 
goods for Kiliaen. Pieter Minuyt, who was going in his ship to 
Virginia as commander of a Swedish company, and had put in at 
the Texel on account of storms, out of old friendship for him took 

- Printed on p. 355—89 of this volume. 

-'According to the Journal, he died on July 26 and was buried the following day at 
the Manhattans, where the ship then was. Geertruy Bomstra, his widow, claimed his 
property from his sister Rachel, then living at the Manhattans, who had married Dr 
ntagne. According to his own declaration, made before Notary Corcn, before 
his departure in 1636, he had been selected by the patroons in 1631 to fill the place 
of Gilles Houset in Zwanendal, but on account of the sad circumstances at said place 
the patroons gave up this plan. N. de R. 

. « It seems that the colonists were all landed at the Manhattans. Arent Steff enters 
married there on the 22d of March the widow of the murdered blacksmith. And on 
the 8th two children who had been born at sea were baptized there. N. de R. 

- a Pieter Meuleman became its owner for the sum of 2600 guilders, by deed of April 
20, 1638, before Notary J. v. d. Ven. The ship was wrecked in November 1644, 
near the liermudas. N. de R. 


in a lighter-load of goods, among which were gunpowder, firelocks, 
wooden utensils, tar and pitch to be delivered at the Manhattans?' 
and also took six passengers on board. In the following year, a 
vessel fitted out by the Company, het IVapen van Noorwegen, in 
which the colony of Rensselaerswyck had a half interest, carried 
over a number of colonists and a large quantity of goods, including 
1 8 young mares, thousands of bricks, ironwork, clothing material, 
spices, cheese, soap, oil and a box filled with earth in which were 
planted young grape vines, etc., all of which were confided to the 
care of Cornells Mclijn, the supercargo. 28 

We nmy therefore regard Kiliacn as the introducer of the grape 
into the New World. 2J 

The directors seem to have continued favorably disposed toward 
the patroon. However good the news from the colony may have 
been, the patroon had just cause to complain of his schout and coin- 
mis. Planck appeared to lack clearness of insight. He seems not to 
have quickly perceived where his master's interests lay in every 
chance that offered. The patroon had no thought of bad faith, 
although he considered Planck not incapable of enriching himself at 
his expense through the fur trade. The patroon was also not too 
well satisfied with the way justice was administered; for this 
Planck appeared no more fitted than for the position of adminis- 
trator of the colony. 

Differences between the directors and the patroon concerning 
the fur trade still continued. 

In the colonies, where, as in Rensselaerswyck, the Company had 
no commis, the gcconqnesteerde goederen, i. e. products of the soil, 
might be bartered for beaver and other skins, provided that a cer- 
tain export duty be paid at the Manhattans. The meaning of the 
Freedoms and Exemptions is clear. Only those who took upon 
themselves the trouble and expense of establishing agricultural 
colonies might partly indemnify themselves by trading in furs. 
That the Company wished to reserve this trade exclusively by plac- 
ing a commis in the colony and that this action aroused the just in- 
dignation of van Rensselaer, we have already seen. It seems that 
he, in connection with the fitting out of the ship Rensselacrswijck, 
claimed the right from the Company to trade all, even imported 

27 Letters to Picter Minuyt, Dec. 25 and 29, 1637 [see p. 389-91 and 395 of this 
volume]. N. de R. 

28 Cornells Melijn, formerly a leather dresser at Amsterdam, founded in 1640 by per- 
mission of the West India Company a colony on Staten Island which he transferred to 
the Company in 1659. N. de R. 

29 Vines were brought over by Domine Johannes Michaelius in 1628. See his letter 
of Aug. 8, 1628, published under the title: Manhattan in 162S, p. 76-77. 


goods, for peltries, considering that there had been a tacit concession 
of his claims when the Company in the contract with Pauzv concern- 
ing the transfer of Pavonia had thrown open the fur trade of that 
quarter to the colonists. When the parties could not agree about 
this, the decision was left to their High Mightinesses. Kiliacn de- 
sired the director and council in New Netherland, pending a de- 
cision of the matter, to at least grant his sellout a temporary fur 
trading privilege, in order to recoup for the frequent forced de- 
liveries that he had made out of the storehouses of his colony to the 
Company's officials on account, for the feeding of the population 
and provisioning of the returning ships. 

I have spoken of the Company's efforts to draw a profit from 
New Netherland by retaining the exclusive control of the fur trade. 
This seems to have been possible only through sending few people 
there. The expense of transportation and support of the colonists 
had apparently become so heavy that the directors shrank from 
sending more people and making New Netherland a source of still 
greater loss to the Company's already unprofitable balance. 

No more free colonists offered themselves. They could only be 
tempted by the free extension of this important trade. 30 It was 
as much in the interest of New Netherland as in that of his own 
colony that van Rensselaer brought this point to the official notice 
of the Company. In 1636 this was evidently still discussed 31 but 
without much chance of a favorable decision for the proponent. 
The directors were quite preoccupied by the difficulties which the 
fiscal ; Lubber t van Dincklage, had brought upon them by his strife 
with Director van Twitter, with the preacher Bogardus, who in 
turn was incensed against the latter, and indeed with the whole 
council and with all officials in New Netherland. We can not 
digress here to discuss this question which the directors found very 
perplexing. It seems that they did not blame van Twitter for it 
but they had other grievances against him. The director was a 
poor correspondent, though we do not believe with van Rensselaer 
that he was too timid 32 to write. The directors were not kept in- 
formed of matters, so that it became necessary to recall him and 
send out a new director. The opponents of van Tzvillcr stirred up 
the fire kindled against him. As early as September 1636, it was 
planned to put the director of Curacao, van Walbccck, in his place, 
but almost a year passed before van Tzvillcr was succeeded by 

■■" If they want to keep it for themselves with a few people to draw the largest 
profit, they can not defend the land, and with much people, they suffer loss; and 
others will not populate the country unless they grant them free trade. (Letter of van 
Rensselaer to IVoutcr van Txvillcr, Sept. 25, 1636 [see p. 319—23].) N. de R. 

81 Letter to Wouter van Twiller, Sept. 25, 1636 [see p. 319—23]. N. de R. 

82, see p. 320. 


Will cm Kieft, who started for his post the last of September 1637 
with two ships fitted out by the Company. In the meantime Schout 
Planck was very busy in distributing the small army of new colo- 
nists among his farms and laying out a couple of new ones to be 
intrusted to the care of Symoii Walichss and Cornells Maesen 
and named Besselsburch and Trippenburch after the copartners in 
the colony, besides building two mills, a sawmill and a grist-mill. 
By the erection of the first, Kiliaen expected to have merchantable 
lumber that would be bought by the Company and the English, at 
least all that he did not need for his own use, and boards which 
might please the natives, because they would be suitable for build- 
ing huts and fitting them with hinged doors and windows. The 
patroon also promised himself no less profit from the grist-mill 
since he could barter his grain with the Company for peltries or 
sell it to the English, and collect seawan by grinding the maize 
which the Indians would bring to the mill. 

The increasing necessity prompted the patroon, as we saw, to 
send over people and goods by whatever opportunity offered. 
Eight colonists crossed with Kicft, among whom were two black- 
smiths 33 and a couple of locksmiths. Van Rensselaer had indeed 
wished to send more people, but the Company in the beginning was 
willing to fit out only one ship and when the chartering of the 
second was determined upon he had no longer any chance to get 
other colonists. But in the same year six others followed in the 
ship of Pictcr Minuyt, among whom was the patroon's cousin. 
Arent van Curler? 4 ' a youth of 18 years of age, who was going to 
Rensselaerswyck as assistant or clerk to Planck, in order that the 
patroon might in future be kept better informed of his affairs. 

The latest colonists were to be especially employed in tobacco 
raising 35 but could in other v/ays meet (heir expenses by their own 

Better limes were dawning for the Company. Brazil was sub- 
dued and entered upon an era of orderly government under Johan 
Maurits. The directors decided to increase their capital by one 
third. 3 ' 1 In the prospect of larger resources, it was determined " to 

M We saw that (lie patroon had lost his two blacksmiths at Plymouth. N. he R. 

** Arent van Curler, or Corler, was one of the five children of Joachim van Curler, 
a son of Goossen van Coder, schout of Nijkerk, who as late as 1626 was mentioned as 
a shareholder in the W. I. C. Joachim had died before this year, without means. 
N. de R. 

According to Mr O. Beernink, of Nijkerk, Arent van Curler was baptized Feb. f>. 
1620, and was the son of Hendrik; Joachim being an uncle of Arent and father of 
bus, mentioned on p. 216. 

"According to the patroon's statement, tobacco was more easily sold here in the leaf 
than in rolls or spun. N. de R. 

M See Appendix K [p. 351-53 of this volume]. Letter from van Rensselaer to IV outer 
van Twiller, Sept. 21, 1637. In the Groot Placaatboek no resolution for this increase 


take up the matter of New Netherland with all diligence." The 
question of granting new freedoms was discussed hut it was de- 
cided to await the report of the new director. 

From time to time the directors received tidings which should 
have made it clear to them that the English encroached more and 
more on the land of the M aquas, on the Fresh River and elsewhere. 
This could only be prevented by doing more for colonization and 
declaring trade free without reserve. But this they seemed unable 
to decide upon and in consequence the patroon wrote on May 6, 
1638, to his nephew van Twitter: " The Company must open their 
eyes, as I maintain, or they will lose the best part of that fine re- 
gion." Neither were the Swedish attempts to get a firm footing in 
North America to be concealed. The course of affairs could not 
fail to attract the attention of the States General. The frontiers 
of the colony were continually threatened by the danger of foreign 
intruders, and in the settled regions the population was decreasing 
rather than increasing. As soon as the six years' contract with the 
Company expired, many colonists returned to the fatherland after 
selling their cattle 37 or were engaged for the colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck, where living was evidently more profitable. 

The States General saw the internal strength of the settlement 
diminish, whereas they had hoped and expected, for the sake of the 
fatherland, to have a firmly established government there. 

Their High Mightinesses felt that there must be a change but they 
could not themselves push the matter. They gave the directors 
a hearing and urged the Assembly of the Nineteen to devise new 
ways of combating the ever increasing evil. This resulted in the 
discussion of a plan to offer new inducements to those willing to set- 
tle in New Netherland. 

Dc Lact, one of the partners of Kiliacit in Rensselaerswyck, pro- 
posed a plan that gained the approbation of the Amsterdam Cham- 
ber but their High Mightinesses by no means approved of it. A 
new plan was offered by others 38 and was, like the first, referred by 
their High Mightinesses to a special committee for consideration, 

is to be found. It appears therefore that shortly after taking this resolve and before 
its execution, they were already considering a greater increase, up to one half of the 
capital. This at any rate was authorized in June 1639. N. de R. 

37 I have already said that van Twiller, as also the patroon, bought in a part of the 
cattle and was blamed for it; very unjustly, as I think, unless it can be proved that 
the departure of the colonists was owing to him. The Company's restrictions were 
much more likely the cause of it. N. de R. 

38 O'Callaghan claims that this was the project given in the Holland Documents 
[Doc. rcl. to Col. Hist. N. YJ], l:o6. In my opinion that can not be the second plan, 
which is I think the one printed in his History of New Netherland, 1:201—3, although 
it is there incorrectly described as a proclamation. Above, it will be seen that nothing 
ever came of the plan to gjve free trade to New Netherland, 


September 2, 1638. The new conditions granted the principle of 
free trade in New Netherland with the reservation of the Company's 
legitimate dues. The judgment of van Rensselaer in this matter 
may surely be quoted because his contemporaries seem to have 
shown their estimate of it when they appointed him as one of the 
impartial persons to whom was referred the question of free trade 
in Brazil. His letters show that he expected no relief for New 
Netherland from such a measure ; indeed, he wrote to one of the 
members of the committee, JJir. Gerrit van Arnhem, that he did not 
approve of the plan and insisted now more than ever upon the 
maintenance of his rights. 30 

The Assembly of the Nineteen did not consider it with favor 
either. It was feared that the opening of New Netherland to trade 
instead of promoting colonization, would give rise to the establish- 
ment of trading posts 40 and it seems that their High Mightinesses, 
for the same reason, dared not risk free trade. Nothing therefore 
came of it. A concession was made to the free traders by giving 
the colonists, in 1639, the fur trade privilege discussed before in 
May 1638. 41 

So far had matters progressed when, in the fall of 1639, in spite 
of the secrecy with which matters were managed in the Amsterdam 
Chamber, Kiliaen, whose directorship in the West India Company 
had expired several years before, found out that they were discuss- 
ing new Freedoms and Exemptions with the evident intention — 
quite to his mind — of urging rich men to found new patroonships. 
These Freedoms were, however, not so liberal as the first of 1628- 
29. The preamble stated that the privileges would apply to those 
patroons who had already planted colonies as well as to those about 
to do so. This was enough to make Kiliaen feel that his rights 
would be curtailed if the plan were accepted. Therefore, appar- 
ently in order expressly to call the attention of the directors to 
this point, he presented a protest to the Assembly on October 27, 
1639, whereby he sought assurance regarding it. 42 But he did not 
stop there. The friendly Jhr. van Arnhem was called upon; 

In my opinion the project mentioned in Holt. Doc. \Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y.], 
l:o6, refers to a later plan to improve the situation of New Netherland. 
Concerning this also I refer to the following pages. N. r>E R. 

39 Van Rensselaer felt that the best plan of colonization was by the admission of 
patroons. They could put capital in the business but stay at home, and the less 
favcred by fortune, whom they sent over, could make capital fruitful. So the rich 
and the poor would help one another. N. de R. 

40 The view given here of the difficulties of those days, formed as I think on incon- 
testable grounds, differs wholly from that conveyed by O'Callaghnn. History of New 
Netherland, 1:197. N. de R. 

41 Letter to Schout Planck, May 10, 16.18 [p. 411-16]. N. de R. 
4 - Totocol of Notary 7. van de Ven, Amsterdam. N. df. R. 


Musch, the secretary, was persuaded to forestall the possible ap- 
probation of their High Mightinesses by presenting a petition to 
them, praying that the patroon might at least be heard about this 
project and, in case of its adoption, that he might receive a cer- 
tificate de 11011 praejudicando. iZ I think it not impossible that a 
second proposal granting the patroons still greater rights than 
those of 1629 was introduced into the Assembly by persons planning 
to found new colonies. I do not know what became of these pro- 
posals. In his letter to Jonker van Arnhein, Kiliacn says that they 
were unfavorably received by the States General. 

It is certain that a revival in American colonial affairs fol- 
lowed the revocation of the fur trade monopoly. Just at this time 
Count van Solms proposed to found a colony and Cornells Melijn 
was empowered to do likewise, departing soon after for Staten 
Island, as patroon. 

O'Callaghan's statement seems to me quite incomprehensible and 
unfounded, that in the year 1638 " the trade as well as the cul- 
tivation of the soil was thrown open to every person, whether 
denizen or foreigner, who chose to embark in it." For when I 
read in the subjects for discussion named in the call for the meet- 
ing of February 21, 1643, the following clause given by the com- 
piler of the Holland Documents himself, 44 " It being found . . . 
that the plan " — mark this word — " of opening the trade . . . 
produces no true effect," then I do not doubt that these projects 
came to naught. O'Callaghan confuses the fur trading privileges 
given the colonists with a free trade such as the Company granted 
Brazil. In New Netherland all went on pretty much as of old. 
The population increased, but through a ruinous desire to get rich 
they bartered weapons in return for the much desired furs from 
the natives, who after a few years made use of these arms to 
slaughter the white inhabitants. 

In many respects the situation at Rensselaerswyck was not ac- 
cording to the patroon's wishes. Disobedience to his appointed 
authorities was of frequent occurrence ; the contraband trade of 
the colonists robbed him of half his profits. The colonists might 
trade with the patroon's commis, but not with natives or outsiders, 
although Kiliacn was inclined to overlook this a little in those 
who zealously applied themselves to farming and cattle-raising. 45 

4:1 acta 'ran non-pracjuditic ; cf. p. 465, 466—67. 

44 O'Callaghan, Holland Documents [Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y.~\, l:i3S- Compare 
herewith the Instructions, I:i62, paragraph 6, and the Report 1:246. paragraph 2. 
N. de R. 

"Letter to Sellout Planck May 10, 1638 [p. 411-16]. N. de R. 


It was scandalous that the supercargo of the ship Rcnssclaersivijck 
had tempted the colonists to engage in this forbidden trade, thus 
evading the payment of duties to the Company. He had indeed 
by a full confession, arising from repentance, enabled his master 
to get redress from the disobedient colonists, but this gave rise to 
all kinds of difficulties for the schout and schepens, since an evil 
spirit had entered into the colony of enriching themselves at the 
patroon's cost and in spite of the contracts made with him. 

We have seen the conditions upon which the farmers came to 
Rensselaerswyck. As a rule they were people of no means who 
must take an advance from the patroon in order to fit themselves 
out as best they could and they saw their debt also increased by the 
expenses of the journey. The patroon was therefore the creditor 
of most of them when they landed in his colony, and since they 
could obtain all kinds of necessaries 40 in exchange for farm prod- 
ucts only from the patroon through his commis they soon got 
deeper in debt when there was a scant harvest. This might per- 
haps come right by degrees, but surely not by a measure which 
displeased him greatly, namely that without informing him the 
farmers had raised the wages of farm laborers. By this means, 
the receipts would be diminished and the hoped-for time deferred 
when the partners should enter upon the enjoyment of the profits, 
whilst again and again assessments, of only a few hundred guilders 
it is true, must be raised for the shortage caused by the admin- 

On his side the patroon gave all sorts of instructions. One thing 
which he had continually in mind was the care of the spiritual wel- 
fare of his colonists. Although people assembled regularly every 
Sunday for prayer and song, he wished that the colony might find 
means to pay for a minister, but the 300 guilders which Planck 
had for that purpose did not appear sufficient to the patroon to 
induce a servant of the Gospel to change his post for the colony; 
indeed, the proposed church, having a granary on the second floor, 
woidd not, he thought, offer a sufficiently tempting opportunity to 
a hesitating minister. At this time there was little inclination for 
emigration. The plague had made fearful ravages and had not 
yet vanished. Every working force could he employed at home. 
In the years from 1638 to 1040 the patroon could find only a few- 
inclined to join his agricultural colony. 

The death rate was also very great in Amsterdam and could not 

" ; Kiliaen had given stricl orders thai the prices of Roods should not be raised so as 
to exhaust the colonists, " that they might profit a little." N. DE I-'- 


fail to cause van Rensselaer serious consideration. He had many 
children; how would they fare if he should perish, as so many had? 
So he wished to make disposition in regard to Rensselaerswyck, 
which he was at liberty to do according to article 7 of the conceded 
Freedoms. He therefore applied, in November 1639, to tne Nine- 
teen for this permission. It seems that the patroon, who as we 
have said had a three fifths interest in the enterprise, had taken 
this step without the knowledge of his partners ; in no wise to 
mislead them, for who, better than he, could know that as directors 
it would come immediately to the notice of Blommaert and de Lact? 
Van Rensselaer was too noble and honorable a man to do any- 
thing but what he thought to be right. But it seems that de Laet, 
and soon the other partners also, took quite a different view of their 
mutual relations. Kiliaeu was certainly the administrator and 
owner of more than half of the colony, but they had also had rights, 
and rights equal to the patroon's. What else was he planning than 
to place himself, at their expense, in possession of the whole 
colony? They began to suspect him, to confer together and to 
devise measures distasteful to the patroon ; and when he pressed for 
settlement, this, to his great surprise, was refused by de Lact, 
unless the patroon would declare how he understood the patroon- 
ship. Although he said that he intended to defraud none of his 
partners, but only, in what concerned himself, to insist on the 
rights and prerogatives granted to the patroon by the sixth article 
of the Freedoms, that did not help him. De Laet remained un- 
willing to pay 47 the sum already owing, which had been advanced 
by the patroon, and he as well as the other partners would not even 
meet with the patroon for the discussion of necessary measures. 

From the letters which van Rensselaer wrote as well to de Laet 
as to Muyssart in the years 1640 and 1641, we may learn what the 
partners wanted. 48 

It seems that they considered themselves owners of a part of 
the colony equivalent to their share, while the patroon asserted that 
they were coowners of the whole. They insisted therefore not 
only upon the division of the colony into the five lordships, of 
which it consisted, 49 but desired also to enter upon the enjoyment 
of manorial rights and to exercise the same over such portions as 

47 Toussaint Muyssart seems to have paid. TTe had need to keep friends with the 
patroon since he supplied duffel, blankets and similar articles. N. de R. 

' IS Letter of Kiliacn ran Rensselaer to Toussaint Muyssart at Leyden, May 7, 1640 
[p. |68 ;il. X. de R. 

w Compare the Account of jurisdiction, etc., Appendix E [p. 306—12 of this volume]. 
They intended to allot three of these lordships to the; family of van Rensselaer and 
two to the partners. N. de R. 

84 new york State library 

should be allotted to them. The patroon pointed out that this con- 
flicted with the sixth article of the Freedoms, which recognized 
only one patroon entrusted with jurisdiction and also with the con- 
ditions by which the four patroons had bound themselves and with 
the facts, proved by the administration, the appointment of officials 
and engaging of colonists, all of which measures were executed by 
the patroon without the interposition of his partners ; and finally, 
by the deeds of the territories, which stood exclusively in his name. 
But he also proved that from a practical point of view the division 
would not be advantageous. How could one divide the grist-mill, 
the sawmill, the brewery? What would become of the shoemaker, 
the blacksmith or the carpenter? Now each one of them could 
find work because the colony was undivided. And how vexatious 
it would be when the farm laborers, who so willingly changed from 
farm to farm, should go over from one independent part of the 
colony to another? The patroon argued, and we believe rightly, 
that it would cause the downfall of the colony. To keep control 
in one hand was needful. What use was it for him to bring up 
every matter of common interest for discussion, when he, as owner 
of three fifths, could always outvote the others? 50 

It would be most unjust that he who continually and quite alone 
had been diligent in the matter and brought it to good results with 
great promise in the near future, should now, without ground for 
questioning his management or his accounts, be removed from the 
government by his partners, of whom Mr dc Laet had never given 
himself the trouble even to break a lance for the colony in the 
Assembly of the Nineteen. 

He was not disinclined to concession. For instance, he was 
willing to assign some farms to the partners, if his overlordship, 
his higher and lower jurisdiction and his manorial rights were sub- 
mitted to and recognized. He was even willing to grant them per- 
mission to nominate persons to office provided that the commissions 
were given by the patroon. The jurisdiction was indivisible. The 
Freedoms granted to the patroons in 1628-29 spoke of no separa- 
tion. If the partners wished to have exclusive possession of a 
farm or even of one of the territories, the relations between them 
and the patroon must be those of vassal and lord. If they would 
agree to this, he would cede them the possession of one fifth of 
the intermediate and one tenth of the lower jurisdictions. 

Such a bond did not attract the partners, especially dc Laet, who 

50 In order to demonstrate how intolerable this would be, the patroon referred to 
the example of Mr Godijn, whose colony perished because he was unable to secure 
agreement in its management. N. de R. 


made himself their spokesman. They desired free rule, freedom 
of jurisdiction, and rebelled at the idea of resigning the slightest 
fraction of freedom for " nonfreedom," as they perversely viewed 
it, under the patroon. 

Although they had now won over the patroon to the idea of an 
actual division into lordships, they held on to the scheme of coad- 
ministration and co jurisdiction with the lord paramount, not allow- 
ing themselves, for the present at least, to be convinced of its 
practical impossibility by the appeal of Kiliaen. 

In the meantime, van Rensselaer had gained the Company's con- 
sent to make disposition by his last will and testament as he pleased 
of the property he held in fief, and on January 29, 1641, he sought 
the approval of the States General, which was granted to him by 
letters patent of February 5 following. 51 

From the wording of the grant thus obtained by him, it is most 
evident that the patroon believed a settlement with his partners 
possible on the basis of recognition of his feudal rights. We read 
indeed, in a quotation from the actual words of his request, that 
he wished to dispose of this " for the benefit of his children, 
friends, relatives and also strangers, as he may please and see fit." 
Under the words " strangers " he may be supposed to have really 
provided for the interests of his partners. 

The partners debated for some months whether they should go 
to law but appear to have abandoned this plan. We hear no more 
of the matter during the patroon's lifetime. They became good 
friends again and went on with the work of annually dispatching a 
good-sized consignment of merchandise to the colony. They paid 
their assessments but not until after they had expressly reserved 
their rights by the protest of July I, 1641. ' 

So these difficulties were taken out of the way of van Rensse- 
1aer. &u 

61 See O'Callaghan, Holland Documents [Doc. rcl. to Col. Hist. N. Y.], 1:124. The 
original instrument of the same date. p. 125, is among the archives of the Bowier 
family [see p. 537—39 of this volume]. N. de R. 

H « Here ends the second article by Mr de Roever on the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 
Mr de Roever intended to continue the account, but first pressing duties in connection 
with the transfer of the city archives, then the death of his wife and finally his own 
sudden death on March 11, 1893, prevented him from completing his task. 


Charter of the West India Company M 
June 3, 162 1 
Original text 

Octroy, By de Hooge Mogende Heeren Staten Generael, verleent 
aende West-Indische Compagnie, in date den derden Iunij 162 1. 

De Staten Generael tier Vereenichde Nederlanden, Allen den 
geenen die dese jegenwoordige sullen sien ofte hooren lesen, Saluyt. 
DUEN TE WETEN, dat Wy bemerckende den welstant deser Lan- 
den, ende welvaren vande Ingesetenen van dien, principalijck te 
bestaen by de Scheep-vaert ende Koophandel, die van alien ouden 
tijden uyt de selve Landen geluckelijck ende met grooten zegen 
ghedreven is geweest, op alle Landen ende Koninghrijcken. SOO 
1ST, dat Wy begeerende dat de voorsz Ingesetenen, niet alleen by 
haere voorgaende Navigatie, Traffijcque ende Hanteringe werden 
gheconserveert, maer oock dat haer Traffijcque soo veel moghelijck 
souden mogen toe-nemen, bysonder in conformiteyt vande Tracta- 
ten, Alliantien, Verbonden ende Entrecoursen, op de Trafficque ende 
Zee-vaert met andere Princen, Republijcquen ende Volckeren 
eertijts gemaeckt, die wy in alien deelen punctuelick verstaen onder- 
houden ende achtervolght te moeten werden : Ende wy by experi- 
ence bevinden, dat sonder ghemeene hulpe, assistentie ende middelen 
van een Generale Compagnie, niet vruchtbaerlijcks inden Quartieren 
hier naer ghedesigneert, ghedreven, beschermt ende gemainteneert 
en kan werden, mits de groote avonture van Zee-rooveryen, ex- 
torsien ende andersints, die op soo groote verre reysen zijn vallende, 
Soo hebben wy midts verscheyden ende andere pregnante redenen 
ende consideratien ons daer toe moverende, met rijpe deliberatie van 
Raede, cndc uyt hooch-dringende oorsaecken, goet gevonden, dat die 
Scheep-vaert, llandelinge ende Commercien inde quartieren van 

'"- For reasons stated in the introduction, it has been deemed advisable to prefix to the 
translations of the Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss the fundamental documents regulating 
the organization and internal management of the West India Company. The charter 
was first issued in Dutch, in pamphlet form, in 1621 (Asher, Bibliographical Essay, 
p. 99, no. 54); reprinted in pamphlet form with the amplifications of June 10, 1622, 
and Feb. 13, 1623, and the agreement of June 21, 1623, in 1623, 1624, 1629 and 1642 
(Asher, no. 55-61); also printed in Dutch in de Laet, Historic ofte Iaerlijck Verhael, 
1644, introd. p. [7-16]; Groot Placaet Boeck, 1658-1797, vol. 1. col. 565-78; Aitzema, 
Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, 1669-72, 1:62-66; and Tjassens, Zee-Politic. 1670, p. 
305-17. The present copy follows the official text of the Groot Placaet Boeck. 


Charter of the West India Company 52a 

June 3, 1621 


Charter granted by the High and Mighty Lords the States General 
to the West India Company, dated the 3d of June 162 1. 

The States General of the United Netherlands to all who shall 
see these presents or hear them read, greeting. He it known, that 
we, noticing that the prosperity of this country and the welfare 
of its inhabitants consist principally in navigation and trade, which 
from time immemorial has been carried on by this country with 
good fortune and great blessing with all countries and kingdoms; 
and desiring that the aforesaid inhabitants not only be maintained 
in their former navigation, commerce and trade, but also that their 
commerce may be increased as much as possible, especially in con- 
formity with the treaties, alliances, conventions and covenants con- 
cerning commerce and navigation formerly made with other 
princes, republics and nations, which we intend shall be punctually 
kept and observed in all their parts ; and finding by experience that 
without the common help, aid and means of a general company, 
no profitable business can be carried on, protected and maintained 
in the parts hereafter designated on account of the great risk from 
pirates, extortions and the like, which are incurred on such long 
and distant voyages ; we, therefore, many other and different preg- 
nant reasons and considerations also us thereunto moving, after 
mature deliberation of Council, and for very pressing causes, have 
resolved that the navigation, trade and commerce in the West 

r, - ;l The only translation of tins charter heretofore printed is the very imperfect one in 
Hazard, Historical Collections of State Papers, 1:121-31, literally reprinted in O'Cal- 
laghan, History of New Netherland, 1:399-407; for criticism of this see J. F. Jameson's 
article on Usselinx in Papers of the American Historical Association, 1887, 2:i6o, 
219-20. Translations, differing but slightly from the present, of the preamble and 
articles 1-3 and 45 appear in British Blue Book, Venezuela No. 3, (1896), p. 53-541 
of article _• in Report of the U. S. Commission on Boundary between Venezuela and 
British Guiana, 1896-97, l:no— n. 


West-Indien ende Africa ende anderen hier naer ghedesigneert, 
voortaen niet anders en sal werden gedreven, dan met gemeene 
vereenichde macht vande Koopluyden ende Ingesetenen deser Lan- 
den, ende dat tot dien eynde opgerecht sal worden eene Generale 
Compagnie, die wy uyt sonderlinge affectie tot den gemeynen wel- 
stant, ende omme de Ingestenen van dien te conserveren in goede 
Neeringhe ende welvaert, sullen mainteneren ende verstercken met 
onse hulpe, faveur ende assistentie, voor soo veel den jegenwoordi- 
gen staet ende ghestaltenisse der Landen eenichsins kan verdragen, 
ende daer toe te voorsien met behoorlijck Octroy, ende met de 
Privilegien ende Exemptien hier naer volgende, Te weten : 

I. Dat binnen den tijt van vier-en-twintich Jaren, niemant vande 
Ingeboornen ofte Ingesetenen deser Landen, anders dan alleen uyt 
den Naem van dese Vereenichde Compagnie uyt dese Vereenichde 
Nederlanden, nochte oock van buyten de selve Landen sal mogen 
varen ofte Negotieren op de Kusten ende Landen van Africa, van- 
den Tropico Cancri, tot Cabo de bonne Esperance, nochte op de 
Landen van America, ofte West-Indien, beginnende van't Zuyt- 
eynde van Terra Nova, door de Straten van Magellanes, le Maire, 
ofte andere Straten ende Passagien daer ontrent ghelegen, tot de 
Strate van Anjan, soo op de Noort-zee, als op de Zuyt-zee, nochte 
op eenige Eylanden aende eene ende andere zijden ende tusschen 
beyden gelegen; Mitsgaders op de Austraelsche ofte Zuyderlanden, 
streckende ende leggende tusschen beyde de Meridianen, raeckende 
in't Oosten de Cabo de bonne Esperance, ende in't Westen het Oost- 
eynde van Nova Guinea incluys. Ende soo wie sonder consent van 
dese Compagnie hem sal vervorderen te varen, ofte te Negotieren op 
eenige Plaetsen binnen de voorsz Limiten, dese Compagnie gheac- 
cordeert, dat sal zijn op de verbeurte vande Schepen ende Goederen, 
die bevonden sullen werden op de voorschreve Kusten ende Gewes- 
ten te handelen, de welcke datelijck ende al omme van wegen de 
voorschreve Compagnie, aengetast, ghenomen ende als verbeurt, 
ten behoeve van de selve gehouden sullen mogen werden. Ende in 
cas soodanige Schepen ofte Goederen verkocht mochten wesen, ofte 
in andere Landen ofte Havenen in-gheloopen, sullen de Reeders ende 
Participanten voor de waerde vande selve Schepen ende goederen 
mogen werden geexecuteert : Uytgesondert alleen, dat de geene die 
voor date van dit Octroy, uyt dese ofte andere Landen, op eenige 


Indies, Africa and other countries hereafter designated, shall 
henceforth not be carried on otherwise than with the common 
united strength of the merchants and inhabitants of this country 
and that to this end there shall be established a general company 
which, on account of our great love for the common weal and in 
order to conserve the trade and welfare of the inhabitants of this 
country, we will maintain and strengthen with our help, favor and 
assistance, so far as the present state and condition of this country 
will in any way admit, and for that purpose furnish with a proper 
charter and endow with the privileges and exemptions hereafter 
enumerated, to wit: 

I. That for the period of twenty-four years no native or in- 
habitant of this country .hall be permitted, except in the name of 
this United Company, from these United Netherlands nor even 
from any place outside of them, to sail to or trade with the coasts 
and countries of Africa, from the Tropic of Cancer to the Cape of 
Good Hope; nor to or with the countries of America, or the West 
Indies, beginning at the south end of Terra Nova, through the 
Straits of Magellan, le Maire, and other straits and passages sit- 
uated thereabouts, to the Strait of Aiijan,™ neither on the North 
Sea nor on the South Sea, nor to or with any islands situated on 
the one side or the other, or between both ; nor to or with the 
Australian or South Lands, extending and lying between the two 
meridians of the Cape of Good Hope in the east, and of the east 
end of New Guinea in the west, inclusive. And whoever shall 
venture, without the consent of this Company, to sail to or to traffic 
with any places within the aforesaid limits granted to this Com- 
pany, shall forfeit the ships and goods which shall be found trad- 
ing upon the aforesaid coasts and lands, the which in the name of 
the aforesaid Company may immediately and everywhere be 
attached, seized and held as confiscated property for the behoof of 
the same. And in case such ship or goods shall have been sold 
or taken to other countries or ports, the owners and partners may 
be levied on for the value of those ships and goods ; except only, 
that they, who before the date of this charter shall have sailed 
from these or other countries to any of the aforesaid coasts, shall 

B Strait of Anjan; corresponding to Bering Strait. "Strictly speaking, the Strait 
of Air Tan is not laid down on the old maps at the same point as our Bering Strait: 
but that is only because the northern Pacific was unknown. As it was the strait 
supposed to divide America from Asia, it exactly coincides with Bering Strait as a 
limit." Report of U. S. Commission on Boundary between Venezuela and British 
Guiana, l:ioo. 


der voorsz Kusten uytgeloopen ofte uytgesonden zijn, limine hande- 
linge totten uytkoop haerder goederen, ende weder-kommen in dese 
Landen, ofte andersints, ter expiratie toe van haer Octroy, soo sy 
voor desen eenich hebben verkregen, sullen vermogen te continueren, 
ende langer niet: Behoudelick dat naer den eersten Julij sesthien 
hondert een ende twintich, dage, ende tijde des ingancks van desen 
Octroye, niemant eenige Schepen ofte goederen en sal vermogen 
uyt te seynden naer de Quartieren in desen Octroye begrepen, al- 
waer't dat voor date van dien dese Compagnie noch niet eyntelick 
en ware gesloten : Maer sullen daer inne voorsien sulcks als behoort, 
tegens den geenen die wetens in fraude van dese onse goede mee- 
ninge het ghemeene beste soecken te frustreren : Welverstaende dat 
de Zout-vaert op Ponte del Re sal mogen werden gecontinueert, op 
conditien ende Instructien by ons daer van verleden ofte te verlijden, 
sonder aen desen Octroye anders te wesen verbonden. 

II. Dat voorts de voorschreve Compagnie op onsen Name ende 
authoriteyt, binnen de Limiten hier vooren ghestelt, sal mogen 
maccken Contracten, Verbintenissen ende Alliancien met de Princen 
ende Naturelen vande Landen daer inne begrepen, mitsgaders al- 
daer eenige Fprtressen ende verseeckertheden bouwen, Gouvcr- 
neurs, Volck van Oorloge, ende Officers van Justitie, ende tot andere 
nootelijcke diensten, tot conservatie vande Plaetsen, onderhoudinge 
van goede ordre, Policie ende Justitie: Eensamentlijck tot voorde- 
ringe vande Neeringe stellen, deporteren ende af-stellen, ende weder- 
om andere in hare plaetse surrogueren, naer syluyden naer gelegent- 
heyt van saecken sullen bevinden te behooren ; Voorts populatie van 
vrucbtbare ende onbewoonde Quartieren mogen bevorderen, ende al- 
les doen dat den dienst der Landen, profijt ende vermeerderinge van- 
den handcl sal vereyschen. Ende sullen die vande Compagnie ons 
successivelijck communiceren, ende over-lcveren soodanige Contrac- 
ten ende Allianccn als sy mettc voorschreve Princen ende Natien sul- 
len hebben gemaeckt, mitsgaders de ghelegentheyt vanden Fortfes- 
sen, verseeckertheden ende populatien by henluyden ter handen 

III. Behoudelick dat sylieden eencn Gouverneur Generael ver- 


be permitted to continue their trade till they have sold their goods 
and come back to this country, or otherwise until the expiration of 
their charter if they have been granted any before this date, and no 
longer. Provided, that after the first of July, sixteen hundred and 
twenty-one, the da)' and time of the commencement of this charter, 
no one shall be permitted to send any ships or goods to the places 
comprehended in this charter even if this Company should not 
be fully organized before that date; but proper provision shall 
be made against those who knowingly and fraudulently seek to 
frustrate our good intentions for the common weal ; it being under- 
stood that the salt trade at Poute del Re may be continued accord- 
ing to the conditions and instructions already given, or to be given 
by us respecting it, without being in any way restricted by this 

II. That further the aforesaid Company, in our name and by 
our authority, within the limits hereinbefore set forth, shall have 
power to make contracts, leagues and alliances with the princes and 
natives of the countries therein comprised also to build any fort- 
resses and strongholds there; to appoint, 54 transfer, discharge and 
replace governors, troops and officers of justice and for other 
necessary services, for the preservation of the places, the main- 
tenance of good order, police and justice, in general for the 
furtherance of trade, as according to circumstances they shall see 
fit ; moreover, they may promote the settlement of fertile and unin- 
habited districts, and do all that the service of this country and the 
profit and increase of trade shall require. And the [directors] 
of the Company shall regularly communicate to us and transmit 
such contracts and alliances as they shall have made with the 
aforesaid princes and nations, likewise [report] the situation of 
the fortresses, strongholds and settlements by them begun. 

III. Provided that when they have chosen a governor general 

M The translation of art. 2 of this charter, in the Report of the U. S. Com- 
mission on Boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana, l:no, has at this point, 
in brackets, the word provide with the following footnote: "This important verb is 
omitted in the charter as printed in the Groot Placaet-Boek, in Aitzema, and in 
sens — and so, perhaps, in the original document; but it is supplied, in the new 
charter of 1674, as aenstellen." As a matter of fact, no such omission occurs, for the 
word stcllcn which appears further down in connection with the words deporteren 
endc af stellen, refers back to governors, troops and officers of justice. 


kooren. ende voor hem Instructie geconcipieert hebbende, de selve 
dacr naer by ons geapprobecrt ende Commissie ghcgcven sal worden, 
Ende dat voorts soodanigen Gouverneur Generael, soo wel als an- 
dere Vice-Gouverneurs, Commandcurs ende Officieren, gehouden 
sullen wesen den eedt van getrouwicheyt aen ons te doen, ende oock 
aende Compagnie. 

IV. Ende indien de voorsz Compagnie op eenige der voorsz Plaet- 
sen in schijn van vrientschap bedrogen, ofte qualijck ghetracteert 
mochte werden, ofte dat in 't vertrouwen van eenige Penningen ofte 
Koopmanschappen, de selve sonder restitutie ofte betalinge daer 
van te genieten, gehouden worden, dat sy de schade naer ghelegent- 
heyt der saecken, ende naer dat sy best sullen vermogen, sullen doen 
repareren, deur alsulcke middelen als men gevoechlijck sal konnen 

V. Ende alsoo tot plantinge, verseeckeringe ende defensie van 
desen handel, oock noodich sal zijn eenich Krijghs-volck mede te 
nemen, sullen wy naer de constitutie van't Landt ende gelegentheyt 
van saecken, de voorsz Compagnie voorsien met soodanich Volck 
van Oorloge, van Commandement ende van Fortificatien, als noodich 
sal wesen, mits dat die by de Compagnie sullen worden betaelt ende 

VI. De welcke boven den Eedt die sy aen ons ende Sijn Excel- 
lentie hebben gedaen, oock sweeren sullen, het Commandement van- 
de voorsz Compagnie te volgen, ende hare saecken te helpen voorde- 
ren naer haer beste vermogen. 

VII. Dat de Provoosten vande Compagnie aen Lant sullen mogen 
apprehendercn het Krijgs-volck ende ander Volck van Oorloge, dat 
hen in dienste vande voorsz Compagnie begeven heeft, ende de 
gheapprchendeerde t'Scheep brcngen, 't zy in wat Steden, Plaet- 
sen ofte Jurisdictien van dese Landen de selve bevonden mochten 
werden, Mits dat de Provoosten te vooren sullen aenspreken d'Offi- 
ciers ende Magistraten vande Steden ende Plaetsen daer sulcks valt. 

VIII. Dat wy egeen Schepen, Geschut ofte Ammunitien van dese 
Compagnie tot dienste deser Landen en sullen nemen, dan met con- 
sent vande selve Compagnie. 

IX. Hebben voorts dese Compagnie gheoctroyeert, geprivilegeert 
ende ghegunt, octroyeren ende gunncn mits desen, dat sy met alle 
hare Schepen ende goederen vry sullen mogen passeren voor-by 
alle Tollen eenige der Vereenichde Provincien toekomende, ende 
dat sy de selve vryheyt sullen gebruycken in sulcker voegen als de 
vrye Ingesetencn vande Steden deser Landen daer inne hare vrydom- 


and prepared instructions for him, the same must be approved, 
and the commission given by us ; and further, that such governor 
general, as also other vice governors, commanders and officers, 
shall be obliged to take the oath of allegiance to us and also to the 

IV. And if the aforesaid Company in any of the aforesaid places 
be cheated under the pretense of friendship or badly treated, or if 
any money or goods entrusted by them be kept without their re- 
ceiving restitution or payment, they may according to circumstances 
and the best of their ability cause the loss to be made good by all 
such means as can properly be employed. 

V. And as it will also be necessary for the establishment, security 
and defense of this trade to take some troops along, we will, ac- 
cording to the condition of the country and the situation of affairs, 
furnish the said Company with such troops for field and garrison 
duty as shall be necessary, provided they be paid and supported 
by the Company. 

VI. Which troops, besides the oath already taken to us and to 
his Excellency, shall swear to obey the commands of the said Com- 
pany and to help promote their interests to the utmost of their 

VII. That the provosts of the Company on shore shall have 
power to apprehend any soldiers* or other of the military that 
have enlisted in the service of the aforesaid Company and to eon 
fine them on board ship in whatever city, place or jurisdiction of 
this country they may be found; provided the provosts first inform 
the officers and magistrates of the cities and places where this 

VIII. That we will not take any ships, ordnance or ammunition 
belonging to the Company, for the use of this country, except 
with the consent of the said Company. 

IX. We have further granted, privileged and conceded this Com- 
pany, and do hereby grant and concede, that they may pass freely 
with all their ships and goods without paying toll to any of the 
United Provinces and that they may use this freedom in the same 
manner as the free inhabitants of the cities of this country enjoy 


men zijn genietende, oock niet tegenstaende eenige onvrye Per- 
soonen in dese Compagnie zijn participerende. 

X. Dat alle de goederen die dese Compagnie, gheduyrende den 
tijdt van acht eerst-komende Jaren, sullen uyt dese Landen voeren 
nae de quartieren van West-Indien ende Africa, ende andere 
binnen de voorsz Limiten begrepen, ende die sy van daer in dese 
Landen sullen brengen, sullen wesen vry van uytgaende ende 
inkomende Convoyen : Welverstaende by soo verre naer de expiratie 
vande voorschreve acht Jaren, den Staet ende gelegentheyt deser 
Landen niet toe en laet dien vrydom van acht Jaeren noch voor een 
tijdt van Jaeren te continueren, dat de selve goederen daer naer, 
nochte oock de waren uyt de quartieren in desen Octroye gedesig- 
neert, ghekomen, ende wederom uyt desen Lande gaende, inde 
uytgaende Convoyen ende Licenten, geduyrende den gheheelen tijdt 
van desen Octroye, niet hooger by ons sullen werden beswaert, dan 
die jegenwoordelijck beswaert zijn, ten ware wy wederom in Oor- 
loge quamen te geraecken, in welcken ghevalle alle de voorschreve 
goederen ende Waren niet hooger by ons en sullen werden beswaert, 
als die op de laeste Lijste by tijde vanden Oorloge beswaert zijn 

XI. Ende op dat dese Compagnie soude mogen bestaen by een 
goede Regieringe, ten meesten profijte ende contentement van alle 
de Participanten, Soo hebben Wy geordonneert, dat de selve Regie- 
ringe sal bestaen in vijf Kameren van Bewinthebberen, als een bin- 
nen Amsterdam, die hebben sal de administratie van vier negende- 
parten : een Kamer in Zeelandt, voor twee negende-parten : Een Ka- 
mer op de Maze, voor een negende-part : Een Kamer in 't Noor- 
der-quartier, voor een negende-part: Ende de vijfde Kamer in 
Vrieslandt, mitsgaders Stadt ende Landen mede voor een negende- 
part, op de Conditie in het Register van onse Resolutien gestelt, ende 


their freedom, notwithstanding some persons who are not free 
should be members of this Company. 

X. That all the goods which this Company during- the eight next 
ensuing years shall carry out of this country to the West Indies 
and Africa, and other places comprised within the aforesaid limits, 
and those which they shall bring thence into this country shall be 
exempt from outgoing and ingoing convoy charges ; 55 provided, 
that if at the expiration of the aforesaid eight years, the state and 
condition of this country will not admit of this eight years' free- 
dom's continuing for another term of years, then outgoing convoy 
charges and license fees 50 on the said goods and merchandise 
coming from the places mentioned in this charter and again ex- 
ported from this country, during the whole term of this charter 
shall not be rated higher by us than they are rated at present; 
unless we should be again engaged in war, in which case all the 
aforesaid goods and merchandises shall not be rated higher by us 
than they were in the last list in time of war. 

XL And in order that this Company may have a good govern- 
ment, to the greatest profit and satisfaction of all the participants, 
we have ordained that the said government shall be vested in five 
Chambers of directors — one at Amsterdam which shall have the 
management of four ninths ; one Chamber in Zealand, of two ninths ; 
one Chamber on the Maze, of one ninth ; one Chamber in the Noor- 
der-quartier, 57 of one ninth ; and the fifth Chamber in Friesland to- 
gether with Stadt aide Landen, 58 also of one ninth — upon the 
conditions set forth in the register of our resolutions and the aefree- 

65 Convoyen; import and export duties levied in 1572 by the province of Holland 
and after 1577 by the States General for the support of the navy and which entitled 
merchantmen sailing in company to protection by war vessels. 

60 Licenten; fees paid for license to trade to the enemy's country, first established in 
1573 by the province of Zealand and after 1577 paid to the States General for the 
support of the navy. Both taxes, the Convoyen and Licenten, remained in force after 
the treaty of Munster, 1648, but had by that time assumed the character of ordinary 
import and export duties. See Groot Placaet Boeck, 1:2264-2555; Jhr J. C. de Jonge, 
Geschiedcnis van het Nederlandsche Zecwesen, 1:184-88; Robert Fruin, Geschiedenis der 
Staatsinstellingen in Nederland, p. 189. 

67 Noorderkwariier ; the former name of that part of the present province of Nortli 
Holland situated north of the IJ and the Wijker-meer; it included the seven cities: 
Alkmaar, Hoorn, Enkhuizen, Edam, Monnikendam, Medemblik and Purmerende. 

68 Stad en Lande, or Stad en Ommclanden; former name of the province of Groningen, 
referring to the city of Groningen with its surrounding territory and the three country 
districts Hunsingo, Fivelgo and Westerkwartier. 


de Acte daer van verleden : Ende sullen de Provintien inde welcke 
geen Kameren en sullen zijn, met soo vele Bewkitbebberen werden 
geaccommodeert, ende over de respective Kameren verdeelt, als 
sylieden hondert duysenden guldens in dese Compagnie furneren 

XII. Dat de Kamer van Amsterdam sal bestaen van tvvintich Be- 
winthebbers: De Kamer van Zeelandt van twaelf: De Kameren 
vandc Maze ende van't Noorder-quartier, elck van veertien : Ende 
de Kamere van Vrieslandt, mitsgaders van Stadt ende Landen, 
mede van veertien Bewinthebbers : Ten ware naemaels bevonden 
wort, dat dit werck niet anders dan met meerder getal van Per- 
soonen uytgevoert sonde konnen werden, in welcken gevalle 't sol- 
ve met kennisse vande negenthicn, ende met onse goet-vindinge, en- 
de anders niet, sal mogen werden vermeerdert. 

XIII. Ende werden de Staten vande respective Vereenichde Pro- 
vintien gheauthoriseert, 't zy voor hun Ed: Mog: baere ordinarise 
Gedeputeerdens, ofte voor de Magistraten der Steden haerer Pro- 
vincie, soodanige odre te stellen op de aenteyckeninge vande Partici- 
panten, mitsgaders de verkiesinge vande Bewinthebberen, als sy naer 
de Constitutie vande selve haere Provintie sullen bevinden te be- 
hooren : Mits dat niemant inde Kamer van Amsterdam tot Bewint- 
hebber verkooren sal worden, dan die geene die inde Compagnie 
voor sijn eygen sal participeren ter somnie van ses duysent guldens: 
inde Kamer van Zeelant, ter somme van vier duysent gulden: ende 
inde Kameren vandc Maze, van 't Noorder-quartier ende van 
Vrieslant, mitsgaders Stadt ende Landen, ter somme van ghelijcke 
vier duysent guldens. 

XIV. Dat de eerste Bewinthebbers sullen dienen den tijt van ses 
Jaren, ende dal men de selve overstreken xi jmlc, eerst by lotinge 
^.il veranderen ecu derde-parf van '( getal vande Bewinthebbers, en- 

van Rensselaer boWier manuscripts 97 

ment 59 drawn up respecting it. And the provinces in which there 
are no Chambers shall be accommodated with as many directors, 
divided among- the respective Chambers, as the number of hun- 
dred thousand guilders which they shall furnish to the Company. 

XII. That the Chamber of Amsterdam shall consist of twenty 
directors; the Chamber of Zealand of twelve; the Chambers of the 
Maze and of the N oorder-quartier each of fourteen ; and the Cham- 
ber of Friesland together with Stadt aide Landen also of fourteen 
directors. If it shall hereafter appear that this work can not be 
carried on without a greater number of persons, then more may be 
added after notice to the Nineteen and our approbation, but not 

XIII. And the States of the respective united provinces are 
authorized to make such regulations, either for their Noble 
Mightinesses' ordinary deputies 00 or for the magistrates of the 
cities of their province, concerning the registration of the partici- 
pants and the election of directors, as they think proper, according 
to the constitution of their province; provided that no person in 
the Chamber of Amsterdam shall be chosen a director who shall not 
in his own name participate in the Company for the sum of six 
thousand guilders ; in the Chamber of Zealand for four thousand 
guilders; and in the Chambers of the Maze, of the N oorder-quartier, 
and of Friesland, with Stadt endc Landen, for the like sum of four 
thousand guilders. 

XIV. That the first directors shall serve for the term of six 
years and that at the expiration of the said term, first one third 
part of the number of directors, selected by lot, shall be changed ; 

r '° A fifth chamber, to have one ninth of the capital, was reluctantly conceded to 
Friesland and Gronigen upon their signing an agreement dat se hen daar meede sullen 
houden vcrnieuwt, en vorder daar in niet moogen pretendeeren; en decsen in he.t 
reguard van dc Ooslindische Compagnie by continuatie, of vcrleenen van nienw Octroy 
voor deselve trekken in consequent™, tnaar dc equipatie en Kamcre daar van laaten, 
soo en ter plaatsc deselve jeegenivoordig zyn — that they will rest satisfied herewith and 
make no further claims; and that they will not make this a precedent in case of ex- 
tension or renewal of the charter of the East India Company, but leave the organization 
and the chamber thereof as and at the place where they arc at present. Resolutions 
of Holland and West Friesland, Sept. 19, 1620. See also J. F. Jameson, Willem 
Usselinx {Papers of the American Historical Association, 1886-87, 2:217-18). 

m The Deputy States; an executive committee appointed by the Provincial States for 
the transaction of daily business. 


de twee Jaren daer nae gelijcke derde-part, ende d'andere twee vol- 
gende Jaeren het leste derde-part, ende voorts successivelick de 
outste in dienste zijnde laten afgaen: Ende dat in plaetse vande 
afgaende, ofte vanden geenen die voor ofte naer soude mogen 
aflijvich, oft om andere redenen verlaten worden, by de Bewint- 
hebberen, soo blijvende als af-gaende, mitsgaders by de Hooft-Par- 
ticipanten die in Persoone, ende op hare kosten daer by sullen willen 
komen, drie andere sullen worden genomineert, uyt welcke- de 
voorsz respective Provintien, Gedeputeerdens ofte Magistraten, 
nieuwe Electie van Bewinthebber sullen doen, ende de vacante Plaet- 
sen successivelick suppleren. Ende sullen voor Hooft-Participanten 
ghehouden worden, die voor hun eygen soo veel participeren als de 
respective Bewinthebberen zijn doende. 

XV. Dat men de rekeninge vande equipagie en uyt-rustinge vande 
Schepen mette dependentien van dien, sal doen drie Maenden naer 
't vertreck vande Schepen, ende een Maent daer na Copyen aen ons, 
ende aende respective Kameren seynden : Ende vande retouren, mits- 
gaders vande verkoopinge der selver, sullen de Kameren (soo dick- 
wils wy dat goet sullen vinden, oft sy- vande Kameren daer toe 
versocht werden) Staet aen ons, ende aen malkanderen over 

XVI. Dat men alle ses Jaren sal maecken generale Reeckeninge 
van alle uytreedingen ende retouren, mitsgaders van winste ende 
verlies vande Compagnie, te weten, een vande Negotie, ende een van- 
der Oorloge, elck apart : Welcke Reeckeninge in 't openbaer sullen 
worden gedaen, naer voorgaende affixie van billetten, ten eynde ye- 
der een daer by Interest hebbende, op 't hooren vande selve reecken- 
inge sal mogen komen : Ende indien voor de expiratie van 't sevende 
Jaer, de Reeckeninge in manieren voorschreve niet werden gedaen, 
sullen de Bewinthebberen verbenren heure Provisien, die tot prof- 
fijt vanden Armen sullen werden bekeert, ende syluyden evenwel 
ghehouden blijven haere Reeckeninge als vooren te doen, binnen 
sulcken tijde, ende op soodanige peynen, als by ons tegens de ge- 
breeckigen sullen werden gestatueert. Ende sal niet te min onder- 
tusschen vande winste vande Negotien uytdeelinge gedaen worden, 
so dickwils als men bevinden sal datter thien ten hondert geprofij- 
teert sal zijn. 

XVII. Niemant sal, gheduerende den tijdt van desen Octroye, sijn 
Capitael ofte ingheleyde Penningen uyt dese Compagnie mogen tree- 
ken : Gelijck men oock gheen nieuwe Participanten sal mogen inne- 
men: Dan indien ter expiratie van vier en twintich Jaren mochte 


and two years after a like third part; and again after two years, 
the last third part ; and thenceforth successively, the oldest in the 
service shall be retired; and in the place of [each] retiring director 
or of such as shall at any time die, or for other reason leave a va- 
cancy, three others shall be nominated by the directors, both remain- 
ing and retiring, together with those chief participants who in per- 
son and at their own expense shall care to join them, from which 
number the aforesaid respective provinces, deputies or magistrates, 
shall elect new directors and successively supply the vacancies; and 
they shall be considered chief participants who in their own name 
participate for the same amount as the respective directors. 

XV. That the accounts of the equipment and fitting out of the 
ships, with their appurtenances, shall be rendered three months 
after the departure of the ships and that one month thereafter 
copies shall be sent to us and to the respective Chambers; and the 
Chambers shall (as often as we see fit or they are requested by the 
[other] Chambers) send to us and to each other an account of the 
returns and also of the sales of the same. 

XVI. That every six years a general accounting shall be made 
of all outfits and returns, as also of all gains and losses of the Com- 
pany, to wit, one relating to trade and one relating to war, each 
separate ; which accounts shall be rendered publicly, notices being 
previously posted, to the end that every one who is interested may 
attend the hearing of the said accounts ; and if before the expira- 
tion of the seventh year the accounts are not rendered in the manner 
aforesaid, the directors shall forfeit their commissions, which shall 
be appropriated to the use of the poor, and they shall nevertheless 
be held to render their accounts as aforesaid within .such time and 
under such penalty as shall be fixed by us respecting the delinquents. 
And none the less a dividend shall meantime be declared from the 
profits of the trade as often as it shall be found that ten per cent 
has been gained. 

XVII. No one shall be permitted during the continuance of this 
charter to withdraw his capital or sums advanced from this Com- 
pany; nor shall any new participants be admitted. If at the expira- 
tion of twenty-four years it shall be judged well to continue this 


goet ghevonden werden dese Compagnie te continueren, ofte een 
Nieuwe op te rechten, sal finale Reeckeninge ende estimatie by de 
Negenthien met onse kennisse ghedaen worden, van alle 't geene dese 
Compagnie is toe-behoorende, als oock vande nootelijcke kosten die 
by de selve zijn gedaen, ende yeder een vermogen na de voorsz 
af-rekeninge ende ghedane estimatien, sijne Pgnningen te lichten, 
ofte inde volgende Compagnie na advenant van dien, in 't gheheel 
ofte deel, te continueren ofte participeren. Ende sal in sulcken 
gevalle de volgende Compagnie de restanten, die volgens de 
Reeckeninge ende estimatie bevonden sullen worden, tot haren laste 
moeten nemen : Ende de Participanten, die inde Compagnie niet sul- 
len goet vinden te continueren, haer contingent betalen, op alsulcke 
termijnen als de Negenthien met onse kennisse ende goet-vinden 
sullen bevinden te behooren. 

XVIII. Dat soo dickwils het van noode sal zijn een Generale ver- 
gaderinge vande voorsz Kameren te houden, 't selve sal geschieden 
by negentien Persoonen, daer inne uyt de Kamer van Amsterdam 
sullen compareren acht : uyt Zeelant vier : vande Maze twee : uyt het 
Noorder-quartier twee : uyt Vrieslant, mitsgaders Stadt ende Lan- 
den twee. Welverstaende dat den negenthienden Persoon, ofte soo 
veel meer als wy t' elckens sullen goet vinden, by ons sal worden 
gedeputeert, omme inde voorsz Vergaderinge de saecke vande Com- 
pagnie ten besten te helpen dirigeren. 

XIX. Van welcke Generale Vergaderinge vande voorschreve Ka- 
meren, alle saecken dese Compagnie aengaende, verhandelt ende be- 
slooten sullen werden : Welverstaende dat in saecken van Oorloge op 
de genomen Resolutie, versocht sal worden onse approbatie. 

XX. De voorschreve Generale Vergaderinge beschreven zijnde. 
sal te samen komen om te resolveren, wanneer men sal equiperen, 
hoe veel Schepen men op elck Quartier sal.senden, de Compagnie 
in 't gemeen betreffende, sonder dat d'een oft d'ander Kamer yet 
sal mogen aenrichten buy ten de voorschreve gemeene Resolutien. 
maer sullen ghehouden zijn de selve te effectueren ende in 't werck 
te stellen. Ende indien eenige Kamer bevonden werde in ghe- 
breecke te zijn de ghemeene Resolutien te achtervolgen, ofte te con- 
travenieren, Hebbcn Wy de selve Vergaderinge geauthoriseert, ende 
authoriseren by desen, om soodanich ghebreck ende contraventie 
metten eersten te doen repareren, waer inne wy des versocht zijnde 
haer sullen assisteren. 

XXI. De selve Generale Vergaderinge sal ghehouden worden 
de eerste ses Jaeren binnen de Stadt van Amsterdam, ende twee 
Jaren daer nae in Zeelant, ende soo voorts van tijde tot tijde inde 
voorsz twee Plaetsen. 


Company or to erect a new one, a final accounting and estimate shall 
be made by the Nineteen, with our approval, of all that belongs to 
the Company, and also of their necessary expenses, and after the 
aforesaid settlement and estimate any one may withdraw his money 
or, in proportion thereof, in whole or in part, continue and share in 
the succeeding Company; and the succeeding Company shall in such 
case take the remainder, which shall be found according - to the ac- 
counting- and estimate, and pay the participants who do not think 
fit to continue in the Company their share at such times at the Nine- 
teen, with our knowledge and approbation, shall think proper. 

XVIII. That so often as it shall be necessary to have a general 
Assembly of the aforesaid Chambers, it shall be by Nineteen persons, 
of whom eight shall come from the Chamber of Amsterdam, four 
from Zealand, two from the Maze, two from the Noorderquartier, 
two from Friesland and Sladt aide Landcn; provided, that the 
nineteenth person, or so many more as we shall at any time think 
fit, shall be deputed by us for the purpose of helping to direct the 
affairs of the Company in the aforesaid Assembly. 

XIX. By which general Assembly of the aforesaid Chambers, all 
matters relating to this Company shall be considered and decided ; 
provided, that in matters of war, our approbation of their resolution 
shall be asked. 

XX. The aforesaid general Assembly being summoned, it shall 
meet, whenever they are about to fit out, to resolve how many ships 
they shall send to each place for the account of the Company in 
general, and no individual Chamber shall be permitted to undertake 
anything not included in the aforesaid common resolution but [all] 
shall be bound to carry it into effect and to execute it. And if any 
Chamber should fail to comply with the common resolution, or be 
found to act in violation thereof, we have authorized, and by these 
presents do authorize, the said Assembly immediately to cause rep- 
aration to be made for such failure or violation, wherein, on re- 
quest, we will assist them. 

XXI. The said general Assembly shall be held the first six years 
in the city of Amsterdam, and the following two years in Zealand ; 
and so on alternately in the aforesaid two places. 


XXII. De Bewinthcbberen die van wegen de Compagnie ghecom- 
mitteert zijnde, van Huys sullen reysen, 't zy op de voorseyde 
Vergaderinge ofte elders, sullen voor haer teer-kosten ende dach- 
gelden hebben vier gulden 's daeghs, boven de Schuyt ende Wagen- 
vrachten: Welverstaende dat die geene die vande eene Stadt nae 
de andere reysen, om die Kameren als Bewinthebberen ende 
Regierders te frequenteren, egeen dach-gelden ofte reys-kosten en 
sullen ontfangen, tot laste vande Compagnie. 

XXIII. Ende of 't gebeurde dat inde voorseyde Generale Ver- 
gaderinge eenige wichtige saecken voorvielen, daer inne sy niet wel 
en konden verdragen, ofte dat sy selfs hun souden mogen beswaert 
vinden, om elckanderen te overstemmen, dat 't selve gelaten sal 
worden tot onse decisie : Ende 't geene dien aengaende goet gevon- 
den sal worden, sal achtervolght ende na gekomen worden. 

XXIV. Ende sullen alle Ingesetenen deser Landen, ende oock 
van andere Landen, by openbare affixien van billetten, binnen den 
tijdt van een Maent naer date van desen t' affigeren, gewaerschouwt 
worden, dat sy binnen den tijdt van vijf Maenden, innegaende den 
eersten Julij deses Jaers sesthien-hondert een-en-twintich in dese 
Compagnie sullen worden geadmitteert, ende dat sy hunne 
Penningen, die sy sullen willen in leggen, sullen mogen op brengen 
in drie termijnen: Te weten een derde-part ter expiratie vande 
voorschreve vijf Maenden, ende d' ander twee derde-parten op drie 
achter een volgende Jaren, ten ware de voorschreve Generale 
Vergaderinge bevonden, dat men dese Termijnen soude mogen 
verlengen, daer van de Participanten te vooren by affixie van 
billetten sullen werden gheadverteert. 

XXV. De Schepen vande reyse weder komende sullen wederom 
aenkomen ter plaetsen daer sy afgeseylt zijn, ende of door fortune 
van Weder ende Wint, de Schepen van 't eene Quartier uytghe- 
seyldt, aenquamen in het ander, als die van Amsterdam ofte van 't 
Noorder-quartier in Zeelant ofte inde Maze, ofte die van Zeelandt 
in Hollandt: ofte die van Vrieslandt, mitsgaders Stadt ende Lan- 
den in een ander Quartier : dat niet te min elcke Kamer de admini- 
strate ende bewint van hare uytghesonden Schepen ende Koopman- 
schappen sal behouden, ende dat sy de selve sullen mogen verseynden 
ende vervoeren nae de Quartieren daer de Schepen waren uytge- 
seylt, 't zy met de selve ofte andere Schepen, mits dat de Bewint- 
hebbers der selver Kamer, gehouden sullen zijn haer selfs in Per- 
soon te laten vinden ter Plaetse daer de Schepen ofte goederen 
aenghekomen zijn, ende geene Facteurs daer over sullen vermogen 
te stellen: Maer in ghevalle haer selfs niet ghelegen en ware te 


XXII. The directors who by commission of the Company shall go 
from home to attend the aforesaid Assembly or otherwise, shall 
have for their expenses and daily allowance four guilders a day, be- 
sides boat and stage fare; it being understood that those who go 
from one city to another to attend the meetings of the Chambers as 
directors and managers shall receive no allowance or traveling ex- 
penses at the charge of the Company. 

XXIII. And if it should happen that in the aforesaid general As- 
sembly any weighty matter came before them, wherein they could 
not agree, or even in which one side should scruple to impose its 
decision on the other, the same shall be left to our decision ; and 
whatever shall be determined upon shall be followed and carried 
into execution. 

XXIV. And all the inhabitants of this country, and also of other 
countries, shall be notified by public posting of notices within the 
month after the date hereof that they may be admitted into this Com- 
pany during five months from the first of July, this year, sixteen hun- 
dred and twenty-one, and that they may pay the money they wish 
to invest in three payments ; to wit, one third at the expiration of 
the aforesaid five months and the other two thirds within the three 
next succeeding years, unless the aforesaid general Assembly shall 
find it necessary to extend the time, whereof the participants shall 
be notified by posting of notices. 

XXV. The ships returning from a voyage shall come to the place 
they sailed from ; and if, by stress of wind and weather, the vessels 
which sailed out from one district shall arrive in another — as those 
from Amsterdam or the Noordcr-quartier in Zealand or the Maze; 
or from Zealand in Holland; or those from Friesland, with Stadt 
ende Landen, in another district — each Chamber shall nevertheless 
retain the direction and management of the ships and goods it sent 
out and be allowed to send and transport the goods to the places 
whence the vessels sailed, either in the same or other vessels ; pro- 
vided that the directors of that Chamber shall be required to be 
present in person at the place where the vessels and goods shall have 
arrived and not to appoint factors to superintend the business ; but 
in case it shall not be convenient for them to travel, they shall com- 


reysen, dat sy als dan de Bewint-hebberen vande Kamer daer dc 
Schepen gearriveert zijn, totte administrate sullen committeren. 

XXVI. Als d'een oft d'ander Kamer eenige Koopmanschappen 
ofte retouren uyt die Quartieren binnen de voorschreve Limiten 
begrepen, ghekregen heeft, daer van dat d'ander niet en is versien, 
sal gehouden wesen die Kamer die ongeprovideert is, op baer 
versoeck naer ghelegentheyt vande saecke te provideren ende 't 
goet te senden, ende als sy uytverkocht sullen hebben, noch meer 
te seynden. Dat van gelijcken de Bewinthebberen vande respective 
Kameren, eenige Persoonen tot de equipagien, ofte andersints 
uyt andere Steden daer Kameren ofte Bewint-bebbers zijn, van 
noode hebbende, daer toe de Bewintliebberen van dese Compagnie 
sullen moeten versoecken ende employeren, sonder eenige Factoren 
daer toe te gebruycken. 

XXVII. Ende indien eenige Provincien goet vinden eenen 
Agent te stellen, om die Penningen uyt baere Ingesetenen te ver- 
samelen, ende in masse in eenighe Kamer in te leggen, ende vande 
uytdeelinge betalinge te voorderen, sal de Kamer ghehouden zijn 
alsulcken Agent toe te laten acces inde selve Kamer, om aldaer 
geinformeert te werden vanden Staet vanden uytgeve ende in- 
komen, uyt ende inschuiden : Behouden dat de Penningen by 
sulcken Agent ingebracbt, sullen bedragen vijftich duysent gul- 
dens, ende daer boven. 

XXVIII. De Bewinthebbers sullen vande uyt-reyse ende vande 
retouren, mitsgaders vande prinsen voor provisie genieten een ten 
hondert, ende van Gout ende Silver maer een half ten hondert. 
Welcke provisie sal verdeelt worden voor de Kamer van Amster- 
dam vier negende deelen : De Kamer van Zeelant twee negende 
deelen : vande Maze een negende deel : van 't Noorder-quartier een 
negende deel : ende van Vrieslant, mitsgaders Stadt ende Landen 
gelijcke negende deel. 

XXIX. Welverstaende dat sy-luyden van het Gcschut, ende de 
waerde vande Schepen niet meer als eens provisie sullen ghenieten. 
Sullen voorts geenige provisie ghenieten van Schepen, Geschut ende 
anders, waer mede wy dese Compagnie sullen verstercken: nochle 
oock vande Penningen die sy voor dese Compagnie sullen liclitcn. 
nochte van dat sy de Waren beneficieren. Gelijck sy tot laste 
vande Compagnie niet en sullen mogen brengen eenige Vacatie, 
Reys ofte Teer-kosten vande geenige die sy sullen mogen commit- 
teren, om de uytreedinge te vorderen, ende dc Waren daer toe 
noodich te koopen. 


mit this business to the Chamber in whose district the vessels ar- 

XXVI. If any Chamber shall have obtained any goods or returns 
from the places included within the limits of this charter with which 
another is not provided, it shall be required to send such goods on 
request to the Chamber which is unprovided, according to the situa- 
tion of the case; and when the}- have sold out to send more. And 
in like manner, if the managers of the respective Chambers have 
need of any persons for crews or other purposes, from the cities 
where there are Chambers or directors, they shall request and em- 
ploy [the aid of] the directors of this Company therefor and not 
make use of any factors. 

XXVII. And if any of the provinces think fit to appoint an agent 
to collect the money from their inhabitants, deposit the amount in 
bulk in any Chamber, and receive the payment of dividends, the 
Chamber shall be required to give such agent access, that he may 
obtain information of the state of the disbursements and receipts, 
and of the debts and assets ; provided that the money brought in by 
such agent shall amount to fifty thousand guilders or upwards. 

XXVIII. The directors shall have for commissions one per cent on 
the outfits and returns, and also on the prizes, and a half per cent on 
gold and silver ; which commissions shall be divided — to the Cham- 
ber of Amsterdam, four ninths ; the Chamber of Zealand, two 
ninths ; the Maze, one ninth ; the Noorder-quartier, one ninth ; and 
Friesland with Stadt aide Landen, a like ninth. 

XXIX. Provided that they shall not receive commissions on the 
ordnance and value of the ships more than once. They shall, more- 
over, have no commission on the ships, ordnance and other things 
with which we shall strengthen the Company, nor on the money 
which they shall collect for the Company, nor on the profits they re- 
ceive from the goods ; nor shall they charge the Company with any 
salaries, expenses of traveling or board of those to whom they shall 
commit the fitting out and purchasing of goods necessary therefor. 


XXX. De Boeck-houders ende Cassiers sullen gesalariseert 
werden tot laste vande Bewint-hebbers, uyt hare provisie. 

XXXI. De Bewint-hebberen sullen geene Schepen, Waren ofte 
Goederen haer in 't gheheel ofte deel toekomende, aen dese Com- 
pagnie mogen leveren ofte verkoopen: nochte vande selve Com- 
pagnie eenige Koopmanschappen ofte Waren koopen ofte doen 
koopen, directelijck ofte indirectelijck, noch portie ofte ghedeelte 
daer inne hebben, op de verbeurte van een Jaer harer provisie, die 
contrarie desen bevonden wert gedaen te hebben, ten profijte van- 
den Armen, ende van haer Bewinthebberschap verlaten te worden. 

XXXII. De Bewint-hebberen sullen ghehouden wesen by afhxie 
van Billietten, te notificeren, soo dickwils sy eenige Waren ende 
Koopmanschappen van nieuws sullen hebben ontfangen, ten eynde 
een yder daer van tijdelick kennisse mach hebben, al eer tot eyn- 
delijcke verkoopinge sal worden gheprocedeert. 

XXXIII. Ende of 't ghebeurde dat onder d'een of dander 
Kamer yemandt vande Bewinthebbers in sulcken Staet gheraeckten, 
dat hy niet en konde voldoen 't geene hem sijner administratie 
aengaende, vertrouwt ware, ende daer door eenige schade mochte ko- 
men, sal wesen tot laste vande Penningen die alsulcke Bewinthebberen 
hebben in Compagnie, de welcke oock voor haer administratie 
specialijcken zijn verbonden, 't welck oock plaetse sal hebben ten 
respecte van alle de Participanten, die uyt saecke van koop van 
goederen, ofte andersints Debiteurs vande Compagnie souden 
mogen wesen, ende sal gereeckent worden in alien schijne, of haer 
ingeleyde Penningen tegens 't geen sy de Compagnie schuldich 
zijn, van aenbeginne waer ghecompenseert, ende by recontre 

XXXIV. De Bewinthebbers vande respective Kamers, sullen re- 
sponderen voor hare Cassiers ende Boeckhouders. 

XXXV. Dat alle de Waren van dese Compagnie, die by den 
gewichte verhandelt sullen worden, verkocht sullen worden op 
eenderley ghewichte, te weten, op de swaerte van 't ghewichte van 
Amsterdam, ende dat men alsulcke Waren sal mogen overslaen 
binnen Scheeps-boort ofte inde Pack-huysen, sonder daer van 
eenigen Accijs, Impost ofte Waegh-gelt te betalen, mits dat de selve 
verkocht zijnde, niet anders sullen mogen worden ghelevert dan 
ter Wage, ende midts betalende den Impost ende Waegh-gelt, soo 
dickwils als sy worden ghealieneert ghelijck andere goederen, die 
Wage subject zijnde. 

XXXVI. Dat men de Persoonen ofte Goederen der Bewintheb- 
bers niet en sal mogen arresteren, besetten ofte becommeren, om 


XXX. The bookkeepers and cashiers shall have a salary paid 
them by the directors out of their commissions. 

XXXI. The directors shall not deliver or sell to the Company 
any ships, merchandise, or goods belonging to themselves in whole 
or in part, nor buy or cause to be bought of the said Company, 
directly or indirectly, any goods or merchandise, nor have any por- 
tion or part therein, on forfeiture by those who shall be found to 
have acted to the contrary of one year's commissions for the use of 
the poor and on pain of being deposed from their directorship. 

XXXII. The directors shall be obliged to give notice, by posting 
of bills, as often as they have a fresh importation of goods and 
merchandise, to the end that every one may have seasonable knowl- 
edge of it before they proceed to a final sale. 

XXXIII. And if it should happen that in one Chamber or another 
any of the directors should get into such a situation that he could 
not make good what was intrusted to him for his administration and 
in consequence thereof any loss should occur, said loss shall be 
charged against the money which such directors have in the Com- 
pany, which [investment] is also especially pledged for their adminis- 
tration; the same shall also be the case as to all the participants 
who, on account of goods purchased or otherwise, shall become 
debtors to the Company, and to all intents it shall be reckoned as 
if the money which they put in had from the beginning been counter- 
balanced and wiped out by what they owe the Company. 

XXXIV. The directors of the respective Chambers shall be re- 
sponsible for their cashiers and bookkeepers. 

XXXV. That all the goods of this Company which shall be dis- 
posed of by weight shall be sold by one standard of weight, to wit, 
that of the weight of Amsterdam ; and that all such goods may be 
sold on board ship, or in store, without paying any excise, impost 
or weigh money; provided that, once being sold, they shall not be 
delivered in any other way than at the Weigh-house and that the 
impost and weigh money shall be paid as often as they are alienated 
in the same manner as other goods subject to weigh money. 

XXXVI. That the persons or goods of the directors shall not be 
arrested, attached or encumbered in order to obtain from them an 


van hen te hebben Reeckeninge van administratie vande Compagnie, 
noch oock om de betalinge vande gagien, ofte loon vande geene 
die sy in dienste vande Compagnie ghebruyckt hebben : Maer de 
geene die snicks yet op henluyden sal willen pretenderen, sullen 
ghehouden zijn de selve te betreckeu voor heur ordinaris Rechters. 

XXXVII. Soo wanneer eenige Schepen vande reyse sullen weder 
keeren, sullen de Generaels oft Commandeurs over de Vlooten, 
Schip ofte Schepen ghehouden zijn binnen thien dagen naer haere 
aenkomste, aen ons te komen doen rapport van 't succes van hare 
reyse, ende daer van schriftelijck rapport over geven ende leveren, 
indien de sake sulcx vereyscht. 

XXXVIII. Ende of 't ghebeurde (dat Wy geensints en ver- 
wachten) dat yemant de Scheep-vaert, Negotie, Handelinge ofte 
Traffijcque van dese Compagnie, contrarie het algemeene Recht, 
ofte oock jegens 't inhouden vande voorschreve Tractaten, Ver- 
bonden ende Entre-courssen in eeniger manieren wilde beschadigen 
ofte hinderlijck wesen, sullen hun daer tegens mogen defenderen, 
ende reguleren in conformiteyt vande instructie by ons daer van 
te geven. 

XXXIX. Hebben voorts belooft ende belooven mits desen, dat 
wy dese Compagnie tegens eenen yegelick sullen mainteneren ende 
defenderen inde vrye Zee-vaert ende Trafficque, ende ten dien 
fine de selve te hulpe komen met een somme van thien hondert 
duysent guldens, te betalen in vijf Jaren, daer van de eerste twee 
hondert duysent guldens sullen worden gefurneert, soo haest den 
eersten termijn by de Participanten sal wesen op ghebracht : Wel- 
verstaende dat wy mette helft vande voorschreve thien hondert 
duysent guldens, sullen ghenieten ende dragen winste ende risico, 
gelijck alle andere Participanten in dese Compagnie genieten ende 
dragen sullen. 

XL. Ende in gevalle door een machtich ende geduerich belet 
inde voorschreve Zee-vaert ende Trafficque, de saecken in de Li- 
miten van dese Compagnie wierden gebracht tot een openbaer Oor- 
loch, Soo sullen wy de selve Compagnie, so veel 's Lants gelegentheyt 
sulcx eenichsints sonde toe laten, tot hare assistentie gheven 
sesthien Schepen van Oorloge, het minste groot hondert vijftich 
Lasten, met vier goede welbeseylde Jachten, het minste groot 
veertich Lasten, zijnde behoorlijck ghemonteert ende voorsien van 
alles : oock van Metalen ende ander Geschut, ende behoorlijcke 
qiiantiteyl van Ammunitie, midtsgaders van dubbelt loopende ende 


account of the administration of the Company nor for the payment 
of the salaries or wages of those whom they have employed in the 
service of the Company; but those who wish to make any such de- 
mands upon them must bring the matter before the ordinary judges. 

XXXVII. Whenever any ship shall return from a voyage, the 
admirals or commanders of the fleets, ship or ships shall be obliged 
to come and report to us the success of the voyage within ten days 
after their arrival and shall make out and deliver a report in writing, 
if the case requires it. 

XXXVIII. And if it should happen (which we by no means ex- 
pect) that any one ventured to injure or hinder in any way the navi- 
gation, commerce, trade or traffic of this Company, contrary to the 
common law or to the contents of the aforesaid treaties, league.-, 
and covenants, they shall have the right to protect themselves against 
such actions and shall govern themselves according to the instruc- 
tions to be issued by us concerning them. 

XXXIX. We have, moreover, promised, and do promise, that we 
will maintain and defend this Company against every person in 

[their rights of] free navigation and trade, and to that end will as- 
sist them with a sum of ten hundred thousand guilders, to be paid 
in five years, whereof the first two hundred thousand guilders shall 
be paid them when the first payment shall be made by the partici- 
pants ; provided, that we, with half the aforesaid ten hundred thou- 
sand guilders, shall receive and bear profit and risk in the same man- 
ner as the other participants of this Company. 

XL. And if by a powerful and continued obstruction of the afore- 
said navigation and trade, the affairs within the limits of this Com- 
pany should be brought to a state of open war, we will, if the situa- 
tion of this country will in any wise admit of it, give them for their 
assistance sixteen ships of war, the smallest one of one hundred and 
fifty lasts burden, with four good, well-sailing yachts, the smallest 
of forty lasts burden, which shall be properly mounted and provided 
in all respects, both with brass 01 and other cannon, and a proper 
quantity of ammunition, together with double suits of running and 

61 Metalcn; literally, metal, as distinguished from iron cannon. See De Jon'ge, 
Geschiedenis van het Nederlandschc Zeewesen, ed. 2, p. 281; de Laet, Historie ofte 
Iaerlijck Verhael, apx. p. 3-9. 


staende Want, Zeylagie, Touwen, Anckcrs ende andere toe-behoor- 
ten, sulcks die op alsulcke groote Expeditie behooren versien ende 
gebruyckt te w of den : Behoudens dat die voorts sullen worden 
ghemant, ghevictuailleert ende onderhouden tot koste vande Com- 
pagnie: Ende dat de Compagnie ghehouden sal zijn daer by tc 
voegen ghelijcke sesthien Schepen van Oorloge, met vier Jacbtcn. 
mede gemonteert ende voorsien als vooren, om gelijckelijck tot 
defensie vande Trafficque, ende alle Exploicten van Oorloge 
gebruyckt te werden : Midts dat alle de Scbepen van Oorloge, ende 
de Koopvaerdye-Scbepen (die mede sulcks sullen worden toe- 
gerust ende gemant als 't behoort) sullen staen onder een Admirael, 
by ons daer over te stellen, naer voorgaende advijs vande voorsz 
Generale Vefgaderinge : Ende sullen volgen onse Commandemeh- 
ten, midtsgaders de Resolutien vande Compagnie, om des noot 
zijnde, gelijckelijck ten Oorloge gebruyckt te werden : sulcx noch- 
tans dat de Koopvaerders buyten noot hare ladinge niet en sullen 

XLI. Ende in gevalle soude mogen ghebeuren, dat de Landen 
in hare Lasten merckelijck souden mogen worden verlicht, ende 
dat dese Compagnie in sware lasten van Oorloge soude komen te 
vervallen : Soo hebben wy belooft ende belooven midts desen, de 
voorschreve subsidie sulcks te vermeerderen als den Staet vande 
Landen sal mogen lijden, ende die saecken vande Compagnie sul- 
len komen te vereysschen. 

XLII. Hebben voorts geordonneert, Dat in gevalle van Oorloge, 
alle Prinsen die op die Vyanden, ofte oock op die Zee-roovers 
binnen de voorschreve Limiten, by de Compagnie, of by den geenen 
die den selven t'hare assistentie sullen worden by-gevoecht, soude 
mogen werden verovert : Oock de goederen, die uyt krachte van 
onse Placaten sullen worden aengehaelt, na aftreckinge van alle 
nootelicke kosten, als oock vande schade die de Compagnie in 't 
veroveren van elcke Prinse soude mogen hebben gheleden : mits- 
gaders de gherechtigheyt van Sijn Excellentie als Admirael, in 
conformite van onse Resolutie, dient halvcn op den eersten April 
Sesthien-hondert ende twee ghenomen : ende het thiende-part vande 
Officiers, P>oots-volck ende Soldaten, die de Prinsen gedaen sullen 
hebben, sullen blijven tcr dispositie vande Bewinthebbers vande 
voorschreve Compagnie : Mits dat daer van gehouden sal worden 
Reeckeninge apart, ende verscheyden vande Reeckeninge vande 
Negotien ende Commercien : Ende dat het provenu vande selvc 
Prinsen sal worden geemployeert totte equipagie vande Schepen, 
«nde betalinge van het Volck van Oorloge, Fortificatien, Besettiq. 


standing rigging, sails, cables, anchors and other things thereto be- 
longing, such as are proper to be provided and used in all great ex- 
peditions ; upon condition that they shall be manned, victualed and 
supported at the expense of the Company and that the Company 
shall be obliged to add thereto sixteen like ships of war and 
four yachts, mounted and provided as above, to be used in like man- 
ner for the defense of trade and all exploits of war; provided that 
all the ships of war and merchantmen (which likewise shall be pro- 
vided and manned as is fitting) shall be under an admiral appointed 
by us after previous advice of the aforesaid general Assembly and 
shall obey our commands, together with the resolutions of the Com- 
pany, and if need be, shall be used together for purposes of war, 
in such manner, however, that the merchantmen shall not unneces- 
sarily hazard their lading. 

XLI. And if it should happen that the country should be greatly 
eased of its burdens and that this Company should be put to the 
heavy charges of war, we have further promised, and do promise, 
to increase the aforesaid subsidy in such manner as the situation of 
this country will permit and the affairs of the Company shall re- 

XLII. We have moreover ordained that in case of war all the 
prizes which may be taken from enemies and pirates within the 
aforesaid limits by the Company or those who have been sent to its 
assistance ; also the goods which shall be seized by virtue of our 
proclamations — after deducting all necessary expenses and the 
damage which the Company may have suffered in taking each prize, 
together with the dues of His Excellency as admiral in chief agree- 
able to our resolution to that effect adopted on the first of April, 
sixteen hundred and two, and the tenth part for the officers, sailors 
and soldiers who have taken the prize — shall remain at the disposal 
of the directors of the aforesaid Company ; provided that the account 
of them shall be kept separate and distinct from the account of trade 
and commerce, that the net proceeds of the said prizes shall be em- 
ployed in fitting out ships, paying the troops, fortifications, garrj- 


gen encle diergelijcke saecken van Oorloge ende defensie te Water 
ende te Lande dependerende, sonder dat men daer van sal doen 
eenige distribntie, ten ware dat het selfde provenu soo groot werde 
bevonden, dat men sonder swackinge vande selve defensie, ende 
nae dat d'onkosten vande Oorloge sonde zijn betaelt, eenige 
merckelijcke parthye sonde mogen uyt deelen, de welcke geschieden 
sal apart ende ghescheyden vande distribntien vande Commercien. 
Ende sal de verdeylinge gedaen worden, een thiende-deel voor de 
gemeene saecke vande Vereenichde Nederlanden, ende de reste 
onder de Participanten van dese Compagnie, elcke ponts gelijcke, 
naer rate van sijn ingeleyt Capitael. 

XLIII. Behoudelick nochtans, dat alle de Prinsen ende goederen, 
uyt krachte vande Placaten aengehaelt, in-ghebracht ende te Recbte 
gestelt sullen moeten worden, ter judicature vande Rade ter Ad- 
miraliteyt vande Quartieren daer die in gbebracht sullen zijn, om 
by de selve kennisse genomen, ende ghesententieert te worden op 
de deuchdelijckbeyt ofte ondeuchdclijckbeyt vande selve Prinsen : 
Blijvende niet te min liangende den Processe d'admistratie vande 
inghebracbte Goederen by de Compagnie, ende dat onder behoor- 
lijcken Inventaris, ende behoudens de Revisie vande geenen die 
by Sententie vande Admiraliteyt gbegraveert soude mogen zijn, in 
conformiteyt vande Instructie aen die vande Admiraliteyt gegeven : 
Welverstaende, dat de Vendu-Meesters ende andere Officiers vande 
Admiraliteyten, geen Recbt sullen genieten ofte mogen pretenderen 
vande Prinsen die by dese Compagnie sullen worden ghebeneficieert, 
ende daer in sy niet en zijn geemployeert. 

XLIV. De Bewinthebbers van dese Compagnie sullen solem- 
nelijck belooven ende sweeren, dat sy hun in bare administratie 
wel ende ghetrouwelijck sullen dragen, goede ende deuchdelijcke 
Reeckeninghe doen van hare handelinge : Dat sy in alles sullen 
bevoorderen 't meeste profijt vande Compagnie, ende der selver 
schade beschutten, soo veel mogelijck sal zijn : Dat sy den meesten 
vande Participanten, in 't opbrengen ende uytdeylinge vande Pen- 
ningen, niet meer voordeel en sullen doen als den minsten : Dat 
sy in 't innen ende ontfangcn vande uytstaende schulden, den eenen 
niet meer als den anderen sullen verschooiien : Dat sy voor haer 
eygen Reeckeninge participeren, ende ghednyrende haer Bewint- 
hebbersclia]) sullen blijven participeren, alsulcke somme van Pen- 
ningen als by desen Octroye zijn geordonneert: Midtsgaders dat 
sy alle ende een yeder vande poincten ende Articulen in desen 
vermeil, vour soo veel haer acngact, sullen nae komen ende onder- 


sons and like matters of war and defense, by sea and land, and that 
there shall be no distribution unless the said proceeds shall amount 
to so much that a notable share may be distributed without weaken- 
ing the said defense and after paying the expenses of the war, which 
distribution shall be made separately and apart from that on account 
of trade ; and the distribution shall be made, one tenth part for the 
use of the United Netherlands and the remainder for the partici- 
pants of this Company, in exact proportion to their invested capital. 

XLIII. Provided, however, that all the prizes and goods taken by 
virtue of our proclamations shall be brought and tried before the 
council of the admiralty of the district to which they are brought, 
that it may take cognizance of them and determine the legality or 
illegality of the said prizes, the administration of the goods brought 
in remaining, nevertheless, with the Company, pending the process, 
and that under a proper inventory, and saving to those who might be 
injured by the sentence of the admiralty the right of appeal, agree- 
able to the instructions given the admiralty; provided that the ven- 
due masters and other officers of the admiralty shall neither receive 
nor claim any fees from prizes which shall be sold for the benefit 
of this Company and in [connection with] which they are not em- 

XL1V. The directors of this Company shall solemnly promise 
and swear that they will act well and faithfully in their adminis- 
tration and render good and just accounts of their transactions; 
that they will in all things consult the greatest profit of the Company 
and, as much as possible, prevent its meeting with losses ; that they 
will not give the greatest participant any greater advantage in the 
payments or distribution of money than the least ; that, in collecting 
and receiving outstanding debts, they will not excuse one more than 
another; that they, for their own account, will invest, and during 
the continuance of their administration will continue the invest- 
ment of all such sums of money as by this charter are stipulated ; 
and moreover, that they will, as far as concerns them, to the utmost 


houden, doen nae komen ende onderhouden naer haer uyterste 

XLV. Alle welcke Privilegien, Vryheden ende Exemptien, mits- 
gaders de assistentie hier v.ooren verhaelt, in alle hare voorsz 
Poincten ende Articulen, wy de voorsz Compagnie met goede ken- 
nisse van saecken hebben ghegunt, verleent, belooft ende toegeseyt: 
Gunnen, verleenen ende toeseggen hen mils desen : Beloovende hen- 
lnyden de selve te doen, ende laten genieten rustelijck ende 
vredelijck. Ordonneren oock dat de selve sullen worden onder- 
houden ende achtervolcht by alle Overicheden, Officieren ende 
Ondersaten van dese Vereenichde Nederlanden, sonder daer jegens 
te doen directelick of indirectelick, soo weynich binnen, als buy ten de 
selve Vereenichde Nederlanden, op peyne van daer over als Beletters 
van 't ghemeen welvaren der selver Landen, ende Overtreders van 
onse Ordonnantie gestraft te worden aen Li j £ ende Goet. Be- 
loovende daer en boven, dat wy de Compagnie, in 't innehouden 
van desen onsen Octroye, sullen mainteneren ende staende houden, 
by alle Tractaten van Payse, Alliancien ende Enter-coursen met de 
nae-gebuyre Princen, Rijcken ende Landen, sonder yet ghedaen ofte 
gehandelt te worden dat tot verminderinge van desen soude mogen 
strecken. Ontbieden daerom ende bevelen wel expresselijck alle 
Gouverneurs, Justicieren, Officieren, Magistraten ende Inwoonders 
der voorschreve A^ereenichde Nederlanden, dat sy de voorschreve 
Compagnie ende Bewinthebbers van dien, rustelijck ende vredelijck 
laten ghebruycken het volkomen effect van desen Octroye, Consent 
ende Privilegie : Cesserende alle contradictien ende empeschementen 
ter contrarien. Ende op dat niemant hier van ignorantie en pre- 
tendere, Soo hebben wy belast, dat het sommier inhouden van desen 
Octroye by publicatie ofte affixie van Biljetten sal worden genoti- 
ficeert, daer, ende soo het behooren sal : Want wy 't selve ten 
dienste vanden Lande bevonden hebben te behooren. Gegeven 
onder onsen grooten Zegel, Paraphure ende de Signature van onsen 
Grifner, in 's Graven-Hage, op den derden dach der Maent van 
Junio, in 't Jaer sesthien-hondert een-ende-twintich. Was ghepara- 
pheert, /. Magnus?*- Onderstondt, Ter Ordonnantie vande Hooch- 
ghemelte Heeren Staten Generael. Onderteeckent, C. Aerssen. 
Hebbende een uythangende Zegel van rooden Wasschc aen een 
koorde van witte zijde. 


of their power, observe and keep all and every the particulars and 
articles herein contained. 

XLV. All of which privileges, freedoms and exemptions, together 
with the assistance above mentioned, in all their points and articles, 
we have granted, allowed, promised and pledged to the aforesaid 
Company, and do hereby grant, allow and pledge with full knowl- 
edge of the matter, promising to allow them to enjoy the same 
quietly and peaceably. We likewise order that the same shall be 
kept and observed by all magistrates, officers and subjects of these 
United Netherlands and that they shall not do anything contrary to 
the same directly or indirectly, either within or without the said 
United Netherlands, upon pain of being punished therefor both in 
person and property as disturbers of the common welfare of this 
country and transgressors of our ordinance. We further promise 
that we will maintain and uphold the Company in the contents of 
this our charter, by all treaties of peace, alliances and covenants with 
the neighboring princes, kingdoms and countries, without suffering 
anything to be done or transacted that might tend to diminish its 
value. Wherefore we expressly charge and command all governors, 
justiciaries, officers, magistrates and inhabitants of these United 
Netherlands to permit and suffer the Company and its directors 
to enjoy quietly and peaceably all the benefits of this charter, license 
and privilege, ceasing all opposition and obstruction to it. And in 
order that none may pretend ignorance of this, we have ordered a 
summary of the contents of this charter to be publicly proclaimed 
and placarded wherever necessary, for we have found this to be for 
the best interests of the country. Given under our great seal, 
paraph and the signature of our secretary, at the Hague, on the third 
day of the month of June, in the year sixteen hundred and twenty- 
one. Was paraphed, /. Magnus , yt - Underneath was written: By 
order of the aforesaid Honorable Lords the States General. Sub- 
scribed, C. Acrssen. Having a seal pendent of red wax, on a cord 
of white silk. 


Amplification of the charter of the West India Company 1 

June 10, 1622 

Original text 

Ampliatie van 't Octroy: Waer inne de Zout-vaert op Puncto del 
Rey buyten de Compagnie verboden wert: Mede den tijdt van 
inleggen geprolongeert, &c. In date den 10 Iunij 1622. 

De Staten Generael der Vereenichde Nederlanden, Allen den gee- 
nen die dese jegenwoordige sullen sien ofte hooren lesen, Saluyt. 
DOEN TE WETEN, Alsoo hier bevoorens seecker Ampliatie 
van 't Octroy aen de West-Indische Compagnie verleent, tot meer- 
der voortsettinge ende bevorderinge vande selve, by ons uyt 
gegeven ende in forme van Placaet over al is gepubliceert, luydende 
van woorde tot woorde als volcht: 

De Staten Generael der Vereenichde Nederlanden, Allen den 
geenen die desen sullen sien ofte hooren lesen, Saluyt. Alsoo wy 
naer rijpe deltberatie van Raede, tot welstant deser Provintien, 
ende welvaren vande goede Ingesetenen van dien, hebben doen 
besluyten een Compagnie van N ego tie ende Tramcque, alhier in 
dese Nederlanden, op de West-Indien, Africa, ende andere Plaetsen 
in onsen voorgaenden Placate van den negenden Junij inden Tare 
sesthien-hondert een en twintich gedesigneert, met verbodt, dat 
geene Ingeboornen ofte Ingesetenen deser Landen, binnen den tijt 
van vier-en-twintich Jaren, naer den eersten Julij doen eerst- 
komende, en souden vermogen te varen ofte Negotieren binnen de 
selve Limiten, uytghesondert alleen die by den Octroye aende 
voorsz Compagnie verleent zijn, toe-gelaten om Sout te mogen 
varen op Punto del Rey, op het Reglement by ons daer op 
ghemaeckt, ofte noch te maecken: Ende dat Wy de saecke naerder 
over ghemerckt, voor der Landen dienst, ende tot vorderinge vande 
voorsz geoctroycerde Compagnie, dienstich ende noodich ghevonden 
hebben de voorsz Soutvaert op Punto del Rey, inde selve Com- 
pagnie mede te incorporeren. SOO 1ST, dat Wy, blijvende ons 
voorgaende Placaet vanden negenden Junij in sijn geheel, mede 
geinterdiceert ende verboden hebben, interdiceren ende verbieder 

1 Printed with other documents in pamphlet form in 1623, 1624, 1629 and 1642 (Asher, 
no. 55-61); also in part in de Laet, Historie ofte Iacrlijck Verhael, introd. p. [17]. 
and by way of recital in the confirmation of Feb. 16, 1623, in Groot Placaet Boeck, 
vol. 1, col. 579—82, which text has been used for the present copy. An imperfect 
translation of the part printed in de Laet is found in Hazard, Historical Collections of 
State Papers, 1:149-50. 


Amplification of the Charter of the West India Company 

June 10, 1622 


Amplification of the charter : wherein the salt trade to Puncto del 
Rey is forbidden except to the Company ; also the time of sub- 
scription extended, &c. Dated June 10, 1622. 

The States General of the United Netherlands, to all those who 
shall sec these presents or hear them read, greeting. Be it known, 
that whereas heretofore a certain amplification of the charter 
granted to the West India Company, for the further promotion and 
benefit of the same, has been published by us and brought to pub- 
lic notice everywhere by means of placards, reading word -for 
word as follows : 

The States General of the United Netherlands to all who shall 
see these presents or hear them read, greeting. Whereas we have 
after mature deliberation of council, for the benefit of these 
provinces and the welfare of the good inhabitants thereof, caused 
a company to be formed here in these Netherlands for commerce 
and trade to the West-Indies, Africa and other places mentioned 
in our former proclamation of the ninth of June, in the year 
sixteen hundred and twenty-one, with a prohibition that none of the 
natives or inhabitants of this country for the term of twenty-four 
years from the first of July next following should sail or trade 
within the said limits, except only those who under the charter 
granted to the aforesaid Company are permitted to carry on the 
salt trade to Punto del Rey under the regulations therefor adopted 
or to be adopted by us : whereas upon reconsidering that matter, 
we find that it is useful and necessary for the service of this coun- 
try and for promoting the aforesaid chartered Company to vest 
the aforesaid salt trade to Punto del Rey also in the said Company: 
Therefore we (our former proclamation of the ninth of June re- 
maining in full force) have also interdicted and forbidden, and by 
these presents do interdict and forbid, the natives and inhabitants 


by desen, dat geene Ingheboornen ofte Inghesetenen deser Landen, 
binnen den tijt vande voorsz vier-en-twintich Jaren, uyt dese Neder- 
landen, nochte de voorsz Ingeboornen ofte Ingesetenen, oock uyt 
eenige andere Rijcken ofte Landen, directelick ofte indirectelick 
en sullen vermogen te varen op de voorsz Sout-vaert van Punto del 
Rey, anders als uyt den Name ende van wegen dese Compagnie, 
willende ende ordonnerende, dat alle andere Ingeboornen ende In- 
gesetenen, die ter contrarie hen vervorderen sullen te doen, ofte 
bevonden sullen konnen werden gedaen te hebben, verbeuren sullen 
Schip ende Goederen, die datelijck aen getast, ende ten behoeve 
vande voornoemde Compagnie verbeurt ghehouden sullen werden. 
Ende indien soodanige Schepen ende Goederen souden mogen wer- 
den daer naer verkocht, ofte in andere Landen ofte Havenen 
gebracht, Hebben wy geordonneert ende ghestatueert, ordonneren 
ende statueren by desen, dat de Reeders ende Participanten van 
dien, in dese Landen woonende, ofte hier ghegoet wesende, voor 
de waerde van dien sullen wesen convenibel, ende gheexecuteert 
mogen werden. Wy hebben mede goet gevonden den tijdt om in 
dese Compagnie te mogen komen, te prolongeren, gelijck wy doen 
by desen voor den Ingesetenen deser Landen, tot den lesten Julij 
toekomende, nieuwen stijl incluys : Ende voor den Uytheemschen 
tot den laetsten Septembris, mede nieuwen stijle daer aen volgende, 
ende oock inclusive. Ende en sal naer dien tijdt niemant meer tot 
eenige teeckeninge ofte inlatinge hide Compagnie werden gheadmit- 
teert, ten eynde alle de geene die inde voorsz Compagnie noch sullen 
wiilen komen, binnen den selven tijdt als noch, onder eenige vande 
Directeurs daer toe gestelt, mogen teyckenen ofte doen teyckenen 
voor sulcken somme van penningen als haer goet duncken sal inde 
selve te herideren : Willende mede dat de eerste ses Weecken gheex- 
pireert zijnde, uyt de bequaemste, ervarenste, ende meest ingeleyt- 
hebbende Participanten, datelijck gheeligheert, gemaeckt ende ge- 
stelt sullen werden de Bewinthebberen vande voornoemde Compagnie, 
in conformiteyt vanden Octroye, ende dat de selve als dan promp- 
telijck sullen procederen tot d'equipagie, om de gheoctroyeerde 
Navigatie ende Handelinge datelijck by der handt te nemen, ende 
in 't werck te stellen. Ende want wy wiilen dat alle 't gunt voorsz 
is, vast ende bondich blijve, ende also onderhouden werde in Recht 
ende daer buyten, Hebben wy versOcht de Staten ende Stadthou- 
deren der respective Provincien van Gelderlant ende Zutphen, Hol- 
lant ende West-Vrieslant, Zeelandt, Utrecht, Vrieslant, Over-Yssel, 
ende van Groeningen ende Ommelanden : Midtsgaders der selver Ge- 
committeerde Raden, ofte Gedeputeerde Staten, gelijck oock den 


of this country, during- the term of the aforesaid twenty-four 
years, to sail out of these Netherlands, as also out of any other 
kingdom or country, directly or indirectly, in the said salt trade to 
Punto del Rey, except in the name and on behalf of this Com- 
pany; willing and ordaining that all other natives and inhabitants 
who shall venture to do, or shall be found to have done anything to 
the contrary hereof, shall forfeit ship and goods which shall be 
immediately seized and confiscated for the benefit of the aforesaid 
Company. And if such ship and goods should thereafter be sold 
or brought into other countries or ports, we have ordained and de- 
creed, and do hereby ordain and decree, that the owners and par- 
ticipants thereof, living in this country or owning property here, 
shall be liable for the value thereof and that execution may issue 
against them. We have also deemed fit, as we hereby deem fit, to 
extend the time of entering this Company for the inhabitants of this 
country till the last of July next, new style, inclusive, and for 
foreigners till the last of September, also new style, next ensuing, 
and also inclusive. And after that date no one shall be admitted 
or allowed to make any subscription to this Company, so that all 
those who still wish to be admitted to this Company may within 
the time aforesaid subscribe or cause subscription to be made before 
some of the directors thereto appointed for such sums of money as 
they shall see fit to invest in the same. We further desire that 
immediately after the expiration of the first six weeks, from the 
most able and experienced participants who have made the largest 
investments shall be elected and appointed the directors of the afore- 
said Company, in accordance with the charter, and that the same 
shall thereupon promptly proceed to the equipment of vessels in 
order to begin at once the granted navigation and trade. 

And desiring that what is above written shall be observed and 
maintained, in law and without, we have requested the States and 
Stadtholders of the respective provinces of Gelderland and Zutphen, 
Holland and West-Friesland, Zealand, Utrecht, Friesland, Over- 
Yssel, and of Groningen and Ommelanden, together with the 
Deputy Councils or States of the same, and the Chancelor, Presi- 


Cancelaer, Presidenten ende die vande Justicie vande voorsz Landen : 
Ende voorts belast ende geordonneert, gelijck Wy belasten ende or- 
donneren mits desen alle Collegien vande Admiraliteyten, alle Ad- 
mi ralen, Oversten, Colonnellen, Ritmeesters ende Capiteynen, te 
Water ende te Lande: Mitsgaders alle Justicieren ende Officieren, 
dit alclns te houden ende doen houden, ende in 't Sententieren heur 
daer naer te reguleren, sonder eenige indrachte ter contrarien. 
Ende op dat niemant hier van eenige ignorantie en pretendere, 
Versoecken ende ontbieden Wy alle Overheyden, Magistraten, 
Officiers ende Justicieren binnen dese Vereenichde Nederlanden, die 
bet eenicbsints aengaen macb, dat sy desen alomme doen verkon- 
digen, uytroepen ende publiceren, daer men ghewoon is uytroepinge 
ende pnblicatie te doen : Want wy 't selve voor den dienst vande 
Landen ende de goede Ingesetenen van dien bevonden hebben te 
behooren. Aldus ghedaen en gearresteert ter Vergacleringe vande 
Heeren Staten Generael, in 's Graven-Hage, desen thienden Junij 
in 't Jaer ons Heeren duysent ses hondert tvvee-en-twintich. Was 
gheparapheert, N. vander Meer, vt - Onder stont, Ter Ordonnantie 
vande Hooch-ghemelte Heeren Staten Generael. Geteeckent, C. 

Ende dat de voorsz Compagnie deur eenige heure Gecommit- 
teerden naeder bant klaerlijck hebben gheremonstreert ende ver- 
toont, hoe die meeste ende grootste teyckeninge daer op princi- 
pal^ ck is gevolget, in voegen dat men sonder 't selve geensints tot 
suffisante Capitalen sonde hebben konnen geraecken, overmits het 
meerendeel der Participanten een fnndamentale Staet van voor- 
seecker gewin grootelijcks daer op gemaekt, Ons over sulcks ver- 
soeckende, wy haer de boven-gheschreven Ampliatie tot haren con- 
tentemente ende meerder ghewisheyt, oock amputatie van alle 
disputen ende contrabanden met onsen grooten Zegel ghecon- 
firmeert ende bevestiget, grootgunstich wilden met deelen ende 
toekomen laten. SOO 1ST, day wy ons in alles genegen vindende, 
omme de voorschreve West-Indische Compagnie gunstelijck te 
favbriseren, nae rijpe deliberatie, met voile kennisse van saecke 
gheaccordeert hebben, ende accorderen mits desen, dat de boven- 
genoemde Ampliatie ten fine voorsz met onsen grooten Zegel ghe- 
confirmeert ende bevesticht werde. Aldus gedaen in onse Ver- 
gaderingc onder onsen grooten Zegele, Paraphure, c\m\c de Sig- 
nature van onsen Griffier, in's Graven-Hage Opten sesthienden 
Februarij [623. Was geparapheert, /. Magnus?*- Opte Plijcque 
stondt, Ter Ordonnantie vande hooeh-gemelte Heeren Staten Gene- 
rael. ( leteeckent, ('. . lerssen. 


dents and officers of justice of the said provinces, and have further 
charged and commanded as we hereby do charge and command all 
boards of admiralty, all admirals, commanders, colonels, captains 
of horse and foot, on water and on land, together with all officers 
of justice, to observe the same and to cause the same to be ob- 
server! and in rendering sentence to govern themselves accordingly, 
without suffering any violation whatsoever. And in order that no 
one may pretend ignorance hereof, we request and summon all 
authorities, magistrates and officers of justice within these United 
Netherlands, whom it may in any wise concern, to have this am- 
plification proclaimed, promulgated and made public wherever it 
is customary to have such proclamation and promulgation made ; 
for we deem this fit for the service of this country and its good 
inhabitants. Thus clone and passed at the meeting of the Lords 
States General, at the Hague, this tenth of June in the year of our 
Lord one thousand six hundred and twenty-two. Was paraphed, 
N. vander Meer, vt Underneath was written : By order of the 
aforesaid honorable Lords the States General. Signed, C. Acrsscn. 

And whereas the aforesaid Company through some of their dep- 
uties have later remonstrated and clearly shown that the majority 
and the largest of the subscriptions were thereupon made and that 
without this amplification no sufficient capital could have been 
brought together, inasmuch as the majority of the participants 
largely counted on this as essential for assured profit, and therefore 
request us that, for their satisfaction and further security, and also 
to prevent all disputes and contraband trading, we do them the 
favor to grant them this amplification confirmed and ratified under 
our great seal ; Therefore, being in every way willing to favor the 
aforesaid West India Company, we have after mature deliberation 
and with full knowledge of circumstances granted, and hereby do 
grant, that the aforesaid amplification, for the purpose aforesaid, 
be confirmed and ratified under our great seal. Thus done in our 
meeting under our great seal, paraph and signature of our secre- 
tary, at the Hague, on the sixteenth of February 1623. Was para- 
phed, /. Magnus?*- On the fold was written: By order of the 
aforesaid honorable Lords the States General. Signed, C. Acrsscn. 


Amplification of the charter of the West India Company 2 

February 13, 1623 

Original text 

Ampliatie van't Octroy, In date den derthienden Februarij ses- 
tien-hondert drie-en-twintich. 

De Staten Generael der Vereenichde Nederlanden, Allen den 
geenen die dese jegenwoordige sullen sien ofte hooren lesen, Saluyt. 
DOEN TE WETEN, dat wy op den vier-en-twintichsten Marti j, 
Anno sestien-hondert twee-ende-twintich voorleden, in onse Verga- 
deringe gehoort hebbende, 't geene van wegen de Heeren Staten van 
Hollant ende West-Vrieslandt, door seeckere extraordinaris Gede- 
puteerden voor gedragen is, dat omme te beter te vorderen de West- 
Indische Compagnie, de Sout-vaert op de Puncto del Rey, gelegen 
binnen de Limiten van 't Octroy vande selve Compagnie, ende te 
vooren daer van geexcipieert, in 't voornoende Octroy nootsaeckelijck 
diende ende mochte werden begrepen, ende alle andere Sout-vaerten, 
buyten de Limiten van 't Octroy gelegen, vry ende daer buyten ghela- 
ten. Dat mede de Hooft-Participanten vande voorschreve Compag- 
nie, mogen hebben de nominatie van tripel ghetal, daer uyt de Be- 
winthebbers verkoren sullen moeten werden : Mitsgaders oock dat de 
Steden, daer gheen Kameren en zijn, inleggende uyt heure Gemeen- 
ten op eenen Naem hondert duysent gulden ofte meer, op nominatie 
als vooren, een Bewinthebber op elcke hondert duysent gulden sou- 
den mogen stellen in sulcke Kamer, daer sy goet vinden sullen heure 
Penningen te brengen. Versoeckende dat Wy 't voorschreve Oc- 
troy vande voornoemde West-Indische Compagnie mette voorschreve 
Poincten wilden amplieren, opdat de Compagnie mochte werden 
geslooten, op 't welcke by ons dier tijt wel ende rijpelick gedeli- 
bereert wesende : Wy verklaert ende gheconsenteert hebben, Dat de 
voornoemde Sout-vaert op dc Puncto del Rey begrepen sal werden, 
gelijck wy de selve deden begrijpen in 't voorschreve Octroy vande 
West-Indische Compagnie, op de ordre ende interdictien daer inne 
begrepen. Ende op de twee andere Poincten mede verklaert, dat in 

2 Printed with other documents in pamphlet form in 1623, 1624, 1629 and 1642 
(Asher, no. 55-61); also in de Laet, Historic ofte laerlijck Verhael, introd. p. [10], 
and in Groot Placaet Boeck, vol. 1, col. 583-86, which text has been followed in the 
present copy. An imperfect translation is found in Hazard, Historical Collections of 
State Papers, 1: 181-82. 


Amplification of the charter of the West India Company 

February zj, 1623 

Amplification of the charter, dated the thirteenth of February six- 
teen hundred twenty-three. 

The States General of the United Netherlands, to all who shall 
see these presents or hear them read, greeting. Be it known, that 
we, having heard in our meeting on the twenty-fourth of March, in 
the year sixteen hundred and twenty-two last past, that which on be- 
half of the Lords the States of Holland and West Friesland was 
laid before us by certain extraordinary deputies, namely, that for the 
better promoting the West India Company it was necessary that the 
salt trade to Puncto del Rey, situated within the limits of the said 
Company's charter and formerly excepted from it, should be includ- 
ed in the aforesaid charter, and that all other salt trades, situated 
without the limits of that charter, should be left free and out of it; 
also that the chief participants of the aforesaid Company might 
have the nomination of a triple number, out of which the directors 
should be chosen ; further, that the cities in which there are no Cham- 
bers, contributing out of their funds in one name one hundred thous- 
and guilders or more, upon nomination as aforesaid, might be en- 
titled to appoint one director for each hundred thousand guilders, 
in whatever Chamber they should think proper to invest their money ; 
and that they desired that we would amplify the aforesaid charter to 
the above mentioned West India Company with the aforesaid pro- 
visions that the Company might be completed ; and this being by us 
at that time well and maturely deliberated upon : we declared and 
consented that the aforesaid salt trade at Puncto del Rey should be 
included, as we did include it, in the aforesaid charter of the West 
India Company under the orders and interdictions therein contained. 
And with respect to the other two provisions, we further declared 


krachte van 't dertiende Articule van 't voornoemde Octroy, dien 
van Hollandt ende West-Yricslandt, gclijck oock allc andere Pro- 
vincien vry staet de nominatie vande Bewinthebbers, in voegen als 
vooren te laten doen, ten meesten dienste ende voorderinge vande 
Compagnie, Midtsgaders oock geaccordeert ende geconsenteert heb- 
ben, dat de Steden daer geen Kameren en zijn, inne leggende uyt 
heure Gemeenten bondert dnysent gulden ofte meer, op beboorlicke 
nominatie vande Hooft-Participanten, ende over elcke bondert dny- 
sent gulden, sullen mogen stellen een Bewinthebber, in sulcken Ka- 
mer, daer sy goet vinden sullen beure Penningen te brengen. Van 
't welcke wy als nu versocbt wesende by de Bewintdiebbers vande 
West-Indiscbe Compagnie, beboorlicke Brieven te doen depescberen, 
geparapheert, geteyckent ende gesegelt met onsen grooten Zegele 
naer bebooren, hebben wy in achtervolcb van onse Resolutie, op den 
voornoemden vier-en-twintichsten Martij genomen, dese onse Brie- 
ven van alle 't gunt voorsz is doen depescberen. Beloovende 't selve 
goet, vast ende van weerden te houden ende doen houden, ende or- 
donnerende eenen yegbelijcken hem bier naer te reguleren. Aldus 
gedaen in onse Vergaderinge, onder onsen grooten Zegele, Para- 
phure ende de Signature van onsen Griffier, in 's Graven-Hage den 
dertienden Februarij 1623. Was geparapheert, /. Magnus, wt - Opte 
Plijcque stout, Ter Ordonnantie vande Hooch-ghemelte Heeren 
Staten Generael. Geteeckent, C. Acrsscn. Hebbende een uythan- 
gende Zegel in rooden Wassche aen een witte zijde koorde. 


that, by virtue of the thirteenth article of the aforesaid charter, 
Holland and West Friesland, and likewise all the other provinces, 
shall be free as formerly to cause the nomination of directors to be 
made in the manner which is for the best interest and advance- 
ment of the Company. Moreover, we agreed and consented that 
the cities in which there are no Chambers, upon advancing out of 
their funds one hundred thousand guilders or more, on proper nomi- 
nation by the chief participants and for each hundred thousand guil- 
ders might appoint a director in whatever Chamber they should 
think proper to invest their money. Of the which, as we are now 
desired by the directors of the West India Company to cause a 
suitable instrument in writing to be properly drawn up, paraphed, 
subscribed and sealed with our great seal, we have, agreeable to 
our resolution adopted on the aforesaid twenty-fourth of March, 
caused these letters to be drawn up for all that is aforesaid ; promis- 
ing to keep them and cause them to be kept, well, firmly and truly 
and ordaining that all persons govern themselves accordingly. Thus 
done at our meeting, under our great seal, paraph and the signature 
of our secretary, in the Hague, the thirteenth of February 1623. 
Was paraphed, /. Magnus:*- In the fold was written: By order 
of the aforesaid Honorable Lords the States General. Signed, 
C. Aersscn. Having a seal pendent of red wax, on a cord of 
white silk. 


Agreement between the directors and the chief participants of 
the West India Company 3 

June 21, 1 62 3 

Original text 

Accoordt tusschen de Bewinthebberen ende Hooft-Participanten van- 
de West-Indische Compagnie, met approbatie vande Ho : ende 
Mog: Heeren Staten Generael ghemaeckt. In date den 21 
Junij 1623. 

De Staten Generael der Vereenichde Nederlanden, Allen den gee- 
nen die desen jegenwoordige sullen getoont werden, Saluyt. DOEN 
TE WETEN, Alsoo op 't vertooch aen ons ghedaen, by eenige 
Gedeputeerden vande Hooft-Participanten vande geoctroyeerde 
West-Indische Compagnie ter Kamere van Amsterdam, dat de selve 
tot verscheydene reysen hen vervoecht hebben ghehadt soo in 't Col- 
legie vande Bewinthebberen, als oock meermaelen met haer Gecom- 
mitteerden gebesoigneert, ten eynde in tijts goede ordre ende Regle- 
ment soude mogen werden genomen ende gestabilieert, tot contente- 
ment vande goede Participanten, op dat de saecken te beter ende met 
meerder vruchts op 't spoedichste in 't werck ghestelt, ende dien vol- 
gende in treyn ghebrocht soude mogen werden, versoeckende onse 
approbatie, 't zy by forme van ampliatie van 't Octroy, of te andersints 
by raminge van ordre vande voorschreve particuliere Kamer tot Am- 
sterdamme, ofte soo wy te raede souden vinden, over eenige Poincten 
aen ons tot dien eynde ghepresenteert. Ende wy alvoorens daer op 
te resolveren, goet hebben gevonden Copyen daer van over te senden 
aen de respective Kameren vande West-Indische Compagnie, 0111 de 
selve rijpelick te examineren, mette Hooft-Participanten communi- 
ceren, ende hare Gedeputeerden, mitsgaders eenige Gedeputeerden 
vande Hooft-Participanten by ons te senden, volcomentlijck gelast 

3 Printed with other documents in pamphlet form in 1623, 1624, 1629 and 1642 
(Asher, no. 55-61); also in de Laet, Historie ofte Iaerlijck Verhael, introd. p. [19—22], 
and in Groot Placaet Boeck, vol. 1, col. 585-90, which last text has been followed in 
the present copy. An imperfect translation is found in Hazard, Historical Collections 
of State Papers, 1:174-78, reprinted in O'Callaghan, History of Netu Nethcrland, 


Agreement between the directors and the chief participants of 
the West India Company 

June 21, 1623 


Agreement made between the directors and the chief participants 
of the West India Company, with the approval of the High and 
Mighty Lords the States General. Dated June 21, 1623. 

The States General of the United Netherlands, to all to whom 
these presents shall come, greeting. Be it known, that whereas, in 
a memorial directed to us by certain deputies of the chief partici- 
pants of the chartered West India Company, Chamber of Amster- 
dam, setting forth that they presented themselves several times be- 
fore the Assembly of the directors and also held a number of meet- 
ings with the committee appointed by them to the end that in due 
time proper rules and regulations might be adopted and established 
to the satisfaction of the good participants and that the business 
might the better and with the more profit be set in motion as soon 
as possible and subsequently be brought into proper operation, our 
approbation was requested of several articles presented to us for 
that purpose, either in the way of an amplification of their charter 
or else by framing an order for the aforesaid particular Chamber of 
Amsterdam or in such manner as we should find advisable ; and 
whereas, before adopting any resolution thereupon, we thought fit, to 
send a copy of the articles to the respective Chambers of the West 
India Company, that they might carefully examine them, confer with 
the chief participants and send to us deputies from themselves, as 
well as from the chief participants, fully empowered and authorized, 


ende gheauthoriseert, om daer over, ende wat noch voorts tot bevor- 
deringe van soo een noodige saecke soude mogen dienen, in onder- 
linge conferentie te komen, ende soo doenelijck, finalijcken t' accor- 
deren op onse approbatie. Ende dat die Gedeputeerden vande re- 
spective Kameren, Directeurs ende Hooft-Participanten in compe- 
tenten getale daer op alhier zijn gekomen, ende volgens ten over- 
staen, inductien ende tusschen-spreecken van onse Gecommitteerden, 
nae verscheydene ghehoudene conferentien, communicatien ende de- 
liberatien, eyntelijck als Bewinthebbers, Directeurs ende Hooft- 
Participanten sonder prejudicie vande Provincien ende respective 
Steden, tot vorderinge vande West-Indische saecke, verdragen ende 
onderlinge gheaccordeert hebben dese naevolgende Articulen. 

Ten eersten, Dat geene veranderinge, extentien nochte interpre- 
tatie van het Octroy ofte dependentien van dien sullen werden ver- 
socht by de Bewinthebberen noch by de Hooft-Participanten ofte 
yemant anders, dan nae voorgaende convocatie, communicatien ende 
approbatie van het meerendeel der Bewinthebberen ende Hooft- 
Participanten, die inde vergaderinge sullen present zijn. 

Ten tweeden, Dat in alle vergaderingen daer Bewinthebberen en- 
de Hooft-Participanten t'samen, ofte daer de Hooft-Participanten 
alleen ende apart sonder de' Bewinthebberen sullen besoigneren, alle 
nominatien, deputatien ende electien met eenen name t'effens sullen 
gheschieden met beslooten Brief kens den presiderenden in handen te 
geven, ofte op andere secrete manieren. 

Ten derden, Dat de Compagnie geene Penningen op Interesse 
oft deposito sal mogen lichten, dan met advijs ende consent van 't 
meerendeel der Bewinthebberen ende Hooft-Participanten, Doch 
sullen de respective Kameren in voorvallende noot, voor een reyse 
alleen mogen lichten elck een twintichste deel van 't ingheleyde Capi- 
tael in hare Kamer, sonder dat by de selve Kameren meerder lich- 
tinge sal werden gedaen, voor ende al eer de eerste gelichte Pennin- 
gen sullen zijn afgelost. 

Ten vierden, Dat alle Reeckeningen by het vijfthiende Articule 
van 't Octroy gementioneert, sullen gedaen werden nae stijle van 
Negotie, aen de Gecommitteerde byde Hooft-Participanten te nomi- 
neren, ende onder Eede t'admitteren, binnen den tijdt in 't voorsz 
vijfthiende Articule begrepen, welcke Gecommitteerde daer af al- 
leene in 't gros aen de andere Hooft-Participanten rapport sullen 
doen, Doch sullen de selve Gecommitteerden by Eede verbonden zijn 
niet t'ontdecken, maer alles secreet te houden, dat de Bewintheb- 
beren secreet moeten houden : Sullen mede 't verboth by het een-en- 


for this purpose and whatever might serve to promote so necessary 
a business, to meet in mutual conference and if possible to come to 
final agreement, subject to our approval; and whereas these depu- 
ties of the respective Chambers, directors and chief participants, 
thereupon came here in proper number and, in the presence and on 
the suggestion and persuasion of our delegates, after the holding 
of several conferences, communications and deliberations, finally, as 
managers, directors and chief participants, without prejudice to the 
provinces and respective cities, for promoting the West India busi- 
ness mutually agreed upon the following articles : 

I. That no alteration, extension or interpretation of the charter 
or acts depending thereon shall be sought by the directors or by the 
chief participants or any others, except after previous meeting, dis- 
cussion and the approval of a majority of the directors and chief 
participants who shall be present at the meeting. 

II. That in all joint meetings of the directors and chief partici- 
pants or those of the chief participants alone and without the di- 
rectors, all nominations, choice of deputies, and elections shall take 
place, one name at a time, by placing folded ballots in the hands of 
the presiding officer or in some other secret manner. 

HI. That the Company shall borrow no money on interest or de- 
posit, except with the advice and the consent of the major part of 
the directors and chief participants ; nevertheless in case of necessity 
and for one voyage only, the respective Chambers may each borrow 
the twentieth part of the subscribed capital of their Chamber, but 
the said Chamber shall not borrow any more before the first loan 
shall have been paid off. 

IV. That all accounts mentioned in the fifteenth article of the 
charter shall be rendered in business form to the committee to be 
nominated by the chief participants, and admitted under oath, within 
the time mentioned in the said fifteenth article, which committee 
shall make report thereof only in gross to the other chief partici- 
pants. But the said committee shall be bound by oath not to di- 
vulge, but to keep everything secret which the directors must keep 
secret. They shall moreover during the time of two years be sub- 


dertichste Artijckel van 't Octroy noopende 't koopen ende 't ver- 
koopen, den Bewinthebberen gedaen, onderworpen zijn, geduerende 
den tijt van twee Jaren. 

Ten vijfden, Dat de selve Gecommitteerden sullen hebben ende 
exerceren van wegen de Hooft-Participanten, bet recht den Agenten 
Artijckel seven-en-twintich gegeven ende vergunt: Ende voorts de 
Boecken, Factuyren ende andere Documenten, tot dien eynde tot 
barer beliefte te mogen nae sien, ende de Coopmanschappen ende 
Brieven die de Commercie aengaen, visiteren. 

Ten sesten, Dat de eerste twee vacerende plaetsen der Bewint- 
bebberen tot Amstelredam, als mede de twee eerste van Zeelandt, 
ende de eerste inde Camer vande Mase, sullen successivelijck gesup- 
pleert ende vervult worden by de Hooft-Participanten vande res- 
pective Kameren, absoluyt by pluraliteyt van stemmen, staende 
onder den selven Eedt, hebbende administratie als de andere Bewint- 
hebberen, ende sullen ghehouden zijn den Hooft-Participanten te 
communiceren 't geene haer aengaet, haer recht inde selve ver- 
gaderinge van Bewinthebberen te bewaren naer ghelegentheyt van 
saecken, de selve te convoceren, ende specialick aen de voorschreve 
Hooft-Participanten verbonden ende revocabel zijn, blijvende suc- 
cessivelijck de resterende Bewinthebberen vande respective Kameren 
eligibel volgende bet Octroy, ofte soo als inde respective Provincien 
albereyts is gheordonneert, ofte noch geordonneert soude mogen 
werden : Ende dat by provisie twee uyt de Hooft-Participanten van 
elcke respective Kameren van Amsterdam ende Zeelandt, ende eene 
uyt de Kamer vande Mase ghecommitteert sullen werden, boven die 
inde voorige Articulen vermelt zijn, om ondertusschen 't voorschreve 
recht vande selve te bewaren, tot dat een ofte twee plaetsen sullen 
vacant zijn. 

Ten sevensten, Soo wanneer de Negenthiene sullen komen te 
vergaderen, sullen de Hooft-Participanten vande Kamer van Am- 
sterdam, eene uyt de voorschreve twee Bewinthebberen of provi- 
sionele Gecommitteerden mogen eligeren, om te wesen eene vande 
acht Bewinthebberen inde selve Vergaderinge, van wegens de Ka- 
mer van Amsterdam te compareren, ghelijck mede die Hooft-Parti- 
cipanten van Zeelandt uyt de voorschreve twee Bewinthebberen of 
provisioned Gecommitteerden by hun absolutelijcken ghestelt, sul- 
len mogen kiesen eene, om te wesen eene vande vier Bewinthebberen 
van wegens haer Kamer inde vergaderinge vande Negenthiene te 
compareren. Ende sullen daer beneffens de voorschreve Hooft- 
Participanten, soo vande Kamer van Amsterdam als van Zeelandt, 


ject to the prohibition in regard to buying and selling placed upon 
the directors by the thirty-first article of the charter. 

V. That the said committee shall have and exercise, on behalf of 
the chief participants, the rights given and granted by Article twen- 
ty-seven to the agents; and moreover, for this purpose, to examine 
the books, invoices and other documents at their pleasure, and in- 
spect the merchandise, and the letters concerning the business. 

VI. That the first two vacant places among the directors at Ams- 
terdam, the first two of Zealand, and the first in the Chamber of the 
Masc shall successively be supplied and filled by the chief partici- 
pants of the respective Chambers, absolutely by plurality of votes ; 
[these elected] are to be bound by the same oath and to have the 
same powers as the other directors, and shall be obliged to communi- 
cate to the chief participants what concerns them, to preserve their 
rights in the said meetings of the directors according to circum- 
stances and to call them together, and they shall be specially respon- 
sible to and [their election] revocable by the aforesaid chief partici- 
pants ; the rest of the directors of the respective Chambers shall con- 
tinue to be elected according to the charter, or in such manner as is 
already ordained, or may hereafter be ordained in the respective 
provinces; and that provisionally two of the chief participants of 
each of the respective Chambers of Amsterdam and Zealand and one 
of the Chamber of the Mase, shall be deputed aside from the com- 
mittee mentioned in the foregoing articles, to take care of their 
aforesaid rights in the meantime, until one or two places shall be 

VII. When the Nineteen shall meet together, the chief partici- 
pants of the Chamber of Amsterdam shall be permitted to choose 
one of the two directors or provisional deputies aforesaid, that he 
may be one of the eight directors in the said meeting for the Cham- 
ber of Amsterdam. In like manner the chief participants of Zea- 
land shall be permitted to choose one of the aforesaid two director? 
or provisional deputies, by them absolutely appointed, to be one of 
four directors representing their Chamber in the Assembly of the 
Nineteen. And in addition the aforesaid chief participants, as well 
those of the Chamber of Amsterdam as those of Zealand, shall each 


noch mogen eligeren elcks eene uyt de be-eedichde Gecommitteerde, 
Artijckel vier ende vijf vermelt, om die voorschreve Gedeputeerden 
elcks inden sijnen t'assisteren inde voorschreve Vergaderinge vande 
Negenthiene, sonder dat nochtans de selve Geassocieerden stemme 
apart sullen hebben. Ende ten eynde de andere Kameren mede ken- 
nisse van saecken opte selve vergaderinghe verhandelt mogen heb- 
ben, sal die geassocieerde vande Kamer van Amsterdam, den Hooft- 
Participanten van 't Noorder-quartier ende van Stadt ende Landen : 
Ende die gheassocieerde vande Kamer van Zeelandt, die vande Mase 
adviseren van 't ghebesoigneerde inde voorschreve Vergaderinge; 
voor soo veele 't selve communicabel sal zijn. 

Ten achtsten, Dat naer desen niemant tot Bewinthebber sal mogen 
gheeligeert werden, die in dienst vande Compagnie van Oost-Indien 
is: Sullen oock Vader ende Soon, Item, Breeders van heelen ende 
halven Bedden, geen Bewinthebberen in eene Kamer te gelijcke mo- 
gen wesen ; Ende sullen de Bewint-hebberen geen provisie ghenieten, 
ten zy dat sy ten dienste vande Compagnie behoorelijck vaceren. 

Ten negenden, Alsoo het noodich is om een yeder te voldoen, dat 
den tijdt om in dese Compagnie te teeckenen ende te herideren noch 
gheprolongeert werde, tot contentement soo vande Ingesetenen als 
Uytlantsche, dat daerom voor dTngesetenen tot ultima Augusti, ende 
voor d'Uytlandische tot ultima Octobris toekommende, beyde Stylo 
novo incluys, de voorschreve inteyckeninge geprolongeert, ende 
bekent gemaeckt worde deur affixie van Billetten, sonder dat naer 
dien dach yemants anders sal mogen ingenomen ofte inghelaten wor- 
den, maer dat een yeder Kamer gehouden sal zijn den eersten dach 
naer ultimo Octobris sijne Capitalen te sluyten, ende acht dagen 
daer naer Copyen aen malkanderen over seynden: Welverstaende 
dat de aen-ghevangene equipagie, haeren voortganck sal hebben 
tot dienste vande Compagnie, ende dat de geene die haere Penni- 
gen voor andere hebben gefurneert, ende noch sullen furneren 
daer van Interesse sullen genieten tot discretie vande Negenthiene. 

Ten thienden, Ende aengaende de generale reeckeninge, Artijckel 
sestien, ende het veranderen van het derdendeel der Bewinthebberen 
Artijckel veerthien in't Octroy ghementioneert, om eene goede ordre 
ende generalen voet in alle Kameren daer in te houden, is noodich 
gevonden dat dc selve generale reeckeninge geschiede (ses Jaercn nae 
date van 't geven van 't Octroy, beginnende den derden Junij ses- 
thien-hondert een-en-twintich, Stylo novo,) naercoustume van Coop- 
manschap in 't openbaer, mede ten overstaen vande voorschreve Ge- 
committeerde vande Hooft-Participanten vande respective Kameren, 


be permitted to choose one of the sworn committee, mentioned in 
articles four and five, to assist the aforesaid deputies, each assisting 
the one from his Chamber, in the aforesaid Assembly of the Nine- 
teen; nevertheless, these associates shall not have a separate Vote. 
And that the other Chambers also may know of the business trans- 
acted by the said Assembly, the associate member from the Chamber 
of Amsterdam shall inform the chief participants of the Noorder- 
quartier and Stadt ende Landen and the associate member from the 
Chamber of Zealand those of the Mase of the business of the afore- 
said Assembly, as far as it shall be communicable. 

VIII. That hereafter no person may be chosen a director who is 
in the service of the East India Company ; in like manner, father and 
son, or brothers of the whole or half blood, may not be directors at 
the same time in one Chamber. And the directors shall receive no 
commissions unless they properly attend to the business of the Com- 

IX. Whereas, in order to satisfy every one, it is necessary that 
the time for subscribing and contributing to this Company shall be 
extended further, for the satisfaction of our own inhabitants as well 
as of foreigners, therefore, be the aforesaid subscriptions extended 
for inhabitants to the last of August, and for foreigners to the last 
of October next, both new style, and the fact made known by post- 
ing of notices ; after that date, no person may be received or ad- 
mitted, but every Chamber must close its subscription lists the first 
day after the last of October, and eight days thereafter send a copy 
to each of the others ; provided, that the equipment already begun 
shall continue for the use of the Company, and that those who have 
furnished money in advance of others, or shall yet furnish it, shall 
receive interest thereon at the discretion of the Nineteen. 

X. And as to the general accounting, mentioned in article six- 
teen of the charter, and the changing of a third part of the direc- 
tors in article fourteen, to maintain good order and a general basis 
in all the Chambers, it is deemed necessary that the said general ac- 
counting be made (six years from the date of granting the charter, 
beginning the third of June 1621, new style) according to mercan- 
tile custom in public, in the presence of the aforesaid committee of 
the chief participants of the respective Chambers, and so on regu- 


ende soo voorts successivelick, elcke ses Jaren te doen diergelijcke 
generate reeckeninge : Doch sal by de Vergaderinge vande Negen- 
thiene, op 't vervolch vande reeckeningen naerder ordre beraemt wer- 
den, ten eynde d'afgaende Bewinthebberen, met gesuyverde reecke- 
ninge, ist doenelijck, mogen scheyden : Ende sal de veranderinge 
van't derdendeel der Bewinthebberen, eerst geschieden ses Jaren 
na den negenden Junij deses Jaers sestien-hondert drie-en-twintich, 
ende soo voorts successivelijck elcke twee Jaeren conform het Oc- 

Ten elfsten, Dat niemant het Hooft-Participants recht sal mogen 
genieten, dan die vanden beginne heeft in-ghelecht, oft andersints 
twee Jaren opte Boecken bekent is, voor sijn eygen reeckeninge 
in dese Compagnie te herideren, soo veel een Bewinthebber inde re- 
spective Kameren ghehouden is te doen, volgens den Octroy, be- 
halven dat Kinderen, ende alle andere Erfgenamen, die op eenen 
name de respective voile sommen voor hun eygen Erven, datelijck 
nae de erffenisse ghequalificeert sullen zijn. 

Ende ten twaelfsten, Indien eenige saecken voor vallen daer uyt 
Processen souden mogen verrijsen, tot ondienste vande Compagnie, 
sullen de Bewinthebberen in alle manieren arbeyden, de selve in 't 
minnelijck neer te leggen (soo doenelijck) indien niet, de saecken 
communiceren met de Hooft-Participanten, om met gemeen advijs 
daer in gedaen te worden soo als tot meesten dienst vande Compag- 
nie bevonden sal worden te behooren. 

SOO 1ST, dat wy de voorschreve Articulen gheexamineert ende 
overwogen hebbende, ende tot d'eenicheyt ende goede correspon- 
dence tusschen die Bewint-hebberen ende Hooft-Participanten, mits- 
gaders tot bevorderinge vande West-Indische Compagnie ghenegen 
wesende, hebben met advijs vanden Heere Prince van Orangien, 
goet gevonden de selve t'aggreeren, ende t'approberen, aggreeren en- 
de approberen midts desen, verstaende dat de selve by de Bewint- 
hebberen, Participanten, ende yeder een daer aen ghelegen zijnde, 
nevens d'Articulen van 't Octroy punctuelijck sullen werden naer- 
ghekomen ende achtervolcht, ghelijck of sy den Octroy waren gein- 
sereert, Alsoo wy bevinden 't selve tot dienste vande West-Indische 
Compagnie alsoo te behooren. Ghegheven onder onsen grooten 
Zegel, Paraphnre, ende de Signature van onsen Griffier, in 's Gra- 
ven-Hage, den een-en-twintichsten Junij sesthicn-hondert drie-ende- 
twintich. Was gheparapheert, N. van. Bouckhorst, Yt Onder stondt, 
Ter Ordonnantie vande Hooch-ghemelte Heeren Staten Generael. 
Gheteeckent, C. Aerssen. Hebbende een uythangenden Zegel in 
rooden Wassche, aen een witte zijde koorde. 


larly every six years a like general accounting; but as to other ac- 
counts, further action shall be taken by the Assembly of the Nine- 
teen, to the end that the directors who retire may leave no unsettled 
accounts if it be practicable. And the first change of a third part 
of the directors shall take place six years after the ninth 4 of June 
this year 1623, and so on regularly every two years agreeable to the 

XI. 5 That no one shall be permitted to enjoy the rights of chief 
participants but those who subscribed at the beginning, or else have 
been entered on the books for two years as owning in their own 
name in this Company as much as a director in the respective Cham- 
bers must own according to the charter ; except, that children and all 
other heirs, who inherit in one name the respective full sums for 
themselves, shall be qualified immediately after inheriting. 

And, XII, if anything should happen from which lawsuits might 
arise to the disadvantage of the Company, the directors shall do all 
in their power to settle the matter amicably (if possible) ; if not, 
they shall communicate it to the chief participants, that they may act 
therein with mutual advice, in such manner as shall be found most 
to the advantage of the Company. 

Therefore having examined and considered the foregoing articles 
and being desirous of promoting unity and concord between the 
directors and chief participants as well as the advancement of the 
West-India Company, we have, with the advice of the Prince of 
Orange, thought fit to agree to and approve of, and do hereby agree 
to and approve the same and demand that they with the articles of 
the charter shall be strictly followed and observed by the directors, 
participants and every person concerned therein, in the same manner 
as if they were inserted in the charter ; for we find this to be for the 
best interests of the West-India Company. 

Given under our great seal, paraph and the signature of our 
secretary, at the Hague, the twenty-first of June, sixteen hundred 
and twenty-three. Paraphed, N. ran Bouckhorst, vt . Underneath 
was written: By order of the aforesaid Honorable Lords the States 
General. Subscribed, C. Acrsscn, having a seal pendent of red 
wax, on a cord of white silk. 

4 The cony of the Agreement in the introduction to de Laet's Historie ofte Iaerlijck 
Verhael has the third of June this year 1623. which is evidently the date intended. 

« Instead of this article, Hazard inserts article n of the Charter of the W. I. Co., 
which mistake is copied by O'Callaghan in History of New Netherland, 1:410. 


Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions 8 

June 7, 1620 
Original text 

Uryheden ende Exemptien voor de Patroonen / Meesters ofte 
Particulieren / die op Nieu-Nederlandt eenighe Colonien ende 
Vee sullen planten geconsidereert ten dienst van de Generale 
West-Indische Compagnie in Nieu-Nederlandt / ende het voor- 
deel van de Patroonen / Meesters ende Particulieren. 

I. Dat de Participanten inde gemelde Compagnie / die gheneghen 
sullen zijn in Nieu-Nederlandt eenighe Colonien te planten / ver- 
moghen met de Schepen van dese Compagnie derwaerts gaende / 
drie ofte vier persoonen te senden / om de gheleghentheydt aldaer 
te besichtigen / midts datse neffens de Ofhcieren ende Bootsvolck 
den Artijcul-Brieff sullen beeedighen / voor soo- veel die haer 
aengaet. Ende betalende voor Mondt-kost / Passagie van 
gaen ende komen / ses stuyvers daeghs : Ende die inde Ca- 
juyte soude versoecken te eten / twaelf stuyvers / ende hun onder- 
werpen in cas van offensie ende defensie haer ter weere te stellen / 
ghelijck als d'andere ; Ende eenighe Schepen van den Vyant 
veroverende / sullen oock haers portie genieten Pro Rata, neffens 
de Bootsghesellen / yeder nae zijn qualiteyt / te weten / dat de 
Coloniers buyten de Cajuyte etende / ghereeckent sullen worden 
neffens de Matrossen / ende die inde Cajuyte eten teghens den 
gheenen die aldaer van's Compagnies Volck de Tafel / ende de 
kleynste gagie heeft. 

II. Doch sullen in desen geprefereert zijn soodanighe Per- 
soonen / die haer eerst sullen hebben gheopenbaert / ende aen de 
Compagnie versocht. 

B3 Ende 

9 V. R. B. Mss 61. Printed pamphlet in original paper covers, measuring 19. 3x1s. 3cm; 
letterpress 11.9x1 1.3cm. The first recto is marked B3; the 3d, 4th and 5th are marked 
respectively C, C2 and C3. It is apparently a separate issue of the second part of 
the pamphlet entitled: Articulen . . . over het open ende ttv stcllcn van den Handel 
ende Negotie op de Stadt Olinda de Pernambuco, ende Custen van Brasil. Hier zijn 
achtcr by ghedruckt De Vryhcden van Nieu-Nedcrlant. Amst. 1631. (Asher, Biblio- 
graphical Essay, no. 332). With the exception of capitalization and spelling it agrees 
with the text published under date of March 1630 in Wassenaer, Historisch Vcrhael, 
v. 4, pt 18, f. 94-980, which is based on that printed the same year for the West 
India Company. Asher gives but one pamphlet of 1630 (no. 331), but his title differs 
slightly from that given by Moulton, History of New York, pt 2, p. 389, and from 
the facsimile title page in Fiske, Dutch and Quaker Colonies, illus. ed. 1:117, them- 
selves different, which suggests that there were various issues in 1630. In 1875, a 
reprint of the 1630 pamphlet in the possession of the New York Historical Society was 
published by Geo. II. Moore, librarian of the society. 


Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions Ga 

June 7, 1620 

Freedoms and Exemptions for the patroons, masters or private per- 
sons who will plant any colonies in, an 1 send cattle to New 
Netherland, drawn np for the benefit of the General West India 
Company in New Netherland and for the profit of the patroons, 
masters and private persons. 

I. Such participants of the said Company as may be inclined to 
plant any colonies in New Netherland shall be permitted to send, in 
the ships of this Company going thither, three or four persons to 
inspect the situation of the country, provided that they, with the 
officers and ship's company, swear to the Articles, 7 so far as they re- 
late to them, pay for board and passage, going and coming, six 
stivers a day (such as desire to mess in the cabin to pay 12 stivers) 
and agree to give assistance like others, in cases offensive and defen- 
sive. And if any ships be taken from the enemy, they shall receive 
pro rata their portions with the ship's company, each according to 
his quality, that is to say, the colonists messing outside the cabin 
shall be rated with the sailors and those messing in the cabin with 
those of the Company's servants messing at table who receive the 
lowest waees. 

II. However, in this matter, those persons shall have the pref- 
erence who shall first have declared their intentions and applied to 
the Company. 

0a The first translation of the Freedoms and Exemptions, made by Abraham Lott, jr, 
in 1762, appeared in Moulton, History of New York, 1826, pi 2, p. 389-98, and was 
reprinted in Dunlap, History of New York, vol. 2, app. H, and in N. Y. Historical 
Society Collections, ser. 2, 1:370-77. With slight changes, the same translation has 
appeared in O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, l:ii2— 20; Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. 
N. Y., 2:553—57; Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, p. 1-10; MacDonald's 
Select Charters, p. 43-50; and Index to the Public Records of the County of Albany, 
1630-1894, Albany 1902, pref. p. Ixiii-lxv. The present translation is revised from that 
printed by O'Callaghan, from which it will be found to differ materially. 

7 Artijcul-Bricff ; probably a code of rules of similar tenor as the Articulen ende 
Ordonnantien, ter Vergaderinge vande Hoogh Mogende Heeren Staten Generael ghere- 
sumeert ende gcarrestecrt, Daer op aengenomen ende beeedicht sullen worden, alle de 
geene die hen voortaen in den dienst vande geoctroyeerde West-lndische Compagnie 
sullen begeven, om met dersclvcr Schepen nacr Wcst-Indien, Brazil, ofte anderc Limiten 
van't Octroy te varen, passed Nov. 24, 1647, shortly after the renewal of the charter 
to the W. I. Co. Groot Placaet Boeck, 1:625-54. 


[folio lb] 

III. Ende sullen voor Patroonen van Nieu-Nederlandt erkent 
worden / alle soodanighe die binnen den tijdt van vier Jaren / nae 
dat zy haer aen eenighe Camer van de Compagnie alhier / ofte aen 
den Commandeur ofte Raden aldaer / sullen verclaren / datse een 
Colonie van vijftigh Zielen boven de vijfthien Jaren oudt zijnde / 
aldaer aennemen te planten / een vierde part binnen's Jaers / ende 
in drie Jaren nae de sendinghe van d'eerste / maeckende t'samen 
vier Jaren / de resterende tot het voile ghetal van vijftigh Per- 
soonen van hier te schepen / Op pene van by notoir versuym te 
verliesen de vercreghene Vryheden; Doch sullen ghewaerschout 
zijn / dat de Compagnie 'tEylandt van de Manhattes aen sich be- 

IV. Ende vander eerste uyre af / dat zy de plaetsen / alwaer zy 
haer Colon ien willen planten / hebben aenghewesen / voor alle 
andere gheprefereert zijn tot den vryen eyghendom van soodanige 
Landen alsse aldaer sullen hebben verkoren ; Doch deselve plaetse 
haer naderhant niet ghevallende / ofte in 'tkiesen van den gront 
bedroghen zijnde / sullen deselve nae voorgaende Remonstrantie aen 
den Commandeur ende Raet aldaer / een ander ghelegentheyt 
mogen uytkiesen. 

V. Ende sullen de Patroonen door haer Volmachtigheden / ter 
plaetse daer zy haer Colonien willen planten / haer Limiten moghen 
extenderen vier mijlen langhs de Cust / ofte een syde van een 7a 
Navigable Riviere / ofte twee mijlen langhs beyde de zijden van 
eene Riviere / ende soo diep Landtwaerts in als de gheleghentheyt 
vande Occupateurs toelaten sal. Welverstaende dat de Compagnie 
den eygendom aen haer behoudt van de Landen / die tusschen de 
Limiten van de Colonien blijven legghen / om daer van in tijdt ende 
wijle te disponeren nae haer wel-ghevallen / sonder dat yemandt 
anders op seven of acht mijlen haer sal, moghen naerderen teghens 
haren danck : Ten ware de ghelegentheyt van het Landt daer 
on — 


[folio 2] 
trent sulcks waer / dat den Commandeur endt Raedt op goede 
redenen anders ordonneerden ; Altoos acht nemende / dat d'eerste 
Occupateurs in haers vercreghen Recht niet geprejudiceert en 

* a The words syde van een are not found in the text of the pamphlet here reprinted 
but were written in the margin. They occur as part of the printed text in Wassenaer, 
Historisch Verhael, v. 4, pt 18, f. 95. 


III. All such shall be acknowledged patroons of New Netherland 
as shall agree to plant there a colony of 50 souls, upwards of 
15 years old, within the space of four years after they have given 
notice to any Chamber of the Company here or to the commander 
or council there, s one fourth part within one year and the re- 
mainder within three years after the sending of the first, making 
together four years, to the full number of 50 persons, to be shipped 
hence, on pain, in case of wilful neglect, of being deprived of the 
privileges obtained. But they are warned that the Company re- 
serves to itself the island of the Manhattes. 

IV. From the very hour they make known the situation of the 
places where they propose to settle colonies, they shall have the 
preference over all others to the free ownership of such lands as 
they shall have chosen : but in case the location should afterwards 
not please them or they should find themselves deceived in the 
selection of the land, they may, after memorializing the commander 
and council there, choose another place. 

V. The patroons, by their agents, may, at the place where they 
wish to settle their colonies, [fix] their limits [so that the colony 
shall] extend four leagues along the coast or one side of a navigable 
river, or two leagues along both sides of a river, and as far inland 
as the situation of the occupants will permit; with the under- 
standing that the Company retains for itself the ownership of the 
lands lying and remaining between the limits of the colonies, to 
dispose thereof when and at such time as it shall think proper, but 
no one else shall be allowed to come within seven or eight leagues 
of them without their consent unless the situation of the land 
thereabout be such that the commander and council for good 
reasons shall order otherwise; always observing that the first occu- 
pants are not to be prejudiced in the right they have obtained, 

8 The Dutch of the first part of this article is defective. Literally translated, it 
reads: And shall be acknowledged as patroons all such who within the space of four 
years after they shall declare themselves to any Chamber of the Company here or to 
the commander or council there that they agree to plant there a colony of 50 souls, 
upwards of 15 years old. 


worden / dan voor soo veel als den dienst van de Corapagnie soude 
moghen vereyschen / het zy om aldaer Fortificatien te bouwen / 
ofte yets dierghelijcke / blijvende (buyten dat) het commandement 
op elcke Baeye / Reviere ofte Eylandt / aen de eerst-komende 
Colonie / onder de Hooghe Jurisdictie van de Hoogh Heeren 
Staten Generael ende Compagnie; Midts dat de naest-komende 
Colonien op deselve Rivier ofte Eylandt / sullen vermoghen een 
ofte meer Raden / neffens den selven te stellen / om met ghemeeu 
advijs den oirbar van de Colonien op die Rivier ofte Eylandt te 

VI. Ende alle het Landt binnen de voorsz. Limiten gheleghen / 
midtsgaders de Vruchten / Supersitien / Mineralen / Rivieren ende 
Fonteynen van dien voor altoos in Eyghendom te besitten : Ende 
de Hooghe / middele ende laghe Jurisdictie / Visscheryen / 
Voghelryen ende Maleryen / met exclusie van alle andere / te 
houden van de Compagnie tot een onversterflijck ErfT-Leen / te 
Verheer-ghewaden alst versterft met twintigh Guldens par Colonie 
aen dese Compagnie binnen een Jaer ende ses Weecken / aen de 
Cameren alhier / ofte den Commandeur aldaer / een yeder ter 
Camere daer hy oorspronckelijck van daen is gevaren. Des noch- 
tans dat de Visscherye ende Vogelrye by niemandt anders dan de 
Patroonen / ende die zy-luyden dat sullen toestaen / sullen werden 
ghepleeght : Ende soo yemandt nietter tijdt in zijn Colonie soo veel 
quame te prospereren / dat hy een oft meer Steden soude moghen 
fonderen / sal den selven ■d'authoriteyt hebben / om aldaer Offitien 
ende Magistraten te stellen / ende Tijtel van zijn Colonie moghen 
ghebruycken / nae believen ende qualiteyt der Persoonen. 


[folio 2b] 

VII. Sal mede aen alle Patroonen / die sulcks versoecken / ver- 
gundt worden Venia Testandi, ofte Octroy / om van de voorsz 
Leen-Goederen by Testament te moghen disponeren. 

VIII. De Patroonen sullen mede alle na gelegene Landen / 
Rivieren ende Bosschagien tot haren oirbacr moghen ghebruycken / 
ter tijdt ende wijle deselve by dese Compagnie / andere Patroonen 
ofte Particulieren worden aengheveert. 

IX. Die dese Colonien sullen oversenden / sullen deselve voor- 
sien met behoorlijcke Instructie / om conform de maniere van 
Regieringhe / soo in Politie / als Justitie / by de Vergaderinghe 
van de Neghenthiene beracmt ofte noch te beramen / gheregeert 
ende ghestiert te worden / welcke zy al vooren de Bewinthebberen 
van de Respective Cameren sullen verthoonen. 


except in so far as the service of the Company should require it, 
either for the building of fortifications or something of that sort, 
and that (outside of this) the [patroon of the] first settled colony 
shall retain the command of each bay, river or island, under the 
supreme jurisdiction of their High Mightinesses the States Gen- 
eral and the Company; but the later colonies on the same river or 
island may appoint one or more councilors to assist him, that in 
consultation they may look after the interests of the colonies on 
the river or island. 

VI. They shall forever own and possess and hold from the Com- 
pany as a perpetual fief of inheritance, all the land lying within 
the aforesaid limits, together with the fruits, plants, minerals, rivers 
and springs thereof, and the high, middle and low jurisdiction, 
rights of fishing, fowling and grinding, to the exclusion of all 
others, said fief to be renewed in case of demise by doing homage 
to the Company and paying 20 guilders per colony within a year 
and six weeks, either to the Chambers here or to the commander 
there, each to the Chamber whence the colony was originally sent 
out; however no fishing or fowling shall be carried on by any one 
but the patroons and such as they shall permit. And in case any 
one should in time prosper So much as to found one or more cities, 
he shall have authority to appoint officers and magistrates there 
and to use such titles in his colony as he sees fit according to the 
quality of the persons. 

VII. There shall likewise be granted to all patroons who shall 
desire the same, Venia Testaudi, or liberty to dispose of the afore- 
said fiefs by will. 

VIII. The patroons may also to their profit use all lands, rivers 
and woods lying contiguous to them, until such time as they are 
taken possession of by this Company, other patroons, or private 

IX. Those who shall send over these colonies, shall furnish them 
with proper instructions in order that they may be ruled and gov- 
erned conformably to the rule of government, both as to admin- 
istration and justice, made, or to be made by the Assembly of the 
Nineteen, which [instructions] they must first lay before the di- 
rectors of the respective Chambers, 


X. De Patroonen ende Coloniers sullen vermogen alle haer Volck 
ende Goederen derwaerts te senden in de Schepen vande Comp e . 
mits den Eedt doende / ende betalende aende Cornp . voor 'tover- 
brenge van't Vole als in't eerste Artijcule; ende voor Vracht vande 
Goederen vijf par Cento contant van 'tgene deselve Goederen hier 
ghekost hebben: Sonder nochtans hier onder te begrijpen het 
Bestiael ende andere Gereetschappen tot de Landtbouwe dienende / 
die de Compagnie voor niet sal overvoeren / als zy plaets in hare 
Schepen heeft / midts dat de Patroonen de plaetse daer toe ap- 
proprieren op haer eyghen costen / ende alles provideren / dat tot 
onderhoudt vant Bestiael noodigh is. 

XI. Maer in ghevalle het de Compagnie niet gheleghen en quame 
eenighe Schepen te senden / ofte dat in de gaende Schepen gheen 
plaets en ware / soo sullen in sulcken ghevalle de Patroonen ver- 
moghen / nae voorgaende communicatie 


[folio 3] 
van hare intentie / ende schriftelijck consent daer over vercreghen 
van de Compagnie / selver Schepen of Jachten derwaerts te sen- 
den / mits datse in't gaen of keeren niet en sullen vermoghen te 
loopen buyten haer ordinarie Vaer-water / ende de Compagnie daer 
vooren caveren / ende een Adsistent opnemen tot mondt-costen 
van de Patroonen / ende Maentgelden van de Compagnie. Op 
pene datse ter contrarie doende / alle haer vercreghen Recht ende 
Eygenschap tot de Colonie sullen verliesen. 

XII. Ende alsoo d'intentie van de Compagnie is het Eylandt van 
de Manhattes, voor eerst te populeren / sal aldaer provisionelijck 
oock zijn de stapel van alle Vruchten ende Waren / die op de 
Noort-Rivier ende Landen daer ontrent vallen / eerse vorder ver- 
sonden sullen moghen worden : Wtghenomen die uyt der natuyren / 
selfs daer niet nut zijnde / ofte niet als met grooten ondienst van 
de Eyghenaers daer ghebracht souden moeten worden. In welcken 
ghevalle de Eygenaers van dien ghehouden sullen zijn soodanighe 
ongelegentheyt aen de Compagnie alhier / ofte den Commandeur 
ende Raden aldaer / tijdelijck by gheschrifte te remonstreren / 
ora daer in voorsien te werden / als na gheleghentheyt van saecken 
bevonden sal werden te behooren. 

XIII. Alle Patroonen vande Colonien in Nieu-Nederlandt / mits- 
gaders Colonien op het Eylant van de Manhattes woonende / 
sullen vermogtien te bevaren ende te behandelen die gantsche Cust 


X. The patroons and colonists shall be privileged to send all 
their people and effects thither, in ships belonging to the Company, 
provided they take the oath and pay the Company for bringing 
over the people according to the first article, and for freight of the 
goods five per cent cash of the cost of the goods here ; without 
including herein, however, cattle and agricultural implements, 
which the Company is to carry over free, if there is room in its 
ships, provided that the patroons, at their own expense, fit up places 
for the cattle and furnish everything necessary for their support. 

XI. In case it should not suit the Company to send any ships, or 
there should be no room in the ships sailing thither, then the said 
patroons, after having communicated their intentions and obtained 
consent from the Company in writing, may send their own ships or 
yachts thither, provided that, going and coming, they depart not 
from their ordinary course, give security to the Company for the 
same and take on board an assistant 8a at the expense of the patroons 
as to his board and of the Company as to his monthly wages, on 
pain, if doing contrary hereto, of forfeiting all right and title they 
have obtained to the colony. 

XII. Inasmuch as it is the intention of the Company to people 
the island of the Manhattes first, this island shall provisionally also 
be the staple port for all products and wares that are found on the 
North River and lands thereabouts, before they are allowed to be 
sent elsewhere, excepting such as are, from their nature, unneces- 
sary there and such as can not without great loss to their owners 
be brought there ; in this case the owners thereof must give timely 
notice in writing of the difficulty attending the same to the Com- 
pany here, or the commander and council there, that such measures 
may be taken as the situation of affairs shall be found to require. 

XIII. All the patroons of colonies in New Netherlands and col- 
onists living on the island of the Manhattes shall be at liberty to 

8a A supercargo; see art. xxiii. 


van Florida tot Terra-Neuf toe / midts met alle hare gehandelde 
goederen voor eerst wedefom op 'tEylandt van de Manhaftes 
keerende / en betalende vijf ten hondert voor recognitie aen de 

Compagnie / om soo't mogelijc is / van daer / na behoorlijcke 
Inventarisatie van alle ingeladen goederen / na dese Landen 
g'hesonden te worden. Ende oft gebeurde dat sulcks niet en konde 
gheschieden / 'tzy door contrarie Stroomen oft andersints / in 
sulcken gevalle sullen deselve goederen nergens elders mogen 
gebracht worden / als alhier te Lande / 

C om 

[folio 3b] 
om met kennisse vande Bewinthebberen / ter plaetse daer zy ar- 
riveren sullen / ghelost ende gheinventarieert / ende de voorsz 
recognitie van vijf ten hondert / hier te Lande aende Compagnie 
betaelt te worden / op verbeurte van hare gehandelde Goederen / 
ofte de rechte waerde / indien zy ter contrarie deden. 

XIV. In cas dat de Schepen van de Patroonen / in't gaen ofte 
komen / ofte in't bevaren van de Custevan Florida tot Tcrra-Ncuf, 
ende verder niet / binnen ons Octroy / eenighe Prinsen van den 
Yyandt quamen te veroveren / sullen gehouden zijn deselve te 
brenghen ofte doen brenghen / aen de Camer ter plaetse daer zy 
uytghevaren zijn / om by Haer E. gebeneficeert te worden : Ende 
sal de Compagnie het der de-part daer van behouden / blijvende de 
andere twee derde-parten voor haer tegens haer gedane kosten ende 
Risico, alles op de ordre van de Compagnie. 

XV. Sal oock de ghemelte Patroonen vry staen / al-omme op 
de Custe van Nieu-Nederlandt ende Circumjacentien van dien / 
te verhandelen hare Goederen aldaer gheconquesteert / voor aller- 
hande soorten van Coopmanschappen aldaer vallende / uytgheson- 
dert Bevers / Otters / Mincken encle alderhahde Pelterijen / welcke 
handelinghe de Compagnie alleen voor haer reserveert : Doch werdt 
het selfde toeghestaen te moghen gheschieden daer de Compagnie 
gheen Commissie en heeft / midts dat soo lanighe Handelaers ghe- 
houden sullen zijn / alle de Pelterijen die zy sullen konnen be- 
comen / te brenghen op't Eylandt van de Manhattes, soo't eenich- 
sins moghclijck is / ende die aldaer te leveren aen den Directeur / 
om by hem met de Schepen ende Goederen herwaerts aen gheson- 
den te werden / ofte alhier te Lande komende sonder 'tselvc 
ghedaen te hebben / die te lossen met kennisse vande Compagnie 
onder behoorlijcken Inventaris / om by haer betaelt te werden aen 


sail and traffic along the entire coast from Florida to Terra Ncaf, 
provided that they do first return with all such goods as they shall 
get in trade to the island of the Manhattcs and pay five per cent 
duty to the Company, in order that if possible, after proper inven- 
tory of the goods in the ship, the same may thence be sent hither. 
And if it should so happen that they could not return, whether 
from contrary currents or otherwise, the said goods may be brought 
nowhere but to this country, in order that they may be unladen 
and inventoried with the knowledge of the directors at the place 
where they may arrive and the aforesaid duty of five per cent 
paid to the Company here, on pain, if they do otherwise, of for- 
feiture of their goods obtained, or the true value thereof. 

XIV. In case the ships of the patroons, in going or coming or in 
sailing along the coast from Florida to Terra Neuf and no further, 
within [the limits of] our chaiter should conquer any prizes from 
the enemy, they must bring them, or cause them to be brought, to 
the Chamber of the place from which they sailed in order that their 
honors may have the benefit thereof; the Company shall keep the 
one third part thereof and the remaining two thirds shall belong 
to them in consideration of the expense and risk at which they 
have been, all according to the orders of the Company. 

XV. It shall also be permitted the aforesaid patroons, all along 
the coast of New Netherland and places circumjacent, to trade 
their goods, products of that country, for all sorts of merchandise 
that may be had there, except beavers, otters, minks and all sorts 
of peltry, which trade alone the Company reserves to itself. But 
permission for even this trade is granted at places where the Com- 
pany has no agent, on the condition that such traders must bring 
all the peltry they may be able to secure to the island of the Man- 
hattcs, if it is in any way practicable, and there deliver them to the 
director, to be by him sent hither with the ships and goods; or, if 
they should come here without having done so, then to unload them 
with due notice to the Company and proper inventory, that they 



de Compagnie een Gulden van yeder leverbaer Vel / Otter ende 
Bever / blijvende den inkoop Risico 


[folio 4] 
ende alle andere onconsten tot lastc van de Patroonen ofte 

XVI. Alle grove Waren die de Coloniers vande Patroonen al- 
daer sullen hebben gheconquesteert / 'tzy Peck / Teer / Weed- 
asch / Hout / Granen / Visch / Zoudt / Hartsteen ofte dier- 
gelijcke / sullen met de Scbepen van de Compagnie overgebracht 
werden teghens achthien Guldens par Last / vier duysent voor een 
Last gherekent / midts dat het Bootsvolck van de Compagnie bet 
Zoudt sullen gehouden zijn te kruyen ende aenboort te brenghen / 
waer van de thien Lasten een hondert maecken. Ende by gbebreck 
van Schepen / ofte plaetse inde Schepen / vermoghen 'tselve met 
him eyghen Schepen te doen overcomen op hare costen : Ende 
ghenieten hier te Lande alsulcke Vryheden ende Benefitien / als 
de Compagnie vergunt is / mits in beyde ghevallen betalende / 
boven de recognitie van vijf ten hondert / achthien guldens van 
yeder hondert Zouts / dat met de Schepen vande Compagnie over- 
ghebracht wort. 

XVII. Ende alle Waren die int voorgaende Articule niet gemen- 
tioneert en zijn / ende gheen Last- waren en zijn / daer van sal 
voor Vracht betaelt worden een Daelder voor elck hondert ponden 
Gewichts / ende de Wijnen / Brandewijnen / Verjuys ende Azijnen 
sullen betalen par Vat achthien guldens. 

XVIII. De Compagnie belooft de Coloniers van de Patroonen / 
inden tijdt van thien Jaren niet te beswaren met Convoy / Tol / 
Accijs / Imposten / ofte eenighe andere Contributien : Ende na 
d'expiratie van de selve thien jaren / ten hooghsten met sulcken 
Convoy als de Goederen hier te Lande teghenwoordigh beswaert 

XIX. Dat zy oock gene Coloniers van de Patroonen / Man ofte 
Vrou / Soon ofte Dochter / Dienst knecht ofte Dienstmaecht / 
sullen uyt haren dienst onttrecken: Ende schoon ye- 

C2 mant 

[folio 4b] 
mant alsulcks begeerde / datse den selven niet en sullen aennemen / 
veel min gedooghen dat zy van hare Patroonen in eens anders 


may pay to the Company one guilder for each merchantable beaver 
and otter skin ; the cost, insurance and all other expenses to remain 
at the charge of the patroons or owners. 

XVI. All raw materials which the colonists of the patroons shall 
have obtained there, such as pitch, tar, potash, timber, grain, fish, 
salt, limestone and the like, shall be conveyed in the Company's 
ships at the rate of 18 guilders per last, four thousand weight to be. 
accounted a last, and the Company's ship's crew shall be obliged 
to wheel and bring the salt on board, whereof 10 lasts make a 
hundred. 9 And, in case of lack of ships or of room in the ships, 
they may send it over in their own ships at their own cost and 
enjoy in this country such freedoms and benefits as have been 
granted to the Company ; but in either case they must pay, over and 
above the duty of five per cent, 18 guilders for each hundred of 
salt that is carried over in the Company's ships. 

XVII. For all goods not mentioned in the foregoing article and 
which are not carried by the last there shall be paid for freight 
one daelder for each hundred pounds weight ; and for wines, 
brandies, verjuice and vinegar, there shall be paid 18 guilders per 

XVIII. The Company promises the colonists of the patroons not 
to lay any duties, tolls, excise, imposts or any other contributions upon 
them for the space of 10 years ; and after the expiration of the 
said 10 years, at the highest, such dues [only] as the goods pay 
here at present. 

XIX. They will not take from the service of the patroons any of 
their colonists, either man or woman, son or daughter, manservant 
or maidservant ; and, though any of these should desire it they will 
not receive them, much less permit them to leave their patroons and 

Hundred; an old measure for coarse salt, equal to 248 hectoliters, about 704 bushels. 


dienst souden overloopen / als nae voorgaende schriftelijcke be- 
williginghe van hare Patroonen. Ende dit gednyrende den tijdt 
van snlcke Jaren als zy aen hare Patroonen verbonden zijn / na 
welcker expiratie het de Patroonen vry sal staen de Coloniers / die 
in haren dienst niet willen continueren / hier te doen brengen / 
ende dan eerst in hare vryheyt te stellen. Ende so wat Colonier 
aen een ander Patroon overloopt / ofte buyten zijn Contract hem in 
vryheyt sal begeven / den selven beloven wy / na vermoghen / te 
doen leveren in handen van zijnen Patroon ofte Commijs / om 
aldaer na gelegentheyt van saken teghens hem gheprocedeert te 
worden / na Coustume deser Landen. 

XX. Alle Vonnissen by de Gerechten van de Patroonen ge- 
wesen / monterende boven de somme van vijftigh Guldens / daer 
van sal Appel vail en aen den Commandeur ende Raden van de 
Compagnie in Nieu-Nederlandt. 

XXI. Ende belanghende de particnliere Persoonen / die voor 
haer selfs ofte anderen / die in dienst van haer Meesters hier te 
Lande in minder ghetal / als de Patroonen / derwaerts als vrye 
Lnyden sullen gaen woonen / sullen met goet vinden van den 
Directeur ende Raedt aldaer / soo veel Landts vermogen te kiesen 
ende aenveerden / als zy bequamelijck sullen konnen bearbeyden / 
ende 'tselve in vollen eygendom behouden / voor haer oft voor haer 

XXII. Oock vermogen te vangen met de vrye Jacht / so. te 
Water / als te Lande / generalijck inde publijcke Bosschen ende 
Rivieren / ende privative / in't Resort van hare Colon ien / na 
d'ordre van den Directeur ende Raedt. 

XXIII. Soo wie 'tzy Coloniers van de Patroonen voor haer 
Patroonen / ofte vrye Luyden / voor haer selven / ofte andere 

[folio 5] 
culiere voor hare Meesters / vinden bequamc Stranden / Baey- 
en / ofte andere ghelegentheyt tot Visscheryen / ofte om aldaer 
Zout-Pannen te maken / vermoghen 'tselfde te aenveerden ende te 
bearbeyden in vollen eyghendom / met exclusie van alle anderen. 
Werdt de Patroonen van de Coloniers 00c Schepen toegestaen te 
senden langs de Custe van Nieu-Nederlant op de Visschcrye van 
de Cabeljauw / ende met de Vanghst te gaen adroicture na Italien 
ofte andere Neutrale Landen ; midts in sulckcn ghevalle aen dc 
Compagnie voor recognitie te betalen ses guldens par Last: Ende 


enter into the service of another, except on written consent obtained 
previously from their patroons and this for and during so man}' 
years as they are bound to their patroons; after the expiration 
whereof, the patroons shall be at liberty to bring hither such col- 
onists as will not continue in their service and then only to set them 
free. And if any colonist runs away to another patroon, or, con- 
trary to his contract, leaves his service, we promise to do everything 
in our power to deliver the same into the hands of his patroon or 
commis that he may be prosecuted there according to the customs 
of this country, as occasion may require. 

XX. From all judgments given by the courts of the patroons 
above 50 guilders, there shall be appeal to the Company's com- 
mander and council in New Netherland. 

XXI. And as to private persons who on their own account, or 
others who in the service of their masters here in this country 
shall go thither and settle as freemen in smaller numbers than the 
patroons, 10 they may with the approbation of the director and coun- 
cil there, choose and take possession of as much land as they can 
properly cultivate and hold the same in full ownership either for 
themselves or for their masters. 

XXII. They shall also have rights of hunting, as well by water as 
by land, in common with others in public woods and rivers and 
exclusively within the limits of their colonies, according to the 
orders of the director and council. 

XXIII. Whosoever, whether colonists of the patroons for their 
patroons, or free men for themselves, or other private persons for 
their masters, shall find any shores, bays or other places suitable 
for fisheries or the making of salt pans may take possession thereof 
and work them as their own absolute property to the exclusion of 
all others. The patroons of colonists are granted permission also 
to send ships along the coast of New Netherland on the cod fishery, 
and with the catch to go directly to Italy or other neutral countries, 
provided they pay to the Company in such cases a duty of six 
guilders per last; and if they come to this country with their lading, 

10 Smaller number than that required of a patroon by art. III. 


hier te Lande comende met hare Ladinghe / vry zijn / sonder 
onder pretext van dit consent / ofte van de Compagnie / eenighe 
andere Waren na Italien te voeren / op arbitrale straffe / blijvende 
in't believen van de Compagnie een Sobra Cargo op elck Schip 
te stellen / als in't elfste Artijcul. 

XXIV. Ende indien yemant van dese Coloniers / door zijn In- 
dustrie ende naersticheyt / quame te ontdecken eenige Mineralen / 
costelijcke Gesteenten / Cristallen / Marmoren ofte yets dier- 
gelijcke / oock eenighe Visscheryen van Peerlen / sullen de selve 
de Patroon ofte Patroonen van alsulcke Colonie eygen blijven; 
midts de Vinder toelegghende voor een premie sulcx als de Pa- 
troon alvoren met zijn Colonien sal stipuleren by Contract. Ende 
sullen de Patroonen vry zijn van alle recognitie aen de Compagnie 
den tijdt van acht Jaren / ende alleen voor 'toverbrenghen betalen 
twee ten hondert / ende nae de voorschreven acht Jaren voor 
recognitie ende vracht / een achtste part van 'tghene het hier te 
Lande waerdigh is. 

XXV. De Compagnie sal alle Coloniers / soo vrye / als dienst- 
bare nemen in hare Sauvegarde / ende deselve teghens alle In- 
landtsche ende Wtlandtsche Oorloghe ende gheweldt / met de 
macht die zy aldaer heeft / helpen defenderen / soo veel moghelijck 
zijn sal. 

C3 Soo 

[folio 5b j 

XXVI. Soo wie eenighe Colonien sullen planten buyten 'tResort 
van Manhattcs Eylandt / sullen ghehouden wesen de Wilde van 
die plaetse voor de grondt te contenteren / ende de Limiten van 
hare Colonien moghen vergrooten / midts na advenant Coloniers 
daer plantende. 

XXVII. Sullen haer oock de Patroonen ende Coloniers / inson- 
derheydt evertueren / om op't spoedighste eenighe middelen onder 
haer te vinden / waer mede zy den Predicant ende Schoolmeester 
sullen mogen onderhouden / op dat de Godsdienst ende yver tot de 
Religie in haer niet en verflaeuwe / ende voor 'teerste derwaerts een 
Siecke-Trooster versorghen. 

XXVIII. De Colonien die op de respective Rievieren ofte Eylan- 
den sullen comen te legghen / sullen vermoghen (te weten / elcke 
Rieviere ofte Eylandt voor sich) een Gecommitteerde uyt te 
maecken / die den Commandeur ende Raedt van dat Gheweste 
sal informeren / ende zijns Colonies saecken by den Raedt be- 


they shall be free, but they shall not, under pretext of this consent 
or [leave] from the Company, carry any other goods to Italy on 
pain of peremptory punishment, it remaining at the option of the 
Company to put a supercargo on board each ship as in the eleventh 

XXIY. In case any of the colonists, by his industry and diligence 
should discover any minerals, precious stones, crystals, marbles or 
the like, or any pearl fishery, the same shall be and remain the 
property of the patroon or patroons of such colony, provided the 
discoverer be given such premium as the patroon shall beforehand 
stipulate with his colonists by contract. And the patroons shall 
be exempt from the payment of any duty to the Company for the 
term of eight years, and for freight merely shall pay two per cent; 
and after the aforesaid eight years, for duty and freight, one 
eighth part of what the same may be worth in this country. 

XXV. The Company will take all the colonists, free men as well 
as those that are in service, under its protection and help to defend 
them against all domestic and foreign attacks and violence, with 
the forces it has there, as much as lies in its power. 

XXVI. Whosoever shall settle any colonies out of the limits of 
Manhattes Island must satisfy the Indians of that place for the land 
and may enlarge the limits of their colonies if they settle a propor- 
tionate number of colonists thereon. 

XXVII. The patroons and colonists shall in particular endeavor 
as quickly as possible to find some means whereby they may support 
a minister and a schoolmaster, that thus the service of God and zeal 
for religion may not grow cool and be neglected among them, and 
they shall for the first, procure a comforter of the sick there. 

XXVIII. The colonies that shall be established on the respective 
rivers or islands 1 that is to say, each river or island for itself), may 
appoint an agent, who shall give the commander and council in- 
formation about that district and further matters before the council 


vorderen ; Van vvelcke Gecommitteerde alle twee Jaren een sal 
verandert worden / ende alle de Colonien sullen ghehouden zijn / 
ten minsten alle twaelf Maenden / pertinent rapport van haer 
Colonie ende Landen daer ontrent / aen den Commandeur ende 
Raelt aldaer over te senden. 

XXIX. Ue Coloniers sullen niet vermoghen aldaer eenighe Wol- 
len / Linnen ofte Cattoene Lakenen te maecken / ofte eenighe 
andere stoffen te Weven ; op pene van uytghestooten ende als 
meyneedigh arbitralijck ghestraft te worden. 

XXX. Sal de Compagnie haer evertueren / ora aen de Coloniers 
soo veel Swarten toe te stellen / als haer moghelijck wesen / sal / 
op de ordre daer van te maecken; sonder nochtans daer in ghehou- 
den of verbonclen te zijn / verder of langer als haer sulcx soude 
moghen ghelieven. 


[folio 6] 

XXXI. De Compagnie belooft 't Fort op 'tEylandt van de Man- 
hattcs, op het spoedighste te doen voltrecken in behoorlijcke de- 
fensie. Ende dese Vryheyden ende Exemptien by hare Hoogli- 
Mogh. de Heeren Staten Generael te doen approberen ende con- 
firmeren. 11 



Gedruckt by Theunis Jacobsz. Anno 1631. 

11 Note in manuscript: 1.7. Juny 1629 gearresteert. 


^e Compaontebetooft t^onoptCplanbttwnee Man. 
hitce,,op[)etfpoeDig{jQe te Doentooltrecfuntn bcljoojliiclu 
twfenfie. <8nDe Dcfe ©jptjcpDen enoc Crcmptien ftp &are 
i^ooglj -£0ool)»Dt i&ceren £>iaten«3en«acl te Dam appjobe* 
unciU)econfirmtten.;.7. 4h~»n t^t^ 

Gedruckt by Theunis Jacobfz. Anno 163 

Last page of Uryheden ende Exemption 
YvomV. R.B.MssGi. Slightly reduced 



relating to his colony; of which agents one shall be changed every 
two years; and all colonies must, at least once in every 
12 months, send an exact report of their colony and of the lands 
thereabout to the commander and council there. 

XXIX. The colonists shall not be permitted to make any woolen, 
linen or cotton cloth, nor to weave any other stuffs there, on pain 
of being banished and peremptorily punished as oath breakers. 

XXX. The Company will endeavor to supply the colonists with as 
many blacks as it possibly can, on the conditions hereafter to be 
made, without however being bound to do so to a greater extent or 
for a longer time than it shall see fit. 

XXXI. The Company promises to finish the fort 0:1 the island ot 
the Manhattes, and to put it :n a posture of defense without delay. 
And to have these Freedoms and Exemptions approved and con- 
firmed by their High Mightinesses the Lords States General. 12 


Printed by Theunis Jacobsz. Anno 1631. 

v: Note in manuscript: Passed June 7, 1629. 


Notification by Samuel Godyn, Kiliaen van Rensselaer and 
Samuel Blommaert that they send two persons to New 
Netherland to inspect the country 13 

January 13, 1629 

Extract from the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam. 

The 13th of January 1629 
President President Godyn and Mr Rensselaer notify the Chamber 

Samuel . , 111. 

Godyn that their honors together with Mr Blommaert by the ships 
now going to New Netherland send two persons, one named Gillis 
Houset, sailor, the other Jacob Jansz Cuyper, with the intention, in 
case they make favorable report to their honors, of planting a colony 
there in accordance with the conditions 13 ' 1 drawn up by the As- 
sembly of the XIX. 

Registration by Michiel Pauw of a colony on the river 
of Sickenames 14 

June 7, 1629 

Extract from the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 

The 7th of June 1629 

President Conf rater Michiel Pauzv notifies this Chamber that his 

de La Mine honor declares himself as patroon of a colony which 

he agrees to plant, on the conditions ratified today in the 

Assembly of the XIX, in New Netherland, on the river of 

13 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f. 9b. Other copy in V. R. B. Mss 33, entitled: Lijste 
vande Colonien Ter Camere van amsterdam aengegeven, ende jnde Vergaderinghc vande 
xixen: in Zcclandt den 21: decemb 1630: geextraheert (List of the colonies registered 
with the Chamber of Amsterdam, abstracted for the Assembly of the XIX, in Zealand, 
Dec. 21, 1630); and endorsed: Pretensien vande Participanten inde Colonic Rcns- 
selacrsivijck (Claims of the participants in the colony of Rensselaerswyck). 

In the Letter Book occur two series of extracts from the register of resolutions of the 
West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam; the first of these is found on f.c>b-io 
and includes entries for Jan. 13, June 7, June 19, Oct. 15, Oct. 22, Nov. 1, Nov. 16, 
Nov. 19, 1629, and April 17, 1630; the second series is found on f.38b-4ob and in- 
cludes entries for Nov. 7, 1630, May 16, May 19 and July 7, 1631. Similarly V. R. B. 
Mss 33 is composed of extracts from this register of resolutions for Jan. 13, June 7, 
June 19, Oct. 15, Oct. 22, Nov. 16, Nov. 19, 1629, Jan. 10, April 17 and Nov. 7, 1630; 
and V. R. B. Mss 34 is composed of extracts for June 19, Nov. 1, Nov. 16 and Nov. 19, 
1630. For Nov. 19, 1629, V. R. B. Mss 35 gives an additional copy. The entry foi 
each of these dates has been printed but once and that under its own date. 

*• Draft of the charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, March 28. 1628. 

14 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f. 9b. Other copy in V. R. B. Mss 33. 


Sickenames, 1 * beginning at the entrance of the said river, and prays 
the said Chamber to be pleased to take notice thereof. 

Registration by Samuel Godyn of the colony of Swanendael, on 
the bay of the South River 16 

June ip } i62p 

Extract from the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 

The 19th of June 1629. 

President Mr Samuel Godijn having heretofore caused it to be re- 

Jehan Gra[s\ . ,, . , . . , , , .-. T 

gistered here that he intended to plant a colony in New 
Netherland and that to that end he had engaged two persons to go 
thither to inspect the situation of the country, declares now that he 
agrees to occupy in the capacity of patroon the bay of the South 
River, on the conditions ratified at the last session of the XIX, of 
which he also advised Director Pietcr Minuict by the last ships and 
charged him to register the same there. 

Registration by Michiel Pauw of a colony on the island of Fer- 
nando do Noronho 17 

October 15, 1629 

Extract from the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 

The 15th of October 1629 

vice President ]\{ r Michiel Pauw declares himself as patroon of the is- 

1C land thus far called Isle fernande Noronho 18 and states 

that he intends to plant a colony there at the earliest opportunity in 

15 Sickenames, or Siccahanis River, a stream east of the Connecticut River; see 
Carte Figurative, 1616, Doc. rcl. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 1:13. 

10 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book. f. 9b. Other copy in V. R. B. Mss 33. Third copy in 
V. R. B. Mss 34, entitled: Extracktcn uijt het Register der Resolutien genomen bijde 
Bcwinthcbberen vande Gcoctroijeerde Wcstindische Compaignie ter Camere tot Am- 
stelredam (Extracts from the register of resolutions passed by the directors of the 
Chartered West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam) ; and certified by Notary 
Joost van de Ven, Oct. 19, 1649, to agree with the original extracts certified by 
Gijsbert Rudolphij. Translation revised from O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, 


17 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f. 9b. Other copy in V. R. B. Mss 33- 

18 Fernando do Noronho; island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 125 miles from the 
eastern extremity of Brazil. 


accordance with the Exemptions and Freedoms ratified on the 7th 
of June 1629 by the Assembly-of the XIX. 

Registration by Albert Coenraets Burgh of a colony on the 
island of St Vincent 19 

October 22, 1629 

Extract from . the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 

The 22d of October 1629 

President ]y[ r Albertus Conradus declares himself as patroon of St 

Hen rick Hamel 

V inccnt, among the Cansche 20 Islands and states that he 
intends to plant a colony there at the earliest opportunity in accord- 
ance with the Exemptions and Freedoms ratified on the 7th of June 
1629 by the Assembly of the XIX. 

Registration by Albert Coenraets Burgh and others of a colony 
on the east side of the South Bay 21 

November 1, 1629 

Extract from the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 

The 1 st of November 1629 

President Mr Albert Coenraets and Company declare themselves 

Hcndrick . 

Hamel from now on as patroons of the east side of the South 

Eay, beginning at the month of the bay [and extending] to the nar- 
rows of the South River opposite the land which Gillis Houset 
bought for his masters, intending to send a colony thither at the 
first opportunity in accordance with the articles ratified by the As- 
sembly of the XIX. 

19 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f. 9 b. Other copy in V. R. B. Mss 33. 

20 Caribbean. 

2i V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, Other copy in V.R.B.Mss 34. 


Registration by Samuel Blommaert of a colony on the Fresh 

River 22 

November 16, i6?p 

Extracts from the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 

The 16th of November 1629 

President Confrater Samuel Blommaert declares himself from now 
on as patroon of the Fresh River, lying in New Nether- 
land between the North River and the river of Siccanamcs, intending 
to send a colony thither at the first opportunity (in accordance with 
the articles ratified by the Assembly of the XIX, and giving the 
river the name of Blommerts River). 

Registration by Kiliaen van Rensselaer and associates of a colony 
above and below Fort Orange, on both sides of the North 
River 23 

November ip, 1629 

Chin Segel 

2 st [signed] J bruijningh 


Extract from the register of resolutions kept by the directors of the 
Chartered West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 

Monday the 19th of November 1629 

President Kiliaen van reusclcier declares himself cum suis from 
Verdoes* now on as patroon on the North River of New Nether- 

land beginning above and below Fort Orange, 25 on both sides of the 
river with the islands therein, as many leagues downwards as the 
Assembly of the XIX has determined, intending to send a colony 
thither at the first opportunity on the conditions framed as aforesaid 

•- V. R. B.Mss, Letter Book, Other copies in V.R.B.Mss 33 and 34, from 
which the part in parentheses has been supplied. 

23 V. R. B. Mss 35, marked No. 1. Other copies in V. R. B. Mss 33, 34 and Letter 
Book,, from the last named of which copies the name of the president has been 

" Given as Simon van der Does in de Laet, Iaerlijck Verhael. 

26 Beginnende boven ende beneden Van het fort Oraignien. 


by the Assembly of the XIX. Underneath was written: Agrees 

with the aforesaid register; and was signed: In the absence of the 

advocate, Johannes Dijckman. 

After collation this is found to agree with the authentic extract, 

which I, notary public residing at Amsterdam certify and in witness 

whereof I have hereto affixed my signature, this 19th of April 1649. 

[signed] /; vande Ven 

nots Pub. 

i ' ! ' : . — ■ xix. 

A : J 640. 


Registration by Michiel Pauw of the colony of Pavonia, on both 
sides of the North River, from the Narrows north 20 

January 10, 1630 

Extract from the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 

The 10th of January 1630 

M Pauw declares himself as patroon of the colony which, in con- 
formity with the Exemptions and Freedoms ratified by the Assembly 
of the XIX, he agrees to plant at the first opportunity, beginning on 
the west side with Machack machoons land which is included, thence 
southward to the hamels hooffden, 21 and on the east side from the 
Hamels hooffden northward as far as the Freedoms allow, including 
the islands situated within these limits, everything in New Nether- 
land, on both sides of the North River. 

Instructions to Bastiaen Jansz Krol 28 

_ January 12, 1630 


Lans deo, the 12th of January 1630, in Amsterdam 
Instructions from Kiliaen van Rensselaer for Bastiaen Ianssen 
Crol, commis at Fort Orange, who if he sees fit may call to his as- 
sistance Dirck Comclissz, his onder-conimis, and such other per- 
sons as he shall think best and advisable. 

20 In V. R. B. Mss 33. 

27 The Narrows. 

88 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, 1.35b. Extract in V. R. B. Mss 36. 


First, Crol shall try to buy the lands hereafter named for the said 
Rensselaer, from the Mahijcans, Maquaas or such other nations as 
have any claim to them, giving them no occasion for discontent, but 
treating them with all courtesy and discretion. 

And what he shall give to the said nations in consideration of the 
aforesaid purchase, he shall take (according to the order of the Com- 
pany) from its merchandise, charging the same by measure or weight, 
to the said Rensselaer. The limits he shall extend as far as possible, 
as high above Fort Orange and as far inland as they will in any 
way cede, equally below Fort Orange, even if it were five or more 
leagues above and as many below the same fort, and as far inland 
as possible, L>:> specially in places where there is flat and good land 
and the least underbrush and trees. He shall also inspect the same 
as carefully as possible in order to write to me all the particulars 
thereof, to wit, how many islands from the uppermost to the lowest 
part there are in the said river, how long and wide they are and 
what kind of soil they have, to wit, each island separately, also how 
far the same are apart from each other and from the mainland, 
about how deep the water is and what further may be of interest. 

Also, how much flat and arable land there is along the river, that 
is the width and the length of each piece, also what follows toward 
the inland in the way of woods and mountains, stating what kinds 
of wood, soil, stone, minerals and the like there are ; all of which 
land he can measure by pacing. 

In case he can not purchase the said lands from one or two na- 
tions, that he purchase the same from all who pretend any right to 
them. Having bought the islands, that he convene not only the re- 
spective chiefs but all the people, in order to make the payment in 
the presence of them all, and that he takes then the chief of each na- 
tion to the island of the Manhates to confirm the purchase before the 
director and council, and that he have the same recorded among the 
resolutions and send me a copy. 

29 de Limitcn, sal hy soo wijt nemen als hy eenighsins sal connen doen, Soo hooge 
endc brect boven het fort Orangien als syluijden eenichsins sullen willen afstant doen 
als tnede bencden het fort Orangien alwaer het vyff ofte meer mijlen boven ende oock 
soo veele beneden hetsclve fort en soo dief> telande in als eenighsins doenlyck is. It 
is not clear from this statement whether the patroon intended that the land should 
extend, if possible, five Dutch miles or leagues above Fort Orange and as many below, 
or that it might be situated at a distance of five leagues from Fort Orange, above and 
below. In view of the limitation of four leagues in the fifth article of the Freedoms 
and Exemptions as to land to be purchased on one side of a navigable river and the 
actual purchase in 1630 and 1631 of exactly four leagues on the west side of the river, 
it is likely that the second interpretation is correct, though the actual wording is in 
favor of the first interpretation. 


Herewith a wood-measure rule, i ]/ 2 feet long, the foot containing 
11 inches, 13 feet making one Amsterdam rod and 600 [square] rods 
one morgen of land. 

These instructions the said Crol shall communicate to Director 
Pietcr Mimiit, with the request to show me such favors as the ser- 
vice of the Company permits and no others, notifying him that I 
have engaged Wolff ert Gerritssa, farmer, to direct provisionally all 
my affairs concerning the farms and purchase of cattle, [asking him 
also to] show [said Gerritssz] every favor as to what he may need 
for me for that purpose, also to cause to be made what he may want 
in the way of hardware or other things and to charge the same to 
my account, and if he needs any carpenters, for the erection of my 
houses, barracks, barns, sheepfold or other buildings, to accommo- 
date him therewith if they are not more needed for the Company, 
otherwise, as Cornells Lambertssz Steenbackcr needs carpenters and 
smiths for making his tile and brickyard, the same men could at my 
expense work some days or weeks for me, and if I should need a 
sloop or boat, master Reyn Harmanssen could make the same at my 

The said Crol shall also take due notice of everything that is done 
for me near Fort Orange, taking good care that the house be built 
near the creek on the west side of the river, on the north side of the 
creek, on the bluff, so that there shall be no danger of being flooded 
by high water, and that at first the said house be made plain and 
simple, large and tight, and if tiles could be made ready, that the 
house be covered therewith. 

That the land close to Fort Orange as well as near the said creek 
be tilled first, thereafter that on the south side of the house, and 
that the islands be kept for hay and as pasture for the cattle, sheep, 
hogs, etc. 

If it is a good acorn year there, that Wulffcrt Gcrritssen or his 
foreman have a good quantity bought up for me to be kept for the 
winter as feed for the hogs. 

Also to look out that my men work faithfully and diligently, and 
that they do not cheat me or sell any of my goods, and yearly to re- 
port to me the number of horses, cows, sheep and hogs I have, how 
old they are and how many have died or been born each year. 

Also to credit the account of the provisions which my men may 
buy from the Company with the milk, butter, meat and bacon which 
they should deliver in return, the prices being reciprocally made as 
reasonable as possible. 


Further, to advise me by all favorable opportunities of everything 
that, from lack of knowledge of circumstances, I can not provide 

In witness that I have requested this of him with promise of 
proper compensation for his trouble, I have signed this with my own 
hand. Done as above. 

Underneath was written : Kiliacu van Rensselaer 

Instructions to Wolfert Gerritsz 30 
January 16, 1630 

Instructions from Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wulfert Gerritssen van 
Amersfoort^, this 16th of January 1630, in Amsterdam 

Wulfert Gcrritssz aforesaid is engaged by Rensselaer, his service 
to begin on his arrival in that country. He is bound for four sum- 
mers, but RensseV. may end the contract after one or two summers. 

The annual term of service of Wulfert is agreed upon to be from 
April to November, when all the winter seed is in the ground ; and 
if it is very necessary he must stay through the winter and he shall 
receive 20 guilders for each month of service 32 being at his own ex- 
pense as to board. 

I have further engaged for four years beginning in that country, 
Rutger Henrickssz van Soest, 32 years old, who shall receive 120 
guilders a year ; have paid the same in advance f5o and f5 by way of 

Brant Peelen van Nijckerck on the above conditions for four 
year j at no guilders a year; paid the same in advance f 15 and by 
way of present fio; is 40 years old. 

Pietcr Hendrickssen van Soest, as boy, shepherd or plowboy; 33 
also four years at 15 guilders a year and paid him in advance 15 

As soon as they with God's help arrive in New Netherland, Wulff- 
ert Gerritsss and the aforesaid persons shall go before the com- 
mander and council and make promise there that not one of them 

80 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.37. 

51 In the N. Y. Col. Mss, he is occasionally referred to as Wolfert Gerritsz van Couwen- 
hoven. Couwenhoven is a farm or country seat about four miles northwest of 

32 Naer de Lopende maenden; literally, according to the current months. 

38 Ploech-dryver. 



will trade in any peltries or skins, on forfeiture of their wages. On 
the way over they shall take care of 12 ewes and one ram which I 
have bought and send thither, that the same may arrive safely. 

Further, as the farm of Evert fockcn, deceased, which (he hav- 
ing died) has been granted to Rutger Henrickssen van Soest, is not 
all of it fit for cultivation, as it has only just been begun, Wulfcrt 
shall go with Rutger before the commander and council and state 
that they will take care that the plowed land of the said farm, ac- 
cording to the conditions of the lords directors communicated to the 
council, shall be cultivated in order that the Company may draw 
its interest therefrom and, as they according to the same order of the 
directors have the right to transport the cattle with the wagons, 
plows and all other things which the Company has on the said farm 
to other places, that they intend to move the same near Fort Orange, 
and as they, like the other farmers, must pay within six years 600 
guilders in money with the [increase of the] cattle and other ani- 
mals, for the four horses, four cows, two heifers, six sheep, six 
hogs, wagons and plows, that Kiliaen van Rensselaer agrees to 
pay the said amount and cattle to the Company. 

And as Evert fockes has died, if the widow should some day in 
any wise be able to enlarge the said farm, Wolff ert Gerritssz shall 
try to come to an understanding with her on the best possible terms 
and concede her one or two cows in order to make progress in that 
way. As to the plowed land, which amounts to little, she can have 
that cultivated by others. 

And inasmuch as Rensselaer has agreed to plant a colony, and is 
thereby bound to support 50 people in that country, he must neces- 
sarily have many animals or will otherwise not be able to maintain 
his colony. Wolff ert Gerritssz shall therefore try to obtain as many 
animals as possible from this one and that one, paying first of all at- 
tention to the two horses of the stave splitters, which belong to them 
and which he can obtain by giving them a small profit, as they are 
no longer going to split staves. 

Secondly, as I have entered into an agreement with confrater 
Paamv concerning the remaining animals in that country, after the 
eight farms shall each have been provided with four horses, four 
cows, two heifers, six sheep and six hogs, which are to be sold there 
by order of the directors, Wulfert shall address the director re- 
specting this matter that his honor may act therein according to the 
letter signed by confrater Paauzv and myself and written to the 


director and sent by Bastiacu Janssz Crol. We find by estimate 
that there are about 28 animals in all, of which 15 would be for me 
and 13 for Mr Michicl Paaww, as is specified in the letter. 
Among these would be for me: 
1 stallion of two winters 
1 stallion of one winter 

1 bull 

3 bulls of one winter 
3 mares of two winters 

2 mares of one winter 
i 33a cows of three winters 

Total 15 animals 

Further, Wulfert Gerritssz shall try to obtain as many sheep as 
he can at reasonable price, to send those up too ; also, as many hogs 
as he can conveniently feed, herd or fatten, to sell in that country, 
or otherwise to cure or pickle for the purpose of sending them hither. 

To Bastiaen Ianssz crol I have given an extract from the Reso- 
lution book of the Company, wherein I have declared myself as 
patroon of the North River, above and below the fort, which land 
Bastiaen Ianssz croll shall try to purchase for me according to the 
instructions given him. 

What further may be necessary for the accomplishment of this 
task IViifert Gerritssz shall do according to circumstances and write 
me all the particulars thereof, and try to have the house built at the 
place of which I have written to Crol; other matters I leave to 
their discretion and wish them good luck on their voyage. 



Should probably be 4. 


First combination of colonies in New Netherland and shares each 
partner is to have in them 34 

February 1, 1630 

Clein Segel [signed] 

2 st / bruijniiigh 


Original draft of the first combination of the colonies and of what 
shares each one is to have in the others' colonies, the direction 
of each colony being reserved to the patroon by whom the 
colony was registered and in whose name it was bought of the 
owners according to the sealed instruments. 

,_ 1 

Remarks on the colonies in New Netherland, 

this first of February 1630 

Participants in the said colonies 

Mr Coenradus on the east side This colony was abandoned 

of the bay of the South and not established. 

River 2/5 

Samuel Godyn ditto 1/5 

Samuel Blommaert 1/5 

K. V. rensselaer 1/5 

Total 5/5 

Hereof Mr Coenradus is to have the management in his name. 

Mr Samuel Godijn on the west This colony, to which later 

side of the bay of the South other participants were added, 

■n- 2 /- was begun and finally sold to 

., """ ' ■•*• p the West India Company. 

Mr Coenradus 1/5 

Blommaert 1/5 

rensselaer 1/5 

Total 5/5 

Hereof Mr Godijn is to have the management in his name. 

34 V. R. B. Mss 37, Marked No. 2, f.ij. Notarial copy prepared by Joost van de Ven, 
April 19, 1649, in connection with the controversy between the copartners and the 
guardians of Johannes van Rensselaer. Other copy, without notes, in Letter Book, f.i6b. 


Mr Samuel blommaert on the This colony was not estab- 

Fresh River 2/5 lished but abandoned. 

Mr Coenradus 1/5 

Godijn 1/5 

rensslacr 1/5 

Total 5 /5 

Hereof Mr Blommaert is to have the management in his name. 

K. V. Rensselaer about Fort This colony was established 

Orange 2/5 by K: V: rensselaer, as pa- 

t\t & ^" " j" " t 1* troon, who later bought an- 

Mr Coenradus 1/5 Qther ' l/lQ share fr * m the 

Godijn 1/5 heirs of Godijn and has now 

Blommaert 1/5 5/10 shares, the just 1/2, be- 

sides the rights of the pa- 

Total 5 /5 

troonship for himself and his 
heirs. Rensselaer later bought 
the remaining 1/10 share of 
Godijn, deceased, from Jacob 
and hendric trip, so that rens- 
selaer owns 6/10 shares. 
Hereof rensselaer is to have the management in his name. 

Each director shall consult the other participants and ask their 
advice in regard to all matters under the sum of 2000 guilders for 
each respective 1/5 share, but above the aforesaid 2000 guilders 
and up to 4000 guilders for each respective 1/5 share everything 
must be decided by majority of votes, and above that amount by 
unanimous vote. 

The original is written on a half sheet of paper in the, to me well 
known, hand and penmanship of Mr Kiliaen van Rensselaer, de- 
ceased, during his lifetime patroon of the colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck in New Netherland. which I, judoco vande Ven, scsc. 
jmperiali ab Curie Iwllandie authoritatibus Notarius publicus Am- 
stclodami residens, certify and in witness thereof have hereunto 
affixed my notarial signature, this 19th of April 1649 in Amsterdam. 

[signed] /: vande Ven 

Nots Pub. 


A . - J 640. 



Registration by Samuel Blommaert of a colony on the island of 
St Martin or on Barbados, among the Caribbean Islands 35 

April if, 1630 

Extract from the register of resolutions of the West India 
Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 
The 17th of April 1630 
President iy[ r Blommaert declares that he is inclined to plant 
a colony on the island of S*. Martin or on Barbados, 
among the Caribbean Islands, of which he requests a patent, which 
is hereby granted to his honor on the conditions granted to others. 
He declares further that he is also inclined to send a ship to get 
salt and to inspect the said island. 

Certificate of purchase from the Indians of land on the west side 
of the Hudson River from Smacks Island to Moenemin's 
Castle and of tract of land on the east side opposite Castle 
Island and Fort Orange 37 

August 13, 1630 

Anno 1630, this day the 13th of August. We, the director and 
council of New Netherland, residing on the island the Manahatas 
and in Fort Amsterdam, under the jurisdiction of their High 
Mightinesses the Lords States General of the United Netherlands 
and the Chartered West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam, 
do hereby testify and declare, that on this day, the date under- 
written, before us appeared and presented themselves in their proper 
persons, Kottamack, Nawanemit, Abantzeene, Sagiskwa and Kana- 
moack, owners and proprietors of their respective parcels of land 

35 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, Other copy in V. R. B. Mss 33. 

36 Given as Hcndrick Brocn, in de Laet, Iacrlijck Verhael. 

37 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f. 1. The original of this document is now in the 
possession of the Hon. John Boyd Thacher, of Albany. A facsimile and translation are 
in Wilson's Memorial History of the City of New York, 1:163-64; a smaller, but 
clearer, facsimile is in Avery's History of the United States, 2:221. A transcript from 
a notarial copy of the original is in Holland Documents, 1:181—84, of which O'Cal- 
laghan's translation is in Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 1:44. The present translation 
is based on O'Callaghan's but follows the text of the copy in the Letter Book in 
spelling of proper names and in the close. 

As explained at length in a footnote to the certificate of May 1631. on p. 181 the 
present certificate, contrary to the statements made by historical writers, relates to the 
first purchase for Kiliaen van Rensselaer of land from the Indians in the vicinity of 
Fort Orange. 


extending up the river, south and north, from the said fort 38 to a 
little south of Mocncminncs Castle, 39 belonging to the aforesaid 
proprietors jointly and in common, and the land called Semessccck, 
belonging to the aforesaid Nawanemit individually, lying on the 
east bank from opposite Castle Island 40 to the above mentioned 
fort; also, from Pctanock, the mill creek, north to Negagonse; in 
extent about three leagues f 1 and declared freely and advisedly that 
for and on account of certain quantity of merchandise which they 

3S ran dito fort aff. The description of the land in this certificate is literally copied 
from that in the certificate of Aug. 6, 1630, recorded in Dutch Patents, GG, p. 4—6, 
in which the words dito fort refer to Fort Orange, mentioned at the beginning of 
the document. A translation of the main body of Dutch Patents, GG, p. 4-6, is in 
Doc. rcl. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 14: 1-2. A facsimile and translation of the original 
parchment certificate of Aug. 6, 1630, are in Wilson, Memorial History of the City of 
New York, 1:163. 

39 Situated on what was formerly called Haver Island, and now Peobles Island, at 
the mouth of the Mohawk River. 

40 casteels eylandt. 

41 Statements by Kiliaen van Rensselaer regarding the purchases of land from the 
Indians in his letter to de Laet, Tune 27, 1632 (see p. 197) and in the "Account of 
the jurisdictions," July 20, 1634 (see p. 307) show that historical writers have erred 
in their description of the territory covered by this first purchase of Aug. 13, 1630. 
Their error is directly traceable to a misconception on the part of Jan Baptist van 
Rensselaer as to the location of the tracts referred to as Petanock and Negagonse, 
which, in his letter of June 10/20, 1678 (O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, 
1:125), he places on the east side of the river, whereas the "Account of the juris- 
dictions " distinctly states that they were on the west side, Petanock being defined as 
a tract south and north of the " mill creek," by which is meant the Normans Kill, 
also including West or Castle Island, and Negagonse as a tract extending up to's Castle, presumably from the north end of Castle Island or a point just 
south of Fort Orange. From these statements, which are confirmed by the certificates 
of March 1633, by Gerrit Willemsz Oosterum and Peter Minuit, mentioned by Jan 
Baptist van Rensselaer, it is evident that the purchase of Aug. 13, 1630, embraced: 
1, the land on the west side of the river from Fort Orange to the Mohawk; 2, a 
small tract on the east side of the river, on both sides of the present Mill Creek, from 
opposite Castle Island to a point opposite Fort Orange; 3, the land on the west side 
of the river from a point south of the Normans Kill to the north point of Castle 
Island, or possibly to Fort Orange. 

As to the precise location of this point south of the Normans Kill we have no in- 
formation; from the patroon's statement in his letter to de Laet, after the purchase 
of land from Beeren Island to Smacks Island, that they had " all the shore along the 
river on the west side, from beeren Island to Momnenis Castle," we may infer however 
that the purchase of Aug. 13, 1630, included all the land on the west side of the 
river from Smacks Island to the Mohawk, a distance, according to the certificate, of 
about three Dutch miles or leagues. In May 1631, land from Beeren Island to 
Smacks Island was added, making the total distance along the west shore, according 
to the parchment map of Rensselaerswyck reproduced in this volume, exactly four 
Dutch miles or leagues, the extent of territory on one side of a navigable river 
allowed by the fifth article of the Freedoms and Exemptions. On April 23, 1637, 
additional land was bought on the east side from Papscanee Creek south to a point 
opposite Smacks Island. At later dates purchases were made of various islands, 
of land near the Poesten Kill, at Catskill, Bethlehem and Claverack, but no deed from 
the Indians is recorded or among the Rensselaerswyck Mss, nor is any cited in the 
" Case of the Colony of Rensselaerswyck," delivered on April 27, 1678, to the council 
of the Duke of York in support of the petition for letters patent to the colony, that 
covers the land on the east side of the river from a point opposite Fort Orange north. 

It is curious to note that historical writers, in placing the tract " from Petanock, the 


acknowledged to have received in their hands and possession before 
the execution hereof, by virtue and title of sale, they hereby convey, 
cede and make over to and for the behoof of the Hon. Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer, absent, for whom we, ex officio and with due stipula- 
tion, accept the same, namely, the respective parcels of land here- 
inbefore specified, with the timber, appurtenances and dependencies 
thereof, together with all the interests, rights and jurisdiction to 
them the grantors conjointly or severally belonging, constituting 
and substituting the said Hon. Rensselaer in their stead, place and 
right and in the real and actual possession thereof, and at the same 
time giving him, or those who may hereafter acquire his honor's 
interest, full, absolute and irrevocable power, authority and special 
command to hold, in quiet possession, cultivation, occupation and 
use, tanquam actor et procurator in rem suam ac propriam, the said 
land acquired by the aforesaid Hon. Rensselaer; also, to dispose of, 
do with and alienate it, as his honor or others should or might d<r 
with his other and own lands and domains acquired by good and 
lawful title, without the grantors retaining therein, reserving or 
holding in the least any part, right, interest or authority whether 
of property, command or jurisdiction, but on the contrary, hereby, 
desisting from, yielding, giving up and renouncing the same for- 
ever, for the behoof aforesaid ; further promising not only forever 
to hold fast and irrevocable, to observe and to fulfil this, their 
conveyance, and whatever may by virtue thereof be done, but also 
to protect against eviction from the aforesaid land, Obligans et 
Renuncians A bona fide. In testimony whereof, this is confirmed 
by our usual signatures, with the ordinary pendant seal. Done at 
the aforesaid island Manahatas and Fort Amsterdam, on the day 
and year aforesaid. Was signed in the several hands, Peter 
Minuict, Director; Picter Bijlvclt, Iacob Elbcrtsz Wissinck, Ian 
Ianssen Brouwer, Sijmon Dircks pos, Rcynicr Harmanscn. 

mill creek, north to Negagonse " on the east side of the river, have apparently realized 
that the purchase of Aug. 13, 1630, did not cover the distance from Smacks Island 
to Fort Orange, unless the words de Revigre op zuyden ende noorden, van dito fort 
aff were taken to mean " up the river, south and north of the said fort." Any one 
familiar with the wording of the Dutch patents will recall however that such phrases 
as zuyden ende noorden, or zuyd oosten ende noord westen, occur in almost every 
patent and have reference either to the mere direction of the compass, south and 
north, or southeast and northwest, or else to two parallel courses, up one side of the 
land described and down the other. 

If, as it would seem, no deed from the Indians to the Van Rensselaers, for land 
on the east side of the river from opposite Fort Orange north, was procured up to 
1678, when efforts were made to secure a patent for the colony from the Duke of 
York, it is interesting to reflect how the evident mistake about the location of the 
tracts called Pctanock and Negagonse may have helped to include the land on the 
east side, north of the present city of Rensselaer, in the patent of Nov. 4, 1685. 


There was written besides : This conveyance written with mine 
own hand is, in consequence of the secretary's absence, executed in 
my presence on the thirteenth of August, XVI C and thirty, as above. 
And was signed, Lenaert Cole, deputy secretary; 42 the seal of New 
Netherland in red wax depending from a double strip of parchment. 

Symon Dircksz Pos, councilor in New Netherland, to Kiliaen 

van Rensselaer 43 

September 16, 1630 


Worthy, wise, prudent, honorable Guliaen van Rensel: 

Since, up to this date, I have been assisted and favored by your 
honor, I can not refrain from advising your honor what I think 
of the Company's affairs and the situation here at the present day. 
As to the building of a certain new ship which is now almost ready, 
it proves a success but damage may be done to it by the strong ice 
drift we are having; however, we hope to protect it sufficiently. 
As to the farms on the manathans, much land is daily being plowed 
everywhere by the farmers. I have strong hopes now that the 
honorable directors after their long waiting may at last be relieved 
from great expenses, since we shall be able to deliver a number of 
lasts of rye and wheat, raised from the land here, thus meeting 
heavy charges. This present year we shall be in need of much 
seed as we are clearing, harrowing and plowing much land. I 
can also not help advising your honor of the disputes which exist 
in this small settlement of not more than 200 or 300 people. 

Now, the director and Jan Romondc are very much embittered 
against one another. Here all is left to drift as it will; they let 
trade slip away and do not exert themselves to increase it either 
by sloops or otherwise, but are very diligent in bringing exorbitant 
suits and charges against one another and in neglecting the interests 
and business of the directors. The minister, Jonas Michielsa, is 
very energetic here stirring up the fire between them; he ought 
to be a mediator in God's church and community but he seems to 
me to be the contrary. The honorable directors hear nothing but 

42 Marginal note in handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer: Underneath, Jan Lampo, 

43 V. R. B. Mss 2. Printed . in Dutch in Oud Holland, 1890, 8:70-71, as Appendix 
B to Mr de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 


idle complaints from their subjects; one says this, the other that, 
so that in place of the Company's servants looking after the trading, 
some one else in the meanwhile goes off with the skins. 

The English on the sloepsbay 4:ia will in the meantime drive us out 
of the trade since we go to work so slowly and are so slack in our 
business. The sloops lie idle and are not sent out to trade, but 
were an injurious suit to be brought, people would be quick enough 
about it ; the trade, which is of the utmost importance to the Com- 
pany and ought to bring profit, they allow to go to ruin. While 
we here in this country are pursuing each other with suits and in- 
famous invectives, the people send the otters and beavers under 
such cover as may be, stored away in their chests, from which the 
honorable lords will not be able to draw much profit. Well, I am 
no more than a man, and am grieved that I must behold such things 
as' people here so vexing each other. As to your honor's land at 
Fort Orange, it has been ploughed by your honor's farmer Wolfcrl 
Gerritsz and I do my best, since your honor has also done his best 
to make a man of me, for which I am most highly grateful to 
your honor. I would also recommend to your honor my cousin 
dirck Joosten, who is now coming home as mate with Jan Browwer, 
since he is a good, upright young man. As to the specification of 
the animals, that will appear more fully from the director's letter, 
but I shall carefully look after your honor's affairs here that they 
may bring profit to your honor. By this dirck joosten, I send your 
honor a fine bearskin, which your honor can use in traveling and 
boating or as your honor sees fit. Done, the 16th of September 
1630, in New Netherland at the Manathans, Fort Amsterdam. 

Your honor's willing servant, 

sijinon dircxz pos 

The worshipful, wise, prudent, honorable Guliaen van Rcnschtcr, 
director of the Chartered West India Company, Chamber of Am- 

by dirck ioostcn, with 1 bearskin. 

I seall 

43a Narragansett Bay, R. I. 


Agreement between the patroons, Samuel Godyn, Albert Coen- 
raets Burgh, Samuel Blommaert and Kiliaen van Rensselaer 44 

October i, i6$o 


In the name of the Lord, Amen. Whereas we, the underwritten, 
are inclined to plant some colonies in New Netherland as elsewhere 
within the limits of the charter of the West India Company accord- 
ing to the Freedoms and Exemptions granted by the Assembly of 
the XIX of the said Company to all participants, and for this pur- 
pose have already had several colonies registered. 

First, along the bay of the South River with the land on the 
west side thereof, which has been bought for us from the natives by 
Cillis Housct. 

Secondly, on the east side of the South Bay from the mouth of 
the bay to the narrows of the said South River. 

Thirdly, on the Fresh River lying- between the North River and 
the river of Ciccanamcs. 

Fourthly, along the North River above and below Fort Orange, 
on both sides of the said river. 

Fifthly, the island SK Marttijn or Barbados among the Caribbees. 

And whereas we have finally obtained consent to send some 
people to the islands of Tortuga and Majaguane, both lying to the 
north of the island Hispaniola, and also to furnish the French there 
with provisions and other necessaries, everything conformable to 
the respective registrations and consents, as appears from the reso- 
lution book of the West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam. 
Therefore, regarding all these colonies, commercial enterprises and 
everything connected therewith, we have mutually and reciprocally 
contracted and agreed with one another, for ourselves, our heirs, 
successors and assigns, as we do contract and agree by these 
presents (notwithstanding any previous agreements or promises 
which may be to the contrary and which we hereby expressly abro- 
gate and declare void) that henceforth and in the future, all the 
aforesaid colonies, enterprises and freedoms and what in any wise 
depends thereon, shall be for the advantage, profit or loss of all 
four of us, hereafter named, each for one just fourth part, accord- 
ing to which the ownership, losses and profits, purchases and sales, 

** V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.6b. 


expenses, expenditures, cargoes, returns, cattle, agriculture, fisheries 
and what in anywise depends thereon, or proceeds therefrom, shall 
be reckoned, with this express stipulation and restriction that no one 
of us four shall be allowed to enter into partnership or form a com- 
pany with any one else for similar purposes, or undertake anything 
for himself, without having first communicated and fully disclosed 
the same to these his partners, who if they think fit may share 
therein with him, each for one fourth part. 

It is further stipulated that the entire direction of the work (both 
now and in the future) shall be in the hands of all four of us, 
hereafter named (but that in case of a tie the presiding officer shall 
have a double vote), and that all affairs of importance which con- 
cern this company in any manner must first be passed by resolu- 
tion and then entered in a general resolution book, and to prevent 
as much as possible all disputes, it is agreed that all resolutions 
passed by a plurality of votes shall have the same effect as those 
voted unanimously. Samuel Godijn shall preside first for the term 
of three months from the date hereof, thereafter Albertus Coen- 
racdus for the same length of time, thereafter Samuel Blommaert as 
above and finally Kiliaen van Rensselaer for the same period, so 
that every year each one of us four shall preside for three months. 

Each one of us four shall have liberty in case of indisposition 
or otherwise to substitute another person in his place, on condition 
that he cede to the same all his powers in this company, none 
excepted, and if he fails to nominate any one during his lifetime, 
his place shall be filled successively by his nearest heirs (sons 
being preferred to daughters and brothers to sisters). 

All books, letters, papers and other things of the kind shall be 
owned in common and be kept in a neutral place at the expense 
of the company. 

All superscriptions of letters and contracts shall be made out 
in our four names in the order above named, but in case of death 
or substitution the last comer shall have the last place, and if in 
course of time a distinctive name be given to the company, then 
this name instead of the names of the directors, is to be used. 

It is also agreed that a common bookkeeper and such other 
servants shall be engaged at the expense of the company as shall 
later be thought fit. 

No one of this company shall be allowed to withdraw his money 
or to presume to reap for himself alone the benefit of his share in 
the returns or other goods, but everything must be done in the name 


of the company, no one having the right to take anything for him 
self. To this end we shall settle what each one may take under 
his care, of which he shall be commissioner 45 for such time as shall 
be voted ; also that the treasurer shall pay nothing that is not pro- 
vided by resolution or signed by order of two partners and in their 
absence by the presiding officer. 

For the purposes of this company it is agreed to form a capital 
of twenty thousand guilders, that is for each director's portion or 
fourth share, five thousand guilders, which money must be paid 
into the hands of the treasurer at such time as shall hereafter be 
decided, and in case any one of us fail to furnish his quota afore- 
mentioned he shall be obliged to pay to the company one month 
after the said date interest at the rate of one penny in sixteen, and 
if the said delay should be longer than half a year, the person in 
default shall on pain of execution on his share be notified to make 
prompt payment, and if within three months from that date said 
payment is not made, the company shall have liberty without any 
action at law to sell his share, publicly at his charge, and to levy the 
money thus due, both capital and interest, by execution on his per- 
son and estate, movable as well as immovable, in the manner afore- 
said, and the remaining directors shall have the right to put another 
director in his place, which may also be done temporarily or. 
permanently if such place become vacant in any other way. If 
hereafter any one else should be inclined to participate in this com- 
pany and the same be thought advisable, it must be on the basis of 
a share in the whole, the direction remaining as before exercised by 
four votes except that the directors shall then draw from the 
common treasury for their trouble a commission of one per cent 
on goods going out and of two per cent on goods coming in, as far 
as trade is concerned, but of the yearly revenues, increase of cattle, 
land and orchard fruits or crops, minerals, pearl fisheries and such 
things which appertain to the colonies, they shall receive five per 
cent, that is to say of the net proceeds and not of the gross proceeds. 
When it is unanimously resolved to distribute the proceeds, the same 
shall be divided among all the participants proportionately, accord- 
ing to the amount of each man's investment, but the said partici- 
pants shall have no right to constrain the directors to make such 
distribution. Whereas the fiefs of the respective colonies afore- 
named must in case of death be renewed by the Chartered West 
India Company in the name of a single person in order to pay the 

15 Commissaris. 


Company its stipulated fee after the said person's death, we have 
agreed, without prejudice to our ownership, right and interest in 
the said colonies, that Samuel Godijn for himself, his heirs, suc- 
cessors and assigns, shall bear the title of patroon of the colony on 
the west side of the bay of the South River and give to the same 
and to the places within its jurisdiction such names as he shall 
see fit. 

Albert Cocnraets Burgh shall on the above conditions bear the 
title of patroon of the colony on the east side of the aforesaid bay 
of the South River. 

In the same way Samuel Bio mart of the Fresh River, the island 
of ^ f . Martijn or Barbados or of such other island as in case of 
refusal of any of these he shall select with common consent, which 
privilege the otbers in such case shall have also. 

And Kiliaen van Rensselaer of the colony on the North River 
lying above and below Fort Orange on both sides of the said river. 
Thus done and approved, after previous reading of the decisions, 
and in testimony of the truth four copies of like tenor have been 
made hereof, signed by each of us with his own hand, without 
guile or deceit, in Amsterdam the ist of October 1630; and was 
signed with the several hands, 5\ Godijn, S. blomaert, K V Rens- 
selaer. Underneath was further written as follows : Whereas Mr 
Albcrtus Conradj had before this ceded me his half and his wife 
now in his honor's absence neglects matters entirely, I have signed 
for one fourth, but with this understanding that if his honor on his 
return home thinks that he sees anything to his detriment herein, 
I submit myself to the decision of the aforementioned three gen- 
tlemen ; and was signed, /. dc Lact. 

I, Joost vandc Ven, imperial notary public ad- 
mitted by the Court of Flolland, residing within the 
city of Amsterdam, declare hereby that this copy 
written on the five preceding and this the sixth 
page of paper, is the true and complete copy of 
its original, and in witness hereof I have confirmed 
this with my notarial signature, in Amsterdam this 
19th of April 1634. 

[signed] /: vande Ven 

Nots Pub: 


A°. — 1634. 



46 Inasmuch as three of the above mentioned four colonies have 
come to an end, to wit, the colony on the west side of the bay of 
the South River whereof Samuel Godijn was the patroon ; also, the 
colony on the east side of the aforesaid bay of which albcrtus Co en- 
nui us or Jehan dcLact was the patroon, both of which colonies have 
been sold and turned over to the West India Company; third, the 
colony on the Fresh River and the island of St. Marti jn of which 
Samuel blommaert was to be the patroon but which was not begun 
at all ; there remains at present of the said four colonies only that on 
the North River lying above and below Fort Orange now named 
Rehsselaerswyck, of which Kiliaen van Rensselaer and his heirs 
are patroons, holding, with the purchased tenth share of the heirs of 
Samuel Godijn deceased, five tenth shares or the exact half, Samuel 
blommaert and adam bessels each one tenth share, Jehan de lact 
and 47 Mussaert in place of Albcrtus Cocnradj each one 

tenth share and Jacob and hendrick Trip together one tenth share. 

This 2d of March 1639 in Amsterdam. 

[signed] K V Rensselaer 

Registration by Kiliaen van Rensselaer and his copartners of a 
colony on Sable Island 4 ** 

November J, 1630 

Extract from the resolution book at Amsterdam 
The 7th of November 1630, in Amsterdam 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer, for himself and his copartners, notifies 
the Chamber that according to the Freedoms granted by the As- 
sembly of the XIX to all the participants he declares himself from 
now on as patroon of the island of du Sable, lying at 43 or 44 
degrees north of the line and about the meridian of Cape Breton, 
intending to send a colony thither on the conditions of the aforesaid 

This Chamber has nothing against this registration provided that 
according to the last resolution the same be approved by the XIX. 

40 Note in handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

17 Blank in Letter Book. 

« V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, 1.38b. Other copy in V. R. B. Mss 33- 


Registration of various colonies with the Chamber of 
Middelburg 49 

Before December 21, 1630 

Notice given to the Chamber of Zealand 

Burgomaster Johan de Moor and his partners in Tabago 

The same on the Amasones 

Abraham vande per in Brebice 

Glaude provost in Cajana ~) . , , , , , ,, . 

_ . . „ in behalf of their partners 

Jan van rien in Quaro y , . 

_ . . „ [ who give it up 

jan vander Goes in ipse quepe w J 

Coll 2 . 

Agreement between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Marinus 
Adriaensz van der Veere 51 

January 12, 16 '31 

Agreement entered into with Maryn adriaensen van der Veere, on 
the 12th of January 163 1 

On conditions and terms hereafter specified, Kiliaen van Rens- 
selaer, as patroon of his colony situated about Fort Orange on the 
North River of New Netherland, on one side, and Maryn Ariaens- 
sen vander Veere, for himself and his men, on the other side, have 
agreed, stipulated and contracted regarding the sowing, growing 
and cultivating of tobacco in the aforesaid region at the places to 
be indicated to the said Marti} n by the aforesaid patroon or his 
agents and especially on the farm on the north side of the fort (if 
the same has not been occupied before his arrival as the first comer 
has the preference) which he began to clear before his departure, 
making it as large again or even larger by extending it from but 
not toward the fort. All this for the term of thrde consecutive 
years, commencing at the arrival of the said Marijn and his men in 
New Netherland on the farm aforesaid. 

First, Maryn must equip and provide himself with everything at 
his own expense and charge, and also here or in that country engage 

49 V. R. B. Mss 33. 
60 Essequebo. 

51 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, {.2. An extract from this agreement is found in 
V. R. B. Mss 38; sec p. 674-75. 


four persons to assist him in the planting and curing of the to- 
bacco, it being well understood that he, Marijn, or his men, if they 
have any time to spare, must employ the same for such other work, 
nothing excepted, as the patroon or his agents shall indicate, and 
that he shall receive therefor according to the time spent and for 
his share such wages as his men have stipulated. 52 

The patroon shall receive the just half of all the tobacco which 
Mary n and his men shall cultivate, the remaining half to be for 
Maryn. The patroon 's half may not be charged or encumbered 
under any pretext of promises, claims, wages or other charges 
which Maryn must liquidate or settle, but his men must demand 
and recover from Maryn or his share whatever has been credited 
to them by him. 

The patroon shall be holden to compensate Marijn Ariaenssen 
for one half of the wages and advance money which he shall 
promise to the aforesaid four persons, provided that he may not 
engage any one without the consent and approbation of the pa- 
troon and that the latter shall not be bound to give Marijn any com- 
pensation for his labor as Marinus during the term of this agree- 
ment is not to pay the patroon any rent for the land or any tithes. 
As to the board of the four persons for which the patroon is 
obliged to compensate maryn, it is agreed that the patroon shall pay 
his half to Maryn at a reasonable figure corresponding and in pro- 
portion to the price which he shall demand for the wheat, butter, 
milk and other things with which he shall furnish Maryn, in order 
that neither the one nor the other have any ground for complaint 
respecting the matter. 

Concerning the passage forth and back, the patroon shall do his 
best to obtain permission from the Company that Marijn and his 
wife and child be taken over for their board without wages, on 
condition that he perform all sorts of ship duties, and if this can 
not be arranged Maryn shall pay the expenses himself. 

But as far as the four men or any of them are concerned, if 
they can not obtain free passage for their labor and ship duties, 
the patroon must pay one half thereof and marijn the other half. 

Marinis Adriacnsscn must buy four good firelocks, further axes, 
adzes, shovels and spades which his men need for their work; of 
which the patroon shall pay half the cost and Maryn see to it that 
they are well kept and taken care of, the same to be divided half 
and half at the end of the three years. 

62 Daer voor genietende naer avenant dcs tijts endc voor syn quota soodanigen 
Solaris als het rolck bedongen heeft. 


All the tobacco which Marijn and his men shall produce, he must 
send hither and deliver into the hands of the patroon or deliver to 
his agent to be sent hither by him ; Maryn is to pay no more in the 
way of freight and expenses for his half than the patroon shall 
pay for the other half, and on its arrival here the patroon shall 
sell the same for the common benefit and pay to Marijn aforesaid 
or to his order the just half of the net proceeds over and above the 
expenses and advanced money. But if Maryn Adriaenssen should 
be able to sell any tobacco in that country at a good price, he must 
render proper account thereof and pay the patroon or his agents 
promptly the just half of the proceeds. If it is at all convenient 
the patroon shall have built for the said Maryn a dwelling of four 
crossbeams, 36 feet long and 14 feet wide, also a small boat 53 
which being once made must be kept in repair by Maryn and on 
his departure be delivered by him as he received it, wear and tear 
through hard use excepted. 

Marinus Adriaenssen and his men must yearly make a trip down 
to the Manhatas and return thence without having any right to 
claim compensation therefor, but if they are oftener employed on 
such service they must be paid accordingly. 

In case he, Marijn, his wife, his children or any of his men hap- 
pen to find any mines, minerals, pearl fisheries or the like they 
shall disclose the same to no one but their patroon or his agents, 
who shall make them a handsome present therefor according to 
the importance of the matter. They shall further all submit them- 
selves to the sovereignty of the High Mighty Lords the States 
General of these United Netherlands, to the supreme power and 
direction of the Chartered West India Company in general and of 
the aforesaid Rensselaer in particular, and to the ordinances and 
regulations to be passed there by them respectively in matters of 
justice and police, and be obliged to take the oath of obedience and 
fidelity, especially to refrain from trading, negotiating or carrying 
on business there against the order and intention of the Company 
and -their aforesaid patroon, whether in skins, seawan or other 
goods found there, and not to accept the same by way of present or 
otherwise, nor to take merchandise from here with them, for them- 
selves or for others, directly or indirectly, in any manner whatso- 
ever, on pain of confiscation and penalties fixed by the Company or 
still to be fixed, and furthermore of banishment from the colony as 
a perjurer and a refractory character, 54 for which he, Maryn, must 

63 IVeyschuijtgen; a light boat which can be carried across the fields. 

64 A Is Meyncedigh ende wedcrspannich uyt de Colonic gestooten worden. 


answer and stand responsible both for himself and for the afore- 
said four men or others whom he may have under his orders. 
They are further not allowed to terminate this contract before the 
expiration of the said term of three years (unless their patroon 
give them permission to do so) and contract with any one else or 
sow any one else's fields, on pain of forfeiture for the benefit of 
the aforementioned Rensselaer as patroon, of the whole amount of 
his share in the sowed, cultivated, sold and unsold tobacco and 
also to give up at once the lands, houses and tools, leaving every- 
thing to be disposed of as aforesaid even if he alone should have 
paid for some of them 

And in case any one or more of the said four men should leave 
or drop out, he must fill his place as quickly as possible with 
another able man. He must also by every ship and yacht sailing 
hither send proper reports and accurate accounts of everything in 
all sincerity without concealment or disposal of anything at private 

In witness of the truth of the above agreement, this is signed 
bv the patroon and Maryn Adriacnssen with their own hands, in 
the presence of the undersigned witnesses, in Amsterdam, this 
twelfth of January in the )^ear sixteen hundred and thirty one. 

Was signed in the several hands, Kiliacn van Rensselaer, ma- 
rinus Ariacns, W. Van Tzviller as witness. 

Agreement of Marinus Adriaensz van der Veere with 
Jasper Ferlyn van der Gouw 55 

February 17, 1631 

Jaspar Ferlijn vander Gouw, living at Middelburgh in the Latin 

School street, has bound himself unto and entered into the service 
of marinus Adriaenssen vander Veer, to assist him in the planting 
and cultivating of tobacco or such other work as he may be ordered 
to do by the aforementioned Maryn or in the name of his patroon, 
no exception as to any kind of work being made, everything accord- 
ing to the order and regulations of the Chartered West India Com- 
pany and the further conditions [of the contract] made by the 
said Marinus Adriaensz with Kiliaen van Rensselaer as patroon of 
the lands lying around Fort Orange on the North River of New 
Netherland, during a term of service of three years, commencing 

V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.4. 


and ending as stated in the said contract. The aforesaid Iaspar 
ferlyn shall receive u guilders a month, to be paid annually and 
shall receive cash before his departure, as an advance, 40 guilders 
and in addition 10 stivers a day for wages from the 12th of Jan- 
uary last to the time of his going on board. The aforesaid j as par 
ferlyn promises in addition to willing and diligent service, honestly 
and faithfully and on forfeiture of all the wages to be earned by 
him, not to trade or acquire in other ways, any beavers, otters, or 
other prohibited furs, nor to allow that the same be dealt in with 
his knowledge by anybody but those who act on behalf of the 
Chartered West India Company, also on forfeiture as above, not 
to leave or return before his term of service has expired without 
express consent of the aforesaid his patroon or master, which con- 
ditions, this day underwritten, have been approved by the afore- 
mentioned Rensselaer and signed by him, jasper ferlyn, with his 
own hand at Amsterdam, this 17th of February 163 1. Was signed 
in the several hands, jaspacr ferlin, marinus Adriacns. 

Memorandum of similar agreements with Claes Brunsteyn van 
Straelsundt, Jan Tyaerts van Franicker and Cornells 
Maesen van Buyrmalsen 

May 27, 1631 

The 27th of May 1631, these following persons have further 
been engaged for three years on the conditions and restrictions 
above written, under penalties and obligations as in the preceding 
contract which has been read to them. 
n. b. ran Claes Brunsteyn van Straelsundt, who shall receive 8 

away guilders a month and before his departure, as an advance, 
two months' wages in hand paid. 

jehan Chierts van franicker, who shall receive 60 guilders a year 
and 12 guilders in hand paid as an advance. 

In testimony of the truth they have signed this in the year and 
on the day above written. Was signed: the mark X of Claes brun- 
steyn, Jan Tyaerts, Cornells maesen van Buyrniarsen, 5 ® who shall 

65 Intended for Buyrmalsen; see p. 309. The Vylgecf ende betalingc, 1630-32, among 
the Rensselacrswyck Mss, has Corlis mascn van bnijrmalsen, not Cornell's Maasen van 
Buren Maasen, as printed by O'Callaghan in his translation of that account, History of 
New NcthcrlanJ, 1:430. 

Aug. 19, i66j, Hendrick Cornelhss Maessen ami Marten Cornclissz Maesen, brothers, 


receive the first year f6o, the second year 170, the third year f8o 
and in hand paid fi2 as an advance. 

Certificate of purchase from the Indians of land on the west side 
of the Hudson River between Beeren Island and Smacks 
Island 57 

May 1 63 1 

We, the director and council of New Netherland, residing on the 
island Manahatas and at Fort Amsterdam, under the jurisdiction 
of their High Mightinesses the Lords States General of the United 
Netherlands and of the Chartered West India Company, Chamber 
of Amsterdam, testify and declare hereby, that this day, date under- 
written, before us appeared Pietcr Minuit, director, Bastiaen Janss 
crol, commis, and Dirck cornelisz duyster, onder-commis at Fort 

for themselves and for Maes Cornells' Maessen, Stijntle Cornells Maessen and Tobias 
Cornells'; Maessen, their minor brothers and sisters, all living in the colony of Rensse- 
laerswyck and children of the late Cornells Maessen and Catelijntie Martensz, who 
died in this country and formerly lived at Bueren Malssen in gelderlant, execute a 
power of attorney to Gerrlt Cornelisss, living at Trlcht, in Gelderland, to receive an 
inheritance left by their uncle, Hcndrlck Maessen, who died at Culjlenborch. 

On the same day, Jan Verbeeck, formerly councilor of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, 
and Cornells Theunisz Bos, formerly magistrate of Fort Orange and the village of 
Beverwyck, make a joint affidavit that Cornells Maessen and his wife died about 14 
years ago and were both buried on the same day, leaving the aforesaid five children 
over whom the said Cornells Theunisz Bos and Theunis Dircxsz [van Vechten], in- 
habitant of the colony, have thus far been guardians. Cornells Theuniss Bos further 
states that he came to this country in 1636, in the ship Rensselaerswijck, in the service 
of the said Cornells Maessen and that he served him for six years; also that the said 
Hcndrlck Cornelisz Maessen was born on the said ship (see p. 369 of this work) and 
that the other children were born in the colony. Deeds, powers of attorney, etc., 
1660-65, P- I 5~ l 7, 22_2 3, among the Rensselaerswyck Mss. 

Entries for supplies furnished to Cornelis Maesen in August 1634 (Account Book, 
1634—38, f.2) show that Cornelis Maesen was in the colony at that time. He evidently 
returned to Holland at the expiration of his contract, married, and then came back to 
this country in 1636. His second son, Marten Cornelisz, has by Pearson and other 
writers been confused with Swarte Marten, or Black Marten, who from the mark he 
makes is readily identified with Marten Cornelisz van Ysselsteyn, one of the pro- 
prietors of land at Schenectady in 1663 and later one of the settlers of Claverack. This 
Marten Cornelisz van Ysselsteyn states in an affidavit of Oct. 28, 1660 (Notarial 
Papers, 1:36, Albany County clerk's office) that in his youth he had lived for many 
years at Houten, in the bishopric of Utrecht. 

Cornelis Teunisz Bos, mentioned in this note, is the same person as Cornelis Teunisz 
van Westbroeck. The first reference to him is found in Account Book, 1634-38, among 
the Rensselaerswyck Mss under date of April 8, 1637, almost immediately after the 
arrival of the ship Rensselaerswyck. Apparently he did not come to this country in 
1 63 1, as stated by O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, 1:434. 

07 V. R. B. Mss 3, parchment 33^x38 cm; and V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, t.ib. 
Recorded without date and names of signers in Dutch Patents, GG, p.9-11. Translation 
of main body of the instrument in Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 14:2, which has been 
revised for the present work. 


Orange, and declared, that on the 18th of April last past 58 per- 
sonally appeared before them Papsickene, Kemptas, nancoutamhat, 
and Sickenosen, lawful owners and proprietors of the land called 
Sanckhagag, 59 situated on the west side of the North River stretch- 
ing in length from a little above beeren® Island up the river to 
Smacks™ Island and in width two days' journey inland, acting for 
themselves and de rato for the remaining and all other coproprietors 
of the same land, which they in their aforesai 1 capacity voluntarily 
and advisedly declared that they had conveyed, ceded and made 
over, as they did convey, cede and make over in lawful, inalienable 
and free possession, by virtue and title of sale, for a certain quan- 
tity of merchandise, which they, the grantors, in their aforesaid 
capacity acknowledged to have received before the passing of this 

58 The 1 8th of April 1631, according to the date at the end of the document. Owing 
to the absence of a date at the end of the record of the certificate in Dutch Patents, 
GG, p. 9-1 1, and to the occurrence, in connection with the purchase, of the date of 
May 1630, in Jan Baptist van Rensselaer's letter of June 10/20, 1678 (O'Callaghan, 
History of New Nctherland, 1:125) and that of April S, 1630, on the map of Rensse- 
laerswyck reproduced in this volume, historical writers have assigned 1630 as the year 
of purchase of land from Beeren Island to Smacks Island and hence mentioned it as 
the first purchase of land in the vicinity of Fort Orange. That this is an error and 
that 1631 must be considered as the correct date, or in other words that the purchase 
was made subsequently to that of Aug. 13, 1630, described on p. 166—69, may appear from 
statements in the letter to de Laet, June 27, 1632, and further from the following facts: 

i That the original parchment certificate as well as the contemporaneous copy in the 
patroon's Letter Book have at the end, first written out in full and then in figures, 
the date 1631. 

2 That the certificate is recorded in Dutch Patents, GG, p.9— 11, between a patent of 
Nov. 22, 1630 and one of June 3, 1631. 

3 That in the "Account of the jurisdictions, management and condition of the ter- 
ritories named Rensselaerswyck," July 20, 1634. printed on p. 306—12 of this volume, the 
first two purchases are referred to as dated Aug. 13, 1630 and May 1631. 

4 That in a copy of the memorial entitled " The Case of the Colony of Rensselaers- 
wyck " delivered April 27, 1678, by J. B. van Rensselaer to the council of the Duke 
of York, in support of the petition of the heirs of Kiliaen van Rensselaer for letters 
patent of the colony, among the Rensselaerswyck Mss, the purchase of land from 
Beeren Island to Smacks Island is referred to as dated in May 1631. 

5 That the preamble of the certificate of Aug. 6, 1630 (Doc. rcl. to the Col. Hist. 
N. Y. 14:i-2 and Wilson, Memorial History of the City of New York, 1:163) states 
that Bastiaen Jansz Krol, in reply to a question put by Wolfert Gerritsz said that 
" there was this year [1630] no chance or means of acquiring any land," and does not 
refer to any purchase of land previous to the agreement of July 27, 1630, mentioned 
in the certificate. 

6 That the inscription on the map of Rensselaerswyck relating to the purchase of 
land from Beeren Island to Smacks Island contains the words heeft Killiaen t-.ii/ Ren- 
selaer noch docn koopen — Kiliaen van Rensselaer caused fur. her to be purchased — 
indicating that the purchase was made subsequently to that of Aug. 13, ,1630, which 
interpretation is borne out by the fact that the inscription occurs on the map to the 
right of that relating to the purchase of July 28 [Aug. 13], 1630 and not, as in 
O'Callaghan's reproduction, to the left. 

09 Cf. spelling of Indian names in Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 14:2, which agrees 
with Dutch Patents, GG, p. 9— 11. 

00 Literally, Bears' Island, now called Barren Island. 

01 Now called Shad Island. 


conveyance, to and for the behoof of the Hon. Kiliau van Renselacr, 
absent, for whom they accepted it under proper stipulations, to wit, 
the aforesaid land with all the interests, rights and jurisdiction 
belonging to them, the grantors, in their capacity aforesaid, they, 
the grantors, constituting and substituting the aforesaid grantee in 
their place, stead, real and actual possession thereof, and at the 
same time giving to and conferring on the aforesaid Hon. Rens- 
selaer or whoever may after him obtain his interests, full and abso- 
lute power and command, tanquam Procurator in rem Propriam to 
enter upon, peaceably possess, occupy, plant, use and cultivate the 
said land, and therewith and thereof to do, act and dispose, as his 
honor would do with his own and other lawfully acquired lands and 
estates, without the grantors in their capacity aforesaid retaining, re- 
serving or holding therein and in any of it any part, right, interest or 
authority in the least, whether of possession, command or jurisdic- 
tion but were now and forever fully and finally yielding and re- 
nouncing it for the behoof aforesaid; further promising not only 
forever to hold fast and irrevocable, to observe and fulfil this their 
conveyance and whatever may be done by virtue thereof, but also to 
deliver and hold the said quantity of land against every one free 
from claims, challenges, encumbrances and pretensions which any 
one may hereafter make to it, and also to have this sale and transfer 
approved, ratified and acknowledged as valid by the remaining 
represented coproprietors, all according to law, in good faith, with- 
out guile or deceit. In witness hereof this has been confirmed 
with our usual signatures and the pendant seal. Done as aforesaid 
on the island Manahafas and at Fort Amsterdam, this ° 2 May. 

Anno xvj c thirty-one. 
[signed] Peter Minuit, D. 

bastijacn Jansz crol 

Dirck Cornclisscn 

pieter Bijlvelt: 

Jan Lampo, sellout 

Keyner Hanncnsen 

Jan Jansrj meyndz 

To my knowledge, as vice 
secretary in the absence of the 
secretary, Jan van Roninnd, 
this May 163 r 

[signed] Lenaert Cole, Vice 

02 Blank in original. 


Extract from minutes of Chamber of Amsterdam. Request of 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer for transportation of Marinus Ad- 
riaensz van der Veere and others 63 

May 16, 1631 
Extract from the [register of] resolutions of the assembly of the 

directors of the West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 
Friday the 16th of May, 163 1 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer notifies the Chamber that he has engaged 
in his service for farming as well as tobacco planting in his colony 
on the North River near Fort Orange, Marinus Adriaenssz vander 
Veere, with five or six other persons for his assistance, and as the 
same are mostly experienced seamen he, Rensselaer, requests that 
the said Marinus, with his wife, child and the aforesaid men, may be 
sent over in the ship of the Company for their board, without re- 
ceiving any wages, as according to the resolution of this Chamber 
many men will have to come over from there ; further, that he 
has entered into contract with eight or ten farmers to send them 
over with some calves, if he is allowed to transport them also by 
the said ship on proper payment of their board. Requesting hereon 
resolution of this Chamber. 

Underneath was written: Agrees with the aforesaid register. 

And was signed: Jacob Hamcl S 

Agrees with its original 
Quod attestor infrascriptus 
[signed] /: vande Ven 
Nots Pub cus : ss u . 


A : J 634. 

V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.39. 


Extract from minutes of the Chamber of Amsterdam. Request 
of Marinus Adriaensz van der Veere for permit to go to New 
Netherland and action on this request and that of Kiliaen 
van Rensselaer of the 16th 64 

May 19, 16 31 

Extract from the register of resolutions passed by the assembly of 
the directors of the West India Company, Chamber of Am- 

Monday, the 19th of May, 1631 

Marinus Adriaenscn vander Veere, engaged by Confrater Rens- 
selaer for the colony on the North River, requests a permit to cross 
over to New Netherland in the ship that goes thither, in conformity 
with the notification of Mr Rensselaer on the 16th instant. It is 
granted that the said Marinus, with five or six other persons shall 
go across and have their board, on condition that they do regular 
ship duty like sailors; for the wife and child board shall be paid, 
while Mr Rensselaer agrees to guarantee that five or six seafaring 
men shall return from there, so that this ship suffer no incon- 
venience, or if no other men return, Mr Rensselaer is to pay the 
board of the five or six persons who go over. The farmers and 
calves mentioned in the request will be sent over on payment of 
board and food, if there is room in the ship. Underneath was 
written : Agrees with the aforesaid register. And was signed : 
Jacob Hamel S 

Agrees with its original 
quod attestor infrascriptus 
[signed] /: vandc Ven 
Nots Pub cus : ss u . 


A : J 634. 

•* V R. B. Mss. Letter Book, f.39b. 


Agreement between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Andries 
Christensz and others e5 

July 2, 1631 
Andries cristemen. At the request of Andries Christ ensscn van Vlcc- 

Laurens Laurensen, * 

Barent tonisen. ken™ 40 years of age, Laurens Laurensz van Cop- 
2 July 1631 ' penhagen, 36 years of age, and Barent Thonisscn 
van Hcijligcsont m , 2.2 years of age, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, in his 
capacity as patroon of his colony situated above and below Fort 
Orange on the North River of New Netherland, has agreed and con- 
tracted with the aforesaid persons for the term of three years, com- 
mencing on their arrival in that country, with the condition that 
the contract is binding on them for the said term of three years 
but that the said Rensselaer may terminate it whenever it pleases 
him. First regarding the transportation of the said persons, Rens- 
selaer having obtained from the Chartered West India Company, 
Chamber of Amsterdam, the privilege of transporting seafaring men 
for their board without wages on condition that they do proper ship 
duty, Laurens Lauresz, Barent Theuniss and all seafaring men ac- 
cept the same, but Andries Christensz not being a seafaring man 
must pay out of his wages six stivers a day for board. As to the re- 
turn voyage, the said Rensselaer promises to exert himself likewise, 
without being further responsible in the matter, to have them come 
hither at the least expense, whether their term of service has ex- 
pired or whether he chooses to order them to come home. Arriv- 
ing there with God's help, they shall betake themselves at the first 
opportunity and at their own expense to Fort Orange, to settle either 
on the mill creek 6 " or opposite the fort on the east side of the North 
River, where there is also a good waterfall 70 and build their houses 
in the lightest fashion on the one or the other of the said places, 
and on no other without consent ; further to erect a suitable sawmill, 
which can saw wood of 40 feet or at least 33 feet long, towards 

05 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.4h. An extract of this agreement is also found in 
V. R. B. Mss 38; see p. 675. The date is there given as June 2, 1631; the name lure 
spelled Thonisscn appears as thomassen. 

16 Noormannen; a term usually confined to natives of Norway, when not referring to 
the ancient Scandinavians or Norsemen, but also used in a wider sense, as here, where 
a native of Copenhagen is included. 

n ' Fleckero; an island off the south coast of Norway. 3 miles south of Christiansand. 

M Hellesund; on the south coast of Norway, in the vicinity of Fleckero. 

''' Meulenkill; lure referring to the Normans Kill. 

7,1 The waterfall on the Mill Creek, in (ireenbush, in the present city of Rensselaer. 
Like the Normans Kill, the Mill Creek is in the early documents commonly referred to 
as the meulenhil, or molcnkil. 


which he, Rensselaer, shall pay one half of the hardware and the 
tools which they need therefor and must take with them from here, 
and they the other half, for which he, Rensselaer, shall furnish them 
the money in advance. They promise, all four 71 of them, to erect the 
said mill within the space of three months and when it is finished, 
they may hew the largest, finest and best oak trees standing in the 
entire colony of the said Rensselaer and for seven leagues next ad- 
joining and bring the same to the place where the sawmill stands in 
order to saw therefrom suitable ship planking, gunwale timber or 
such other timber as he, Rensselaer, shall direct or they in the ab- 
sence of directions shall deem fit. The mill being made, the logs cut, 
brought to the mill and sawed, one half thereof shall belong to the 
said Rensselaer and the other half to the four of them, the same to be 
shipped hither with the most convenient speed at the joint expense 
of both parties, provided that Rensselaer shall not charge the men 
more for freight and other expenses than he will have to pay him- 
self; and of the proceeds of the said timber here in this country over 
and above expenses, one half shall go to him, Rensselaer, and the 
other half shall be paid to the aforesaid persons or those having their 
right and title, but first and above all, deduction must be made of the 
sums advanced by him, promised or paid for them personally, in 
return for which he, Rensselaer, promises to provide such board for 
the said four persons as is customary in that country or else, in lieu 
thereof, to pay 100 guilders a year for each of the four persons, 
amounting together to 400 guilders a year, so that Rensselaer shall 
provide their board as above and they shall faithfully and diligently 
do their work to the satisfaction of the said Rensselaer or his agents 
and each side receive one half of the profits after deduction of all 
expenses as above. 

Rensselaer also agrees to pay in hand to each of them the sum of 
20 guilders to be deducted from the board or 100 guilders a year 
which he must pay to each of them and to Andrics kristensen the 
sum of 40 guilders, besides the advances for hardware, millstone 
and what is further required for the building of the said saw and 
grist-mill, on condition that the amount be hereafter again deducted 
and retained as above. 

And inasmuch as they are also to make a grist-mill in connection 
with the said sawmill, they shall also be entitled to one half of what 
is earned therewith (deducting the expenses of grinding). 

In case the said Rensselaer, as patroon, or his agents need the 

71 Thus in the Letter Book, though but three persons are named. 


aforesaid four persons or any of them in his private service, they 
must let themselves be employed for all sorts of work, whether farm- 
ing, house carpentering, felling of logs, burning of pitch and tar, 
or whatever it may be, nothing excepted, at 15 stivers a day besides 
board, which they have in addition as above, provided that Rensselaer 
shall enjoy one half of the aforesaid wages of 15 stivers. 

If Rensselaer or his agents, after the mill is built, should have any 
wood brought to be sawed, they must do this at 20 stivers for 100 
feet in length by one foot in breadth, and for wider, shorter or 
longer boards accordingly, on condition that Rensselaer shall re- 
ceive one half thereof as above. 

Regarding the boards, beams or planks which they may have in 
stock and which Rensselaer may need for his other work, he shall 
be allowed to take these by paying them one half of the price ordi- 
narily paid by the skippers in Norway. 

If these people sow, mow or plant any land, or catch any game or 
fish, one half [of the product] shall go to them and the other half 
go to Rensselaer, or be deducted from the 100 guilders for board. 

During the period of this agreement, each one shall be responsible 
for the other, as Rensselaer is dealing with them jointly but not will- 
ing to deal or to keep accounts with each in particular. 

In case any one of them should happen to find or to discover any 
mines, minerals, pearl fisheries or anything of the kind, he shall dis- 
close the same to no one but the patroon or his agent, who shall 
make them a handsome present for the same according to the im- 
portance of the matter. They shall further under the sovereignty of 
the High Mighty Lords the States General, all submit themselves to 
the authority of the directors of the Chartered West India Company 
in general and of the aforesaid Rensselaer as their patroon in partic- 
ular, and observe all the ordinances and regulations to be passed 
there by them respectively in matters of police and justice, and be 
obliged to take the oath of obedience and fidelity, especially to re- 
frain from trading, negotiating or carrying on business there against 
the order and intention of the Company and their aforesaid patroon, 
whether in skins, seawan or other goods found there, and not to ac- 
cept the same by way of present or otherwise, nor to take merchan- 
dise from here with them for themselves or for others, directly or 
indirectly, in any manner whatsoever, on pain of confiscation and 
penalties fixed by the Company or still to be fixed, and furthermore 
of banishment from the colony as perjurers and refractory charac- 
ters for which they all together in common and each one in partial- 


lar for himself and the others, bind themselves to answer and stand 

They shall further not be allowed to contract with any one else or 
to enter any one else's service, on forfeiture of this entire agree- 
ment to the benefit of the said patroon, each one's share in the mill, 
in the hewn and sawed timber and what may in any way belong to 
them, to be forfeited and left to be disposed of as above, and in case 
one or more of the aforewritten persons should leave or drop out, 
the remaining ones must fill the places as quickly as possible with 
other suitable persons and by every ship and yacht sailing hither 
send proper reports and accurate accounts of everything, in all sin- 
cerity without concealment. In testimony of the truth of the above 
agreement, this is signed by the patroon and the persons aforesaid 
with their own hands, in Amsterdam, this second of July of the 
year sixteen hundred and thirty-one, and signed with the several 
hands the X mark of Andrics kristensen, the X mark of Laurens 
Laurensz, X Berent Thonisz, kiliaen van Rensselaer. Underneath ' 
was written : Kiliaen van Rensselaer charged with the board of An- 
dries kristenssen, due to him for transportation nine guilders. 

Extract from minutes of the Chamber of Amsterdam. Request 
of Kiliaen van Rensselaer for permission to send over to 
New Netherland colonists and animals and granting of 
same 72 

July 7, 163 1 

Extract from the resolution book of the honorable directors of the 
Chartered West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 
Monday, the 7th of July 163 1, in Amsterdam 
Appeared before the meeting, Mr Kiliaen van Rensselaer, who re- 
quested that he be permitted to send over by the ship, d'cendracht 
some colonists and eight or 10 calves, namely : 
Cornel is Gerritsss van flecker 
Lourens Lourensss van Coppenhagen 
Barent thonissz van Heiligesondt 
Claes Brunsteyn van Straelsondt 
Andries Christcnssz van flecker 
In regard to which it was decided first to hear the skipper, who 
declares that he will do all he can, whereupon his honor's request is 
granted, on condition that the skipper in case he should be incon- 

72 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.4ob. 


venienced thereby, may throw them overboard or allow them to be 
eaten, without thereby obliging- the Company to give any compen- 
sation. Underneath was written: Agrees with the aforesaid reso- 
lution book. And was signed : Jacob Hamel. 

Agrees with its original 
quod attestor infrascriptus 
[signed] /: vande Ven 

Nots Pub™*: ss H . 

A°:^J6 34 . 

Names of colonists sailing in de Eendracht 73 


Names of persons who will sail for New Netherland in the ship 
d' Eendracht 14 for Kiliaen van Rensselaer for his colony near 
Fort Orange, according to the resolution of the 19th of May 

Marinus Ariacns vander Veere, with his wife and one child 
Jaspar ferlijn van Middelburgh 
Jan Chicrts van franicker 
Cornells Maesen van Buijrmaelsen 
These have before this been put on the roll 
absent Cornells Govcrts van ileckcr 

Laurens Lourens van Coppenhagcii 
Barent thonis van Heijlige Sont 
absent Claes Brunsteyn van Straelsont 
absent Andries Christenssz van flecker 
Further, there are eight or 10 calves to be sent Over, according to 
the foregoing resolution, which he shall provide with food. 

73 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.40. 
« The Unity. 



Memoranda of payments to colonists and for tools sent by 
them 75 

July 9, 1631, or later 

5 July paid to Andries 

Kristenss 16 RD @ 50 st 

Item, to Lourens Loc- 
rensz 8 RD 

also to Laurens Lau- 
rensz 2 RD 

Item, to Berent thoniss 8 RD 

also to Berent thonisz 2 RD 

of picter 
J an ss 




9 July to Laurens 

1 RD 

50 St 

f4o: — 

50 St 

f2o: — 

50 St 

f 5:- 

50 St 

f2o: — 

50 St 

f 5:- 

f90: — 

50 St 

f 2:10 

Herewith are sent the following tools : 

2 small millstones bought of Hcn- 

dricss opde Camp, cost 
1 iron shaft for a sawmill, 

weight 36 lb, at 6 st a lb f 10 :i6 1 
4 cant-hooks at i^ J A a piece f T - 

for barge freight f 

1 iron shaft for a sawmill, 

weight 155 lb, at 6 st a 



fi4: o [- total 


Si j men 







f2o: 5 

£25: 4 

f— :i2 

1 rope and one hawser of fine 
Rys,™ weight 155 lb, at 3 st 
10 pence a pound, amounts 

3 m 76 lines, at 8 st a piece f 1 : : 4 f total f 39 : 6 
1 plumb line at f 2 :— 

17 lb sail yarn to make nets of, 

at 10 st a lb f 8:10 J 

75 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, i.6. The items of this account occur also in a docu- 
ment among the Rensselaerswyck Mss printed in O'Callaghan's History of New Nether- 
land, 1:429—32. 

7,; Apparently rice, but possibly Rize flax, from Rize, or Rizah, Asiatic Turkey. 












1 ripsaw, 77 sharpened, 6 ft long i^ : — 

2 polished handsaws with 

handles f2:n 
2 drawing knives, fi .2; 2 large 

augers f 1 :2, total f2 : 4 
2 large firmer-chisels with 

handles f 1 : 9 
1 gouge with handle, 10 st, 4 

large and 2 small files f 1 : 8 

5 Norse 78 files f 2 :8 ; 79 a 

piece f2:i5, total f 5 : 3 
4 hatchets at f6; 4 adzes f2:i8 

total f8:i8 
1 hammer hatchet fo:i4st; 1 

hammer 6 st f 1 : — 
1 jack plane and 1 block plane 

with bits f 1 : 4 

6 augers to use, at 30 st a piece 



f 9: 

f 169:4 

Inventory of stock on farm No. 3, island of Manhattan 80 

January 1, 1632 

Inventory of the animals on the farm of Pieter Pietersz Bylvelt in 

the year 1632 

2 old mares with colt 

1 young ditto, two years old 

6 milch cows 

2 heifers of the year 1629 

1 heifer calf of the year 1631 

3 bull calves of ditto 

1 new wagon with iron tires 

3 plows with their belongings 

7 young pigs, four months old 

4 old hogs 

1 ditto hog for provision for the farm hands 

1 hog killed four days ago for the same purpose 

about 7 morgens of seeding 

77 Kloof saegh. 

78 noordse. 

78 Apparently a word left out. 

80 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, i.2<\\>. 


i barrack with seed inspected by Wolff ert Gerritsz, Barent 
Dircksz and Tenuis Schipper, containing 90 schepels of 
rye and wheat 
These aforesaid animals were inventoried by the council on the 
first of January 1632. 

Andries Hudden 

Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Gerrit Theusz 

de Reux 81 

June 13, 1632 

( lontract made and entered into by Kiliaen van Rensselaer, as pa- 
troon of his colony (named Rensselaerswyck, situated on the 
river Mauritius or North River of New Netherland, above and 
below Fort Orange and on both sides of the said river), with 
Gerrit Teeusen de reux, as farmer of a farm to be established 
on the Fort Orange side near the fourth creek now called 
Blommaerts kit, 82 situated above or 83 to the north of Fort 
Orange, this 15th of June in the year 1632 in Amsterdam 

29 years old 3 * First the aforesaid Gerrit de Reux shall bind himself 
by oath and on forfeiture of his stipulated wages and the goods 
which he may have in that country that neither he nor his men shall 
trade in prohibited furs, especially »i otters or beavers, or obtain the 
same by way of present or other means without express consent 
from the West India Company and his aforesaid patroon. 

The patroon shall furnish Gerrit de Reux aforesaid, out of the 
animals which he has in that country if they are still alive and to be 
had : 

four horses, if it is possible the same which Gerrit aforenamed 

used before 
also three cows as above 
also two heifer calves as above 
also four sows as above 
The aforesaid de Reux shall further do his best with the assist- 
ance of the smiths and the carpenters of the Company that the 
aforesaid house may at the very first opportunity be erected, roofed 

81 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.n. Extract in V. R. B. Mss 38; see p. 675-76. 

82 Blommaerts kil appears on the map of Rensselaerswyck reproduced in this work as 
the fourth creek north of Fort Orange, at a distance of about ij miles from the fort. 
This distance seems to identify Blommaerts kil with the present Patroons Creek, which 
at a later date is referred to as the fifth creek. 

88 " and " in the extract in V. R. B. Mss 38. 

84 Marginal note in handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 



and surrounded by wooden palisades. Also that he may be provided 
with wagon and plow by the wheelwright. 

And what he thinks can not be obtained in that country, he shall 
buy here at the expense of the patroon, taking care on the voyage 
over that the purchased goods shall be well kept. On the ship he 
shall with his men look after the calves which the patroon shall send 
thither by the ship on which he is to sail. 

Further, the aforesaid Gerrit shall be bound to engage here a 
good farm servant and a boy at the expense of the patroon, and on 
his arrival there still another servant shall be added if possible. The 
patroon shall pay the wages and board of the servants and boy till 
the first of May 1634 and shall pay him, Gerrit de Reus, 180 guil- 
ders a year, from the time of his arrival in that country till the first 
of January 1634. All the crops and increase of live stock, likewise 
milk and butter and all other profits till the first of January 1634 
shall therefore be for the behoof of the patroon. 

After the first of January 1634, Gerrit de Reux shall obtain out 
of the aforesaid stock four horses, four cows, two heifers and so 
many sheep and hogs as he can raise and this on the following con- 
ditions, for four years, without leaving the service in the meantime 
on forfeiture as above; and from that time on, he shall no longer 
receive wages. The wages and board of the laborers, boy and the 
house servants from the first of May 1634, and also all other ex- 
penses whatever they may be called, as well as the damage and loss 
of live stock, wear and tear of wagons and plows, in short anything 
and everything, from the first of January 1634 on, shall be paid out 
of the common fruits, products, milk, butter, cheese and increase 
of stock; and of the surplus one half shall be for the aforesaid pa- 
troon and the other half for the aforenamed Gerrit de Reux, it 
being understood that the increase of the stock shall be reserved for 
the patroon on condition that he may compensate the said Gerrit 
for the same at the rate fixed heretofore by the West India Com- 
pany. Every two years an inventory of the stock shall be taken and 
for one half of what shall be found above the four horses, four 
cows and two heifers, gerrit de Reux shall as above receive com- 
pensation, the patroon having however the privilege of taking the 
said increase for himself or not, and if there be less than the above 
number, the aforesaid de Reux must try to raise so many that he 
reaches that number and shall not be entitled to any profit till the 
said number is again complete. 

The aforesaid de Reux shall raise as many sheep and hogs as pos- 


sible, and of what he sells thereof one half the proceeds shall go to 
the patroon and the other half to himself. 

Of the winter wheat which is to he sown in the fall of 1633, one 
half shall be for the benefit of the aforesaid Gerrit de Reux on con- 
dition that the last year he deliver to the patroon, first of all, as 
much grain as he received the first year. 

As to the butter, cheese, grain and other products which he may 
have on hand the first of January 1634, the same shall be appraised 
and accounted for to the patroon out of the common expenses. 

Concerning the passage over, the patroon shall urge as much as 
possible that Gerrit aforesaid may receive the wages of a boatswain, 
but if this can not be arranged they must both see what they can 
do about the passage. 

But the patroon shall pay the board of the servants during the 

Gerrit de Reux aforenamed shall also cause the yearly manure to 
be distributed over the land in the most advantageous manner, with- 
out wasting it. 

The patroon shall provide the aforesaid de Reux with two good 
firelocks, on condition that each pay half. 

Thus done and passed in the city of Amsterdam, and for all that 
is aforewritten, the said de Reux pledges and binds all his personal 
possessions, movable and immovable, present and future, none ex- 
cepted, subjecting the same to the execution of all the honorable 
courts and judges; in witness whereof it is signed by him on the 
15th of June 1632, new style. 

[signed] The mark X of Gerrit Teeusen de reuse 

Memoranda of the engagement of certain farm laborers*"' 

[June 15, 1632?] 

The following persons have been engaged as farm laborers for the 
term of four years commencing on their arrival on their farm in that 
country, on condition that they receive for the outgoing and return 
voyages a gratuity hereafter specified and on pain of forfeiture of 
all their monthly wages and effects if they leave their service [be- 
fore the end] of their term, or if they obtain any furs of beavers, 
otters or like animals by trade, gift or exchange, which they have 
expressly agreed not to do ; and in case they are asked by their 
farmer to do any other work besides fanning, such as felling of 
trees or other work which they are able to do, they may not refuse 

V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.12. In handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 


it but must diligently and willingly do everything and also serve un- 
der such farmer as the patroon shall direct. 

Hendrich frerixsen Van bunnick, 26 years old, shall receive 120 
guilders a year and a pair of boots once in four years and as a 
gratuity for the passage 25 guilders. 

Cornells Jacopsen van Marttensdljck, 23 years old, shall receive 
no guilders and as a gratuity for the passage 25 guilders, 
can Cornells thonissen van Meerkerc, 20 years old, shall re- 

nttie ceive 80 guilders and two pairs of boots, but 'if he 

behaves well he shall receive the last year some increase and as a 
gratuity 50 guilders. 

as boy Marcus Mensen van Culjlcnburch, 17 years old, shall re- 
ceive 40, 50, 60 and 70 guilders during the four years and as a 
gratuity 18 guilders, 

the mark of the mark of 

X X 

hendrich, frerixsen Cornells Jacopsen 

Cornis Thonls the mark of 

Marcus Mensen 

Gerrlt de reus would like to have Hendrlck frerlxss, Cornells 
thonlsen and Marcus Mensen. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 86 

June 2J, 1632 

Mr Johan dc lacdtt, at Leyden 

In Amsterdam, 2f June 1632 

Your honor will doubtless have heard how our ship den zvalvls, 8 ' 
which together with the yacht Teencoorntgeu ss sailed from the 
Texel on the 24th of May, was on the 26th ditto for nearly two 
hours tossed about on the banks before Dunkirk, not without great 
danger of losing the ship and the goods, as most of the people had 
already left the ship and jumped into the shallops. Nevertheless it 
pleased Almighty God to rescue the said ship from the said banks, 
but as it was very leaky and much damaged, "they stopped on the 
28th at Portsmouth near the Isle of Wight 89 to have her repaired 

eu V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.isb. 

"The Whale. 

8B Other form for 't Eekhoorntje, the little Squirrel. 

"* te porse muyen Jn wicht. 




2 ^ I 

&> -j 5 


4<4 ^ -*$ ##^^H^ 





, -?, i 1 4 

.5 N 

."tn ^ 

5 .2? 

— o 







there, the yacht Teencoorngen being still with her. Meanwhile, 
Guilliammc lefant, being dissatisfied with the command of David 
pietersen^ or according to my opinion rather because he was afraid, 
left the ship and returned over land, to the disgust of the con- 
fraters, so that henrij dc foreest 91 will probably be useful to supply 
the place left vacant by Guilliamme. Said Guilliammc made out 
that the leak was very large and irreparable, but from the letter of 
David pietersen to conf rater Godyn, dated the nth of June from 
Portsmouth, we understand that the same was nearly repaired and 
that he expected to go to sea at the first opportunity to complete his 
intended voyage in God's name, drawing on confrater Godyn for 
60 pounds sterling on account of his expenses there. It would be 
a pity if we missed the whale-fishing again, as Director Minuijt, 
who has come here, assures us that there are quantities of whales 
in the South River and that the savages of those quarters wear on 
their heads mostly small feathers 02 made of whalebone. So much 
for matters with which the Company of Ten is concerned. 

Coming now to our private colony on the North River near Fort 
Orange, I should have liked best if your honor had called some 
time at my house so that I could have shown you the situation 
and condition of the same. Director Minuijt has given me a map 
of the additional land lately purchased, situated between becren 
Island and Smax Island. There are about 200 93 of cleared land 
(or which has been seeded before by the savages) at the water's 
edge along the river, but stretching toward the woods and inland 
two days' journey, so that we have at present bought and obtained 
from the Mahicans by legal conveyance all the shore along the river, 
on the west side, from becren Island to Momncnis Castle, beini; 
about six hours' walk, 94 the account of the cost of which is still in 
the hands of the Company. As to the east side, we have the lands 
situated opposite Fort Orange and Castle Island, from paep 

90 David Pietersz de Vrles. For account of the voyage see his Korte Historiael, 
p.94-120, translated by H. C. Murphy, under the title Voyages from Holland to 
America, A. D. 1632 to 1644, N. Y. 1853, reprinted in New York Historical Society 
Collections, 1857, ser.2, 3:15—48. 

; " See note on p. 75. The name of de Forest is in these documents, in the N. Y. 
Col. Mss and in the records of the Reformed Dutch Church of New York consistently 
written de foreest, or de Foreest, but Hendrick de Forest and his brother, Isaac de 
Forest, both sign their name de forest, so that de Forest may be regarded as the proper 
spelling. There is apparently no connection between the de Forests and the well known 
Alkmaar family of van Foreest. 

w veerkens. 

m Word " morgens " omitted in Letter Book. Cf. " Account of the jurisdictions," 
July 20, 1634, p. 306. 

M Cf. note on p. 167. According to the map of Rensselaerswyck, one hour's walk = 
1600 rods and one Dutch mile = 2000 rods. 


Sickcnccs kil northward past the -falls of de laets kil thus named 
by me, which creek runs far inland and in which rock crystal is 
found, according- to Director Minuit, to which we must pay more 
attention in the future. 

On the east side I ordered three farms with a grist-mill and a 
sawmill to be established. I am advised not to put up the sawmill. 
The grist-mill, according to the last letters, was almost ready and 
stands on de laets kit. One of the three farms, named de laets- 
burch, had been established there, of which roelof Jansen van Mas- 
terlandt is farmer. He had prepared about five morgens of land 
to be seeded with winter wheat, but for want of seed, seems to 
have seeded these last March with summer wheat and a goodly 
number of morgens more which he would seed later as far as the 
seed reached. Said Roelof Jansen had four horses and n sheep, 
and the cows and hogs which I bought of Gcrrit de reux were also 
to be given him, so that he has a complete farm and a suitable 
house. The island which lies a little further northward on the east 
side, I have named de laets Island so that I have commemorated 
your honor's name on the east side. The name of confrater Godyu 
I have commemorated as follows : the islands of paep Sickenee on 
the east side towards the south, I have named Godyns Islands ; the 
mill 05 on the west side at the end of Castle Island, where the first 
sawmill was erected, I have named Godyns kil. This creek runs 
very deep inland, has quantities of fish, principally bullheads and 
lampreys, and near by is found much beautiful, arable and meadow 
land on which in time may be established another farm, which shall 
then be named Godynsburch. 

The fourth creek above Fort Orange on the west side is called 
Blommacrts kil, where on the arrival of this ship shall be established 
a farm according to the contract made with gerrit de reux, who 
with two men and two boys sails thither, with horses and tools and 
all sorts of supplies needed for himself as well as for the other 
farms. This farm shall be named Blominaertsburch. 

The five small islands lying a little further northward on the 
west side have been named Bloinmaerts Islands. 

As for my own name, I have not forgotten that either, having 
named the colony situated on both sides of the river, Renselaers 
ivyclc and Beeren Island, where our colony begins, Renselaers 
Island. Castle Island I have named the West Island and that for 

85 So in original; the reference is evidently to the mill creek, i. e. the Normans Kill. 


the reason . . .° 6 on which island lies the farm named Ren- 
selaersburg, on which Rutger hendrixsen van Soest is farmer and 
which has a comfortable dwelling house and barn. Said rutger 
hendrixsen had before the departure of the vessels seeded 12 
morgens with winter wheat and four morgens with winter rye, 
which looked as fine as any on the best land in this country. As 
he has enough horses, he will apparently seed at least eight or 10 
morgens more with summer seed and as I hope to obtain some 
more animals which are left on the director's farm and shall also 
get my nephew wouter van Twillcr, who now goes thither as di- 
rector of the Company, to buy still others, I confidently expect to 
obtain enough animals to establish another farm on the said West 
Island, as it is 136 Rhineland morgens in extent. The said farm 
shall be called zveelysburgh, for my wife. Paep Sickences kill, 
now named Rcnselacrs kil, on the east side opposite the mill creek 
or Godyus kill, I suppose that by this time we have bought already 
with the exception of the woods in the rear, that is the land along 
the river only, which contains about 600, 700 or 800 morgens of flat 
and clear land, mostly clay and brown soil, on each morgen of 
which in good years might be raised one last or at least % last} 
of wheat. However, our principal profit will come from the cattle, 
for which there is plenty of fine pasture and hay for nothing but 
the labor (though it is true that the trade yields quick returns but 
also quickly causes loss) 97 while on the contrary the clearing of the 
land proceeds with slowness but a certainty of which I have no 
doubt at all if the Lord preserves us from surprisals. 

Now at first we must have a little patience and necessarily spend 
money to obtain possession. After the first harvest, which is at 
hand, I hope that our people will no longer have lack of wheat, 
milk, butter or cheese ; they can catch plenty of fish with little 
trouble and in the course of time they will also have plenty of 
meat as they have already oxen in the field, of which they can 
slaughter one at killing time. I intend now by this ship to send 
six or eight more heifer calves. If we had cattle we should have 
money and if we had horses we should have wheat. I take good 
care to avail myself of all opportunities to acquire cattle, which 
makes many jealous of me, but they have to stand it, as every one 

94 At this point a line is apparently left out in the Letter Book, unless the Dutch 
om redenen is meant for om duidelijke redencn, that is, for evident reasons. 

w (wel is waer dat de coopmanschap haest geeft en oock haest neemt) ; literally, 
though it is true that the trade quickly gives and also quickly takes. 


is free to do what is best for himself. The contract which I have 
made with gerrit de reus runs till the first of January 1634 on a 
yearly salary; but after that, all expenses and wages of laborers 
must be deducted, and of the remaining grain, milk, butter and 
increase of animals, one half shall belong to us and the other half 
to Gerrit de reux. I hope to deal with the other farmers on the 
same basis, as if we had a fixed yearly income; but as during the 
first years things are not in order, they want to receive monthly 
wages, as is reasonable. As increase shall count only such animals 
as are in excess of the original number and before they then get 
their share, they must give to the patroon the opportunity of pur- 
chase at a fixed rate if he so desires. Their share of the wheat I 
think it for the present not advisable to buy from them at a definite 
rate, as that can always be done. 

As to the profits on which we may count, we have various 
strings to our bow. The Company will have to keep at Fort 
Orange yearly some 25 men, from whom, by providing them with 
everything, we may draw some 2500 guilders a year and therewith 
pay the laborers' wages. As soon as there is a supply of grain on 
hand, I intend to erect a brewery to provide all New Netherland 
with beer, for which purpose there is already a brew kettle there, 
and when there is more grain, I intend also to erect a brandy dis- 
tillery, as there are several brandy kettles and wood can be had for 
the labor. 

I also intend to grind meal with a view of selling the same to 
the Brownists toward the north or to the English toward the south. 
At the worst, if we had over 100 lasts of grain, which at 100 
gold guilders a last would produce 1400 08 guilders, one could for 
4000 or 5000 guilders hire a ship to fetch the same and in going 
load it full of animals, as I have now found out that one can send 
over animals, feeding them meal without hay. The animals we 
could keep there so cheaply that the hides would pay the expense 
and the meat and fat we would have for nothing. I have also 
given order to raise many hogs, which during the day can run in 
the woods and during the night stay home, and provided care is 
taken to put some meal in their drinking water they may be fat 
before the winter comes. Here I run somewhat ahead, but before 
three years have elapsed I hope that we shall yearly, as surplus 
for ourselves and the farmers, grow over one hundred lasts of 
grain, which will increase from year to year if it please the Lord. 

08 Should be 14,000; the gold guilder equalling 1.40 guilders. 


I shall try to have a map made of our colony, which being done, I 
shall send each of the confraters participants a copy. Further, as 
I have already advanced various sums of money and must daily 
advance more, we have thought it advisable that each y$ share 
should contribute 200 guilders and I therefore request that your 
honor be good enough to send me the said 200 guilders for your y$ 
part by the first opportunity in order that I may not count interest 
as I have done before. Wherewith ending, honorable, wise, pru- 
dent and discreet sir, I commend you to the gracious protection of 
Almighty God and greet you heartily. 

In witness that it has thus been resolved to contribute 200 guil- 
ders for each fifth part, we the undersigned participants have also 
signed this on the 27th of June 1632 at Amsterdam. 

Underneath was written: Kiliaen van Rensselaer, S. Godin, S. 

Power of attorney to Wouter van Twiller to administer the oath 
of schout to Rutger Hendricksz van Soest" 

July 1, 1632 

This day, the first day of the month of July in the year sixteen 
hundred and thirty-two, before me, Peter Ruttens, admitted notary 
public by the Court of Holland and residing at Amsterdam, and 
before the afternamed witnesses, appeared in his own person, the 
Hon. Kiliaen van Rensselaer, formerly director of the Chartered 
West India Company, Chamber of this city, well known to me, the 
notary, as patroon of his colony named Rensselaerswyck, lying on 
the river Mauritius, or North River of New Netherland, by virtue 
of the Freedoms granted to all patroons by the Assembly of the 
Nineteen of the Chartered West India Company, on the twenty- 
eighth of March, sixteen hundred and twenty-eight, and the seventh 
of June, sixteen hundred and twenty-nine, and has in that quality 
legally constituted and empowered, as he hereby does constitute 
and empower, the Hon. Wouter van Twiller, director general on 
behalf of the said Company in New Netherland aforesaid, giving 
him complete and absolute power, authority and special order, in his, 
the constituent's, name and in his behalf, to administer to Rutgert 
henrickss van Soest, farmer on West Island, on Rensselaers Burgh 

w V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.13. 


in Bylaersdal, the proper oath of fidelity as officer and schout in 
and over the aforesaid constituent's colony and the jurisdiction 
of the same with the solemnities required in the case, and further 
to do and perform in the matter everything else that in such or 
similar cases is required and necessary to be done, and as he, the 
constituent, being present in person as patroon aforesaid, might 
do himself, even if the matter required greater and more specific 
power, promising to hold good, satisfactory and 'valid whatever 
shall be done, executed or performed herein by the said deputy, 
all according to the requirements of the law ; copy hereof in due 
form being requested. Thus done within the aforesaid city of 
Amsterdam, at the house and office of me, the notary, in the 
presence of Ian de graeff and henrick doose, as witnesses. 

Power of attorney to Rutger Hendricksz van Soest to ad- 
minister the oath of schepen to Roelof Jansz van Masterland, 
Gerrit Theusz de Reux, Marinus Adriaensz van der Veere, 
Brant Peelen van Nijkerck and Laurens Laurensz van 
Coppenhagen; the schepen oath 1 

July i, 1632 

This day the first day of the month of July in the year sixteen 
hundred and thirty-two, before me Peter Ruttens, admitted notary 
public by the Court of Holland, and residing at Amsterdam, ap- 
peared in his own person the Hon. Kiliaen van Rensselaer, formerly 
director of the Chartered West India Company, Chamber of this 
city, 2 well known to me, the notary, as patroon of his colony called 
Rensselaerswyck, lying on the river Mauritius, or North River of 
New Netherland, by virtue of the Freedoms granted to all patroons 
by the Assembly of the Nineteen of the Chartered West India Com- 
pany on the twenty-eighth of March, sixteen hundred and twenty- 
eight, and the seventh of June, sixteen hundred and twenty-nine, 
and has in that quality legally constituted and empowered, as he 
hereby does constitute and empower, the Hon. Rutger hendriexss 
van Soest, farmer on West Island, on Rensselaers burgh in By- 
laersdal, in the quality of officer and schout over the aforesaid 

1 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.i 3 b. 

2 The words " formerly director ... of this city " are in the handwriting of Kiliaen 
van Rensselaer and were substituted for " merchant residing in the aforesaid city." 


colony, giving him complete and absolute power, authority and 
special order in his, the constituent's, name and in his behalf, to 
administer to and receive of Roelof Jansz van Mastcrland, farmer 
on de Lacts-burgh in Tzvillers dal, the proper oath of schepen over 
his aforesaid colony and the jurisdiction of the same, also to 
Gerrit The/uwise de Reus, farmer on Bloemarts-burgh in Welys 
dal, also to' Marin adriaenss, tobacco planter on Godins-burgh, also 
to Brand Pelen vandcr Niekerck, farmer on West Island on Wclys 
burgh in Bylaers dal, also to Laurens Laurcnsz van Coppenhagen, 
miller on dc Laets kil, with further authority to substitute one or 
more others in the place of those that are absent or deceased, sub- 
ject to the approval however of the honorable constituent as pa- 
troon aforesaid, and further in the matter to do, observe and per- 
form everything else that in such or similar cases is required or 
necessary to be done, and the constituent as patroon aforesaid 
being personally present might do himself, even if the matter 
should require fuller authority. Promising to hold good, satis- 
factory and valid whatever shall be done, executed or performed 
herein by his deputy aforesaid ; all according to the requirements 
of the law. Thus done within this aforesaid city of Amsterdam, 
at the house and office of me, the notary, in the presence of Ian de 
graeff and hendrick doosc, as witnesses. 

The oath of the schepens 

To be read and administered 
by the honorable schout. 

This you swear, that you will be good schepens, that you will 
be loyal and feal to my gracious lord and support and strengthen 
him in his affairs as much as is in your power; that you will pass 
honest judgment between the lord and the farmer, the farmer and 
the lord, and in the proceedings between two farmers, and that you 
will not fail to do this on any consideration whatsoever. 

So help you God. 


Memoranda from Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter Van 

Twiller 3 

July 20, 1632 

Memoranda given by Kiliaen van Rensselaer, as patroon of his 
colon)' called Rensselaerswyck, to his nephew Wouter van 
Twiller, director general in New Netherland of the Chartered 
West India Company, wishing the same good luck and a safe 
and happy voyage. This 20 July 1632, in Amsterdam. 

On the ship you will please to look after the persons who for 

my account go over by the same ship, to wit : 

Gerrit Theeusa de reus, farmer 

hendrick frerixsen van bunnick ""] f 

Comelis Jacobss van martensdyck > . , 

„ .. . . ", laborers 

Cornells theumss van meerkerck J 

Marcus mensen van Culenburgh, farm boy 

Charging the same to take good care of the calves which are 
sent over with them, also to provide the same well with food and 
water and to keep them clean. To that end I send along: 
2 pipes of spent malt or draff 
one hogshead and 2 barrels 4 of rye meal 
three barrels ground linseed cakes 
12 sacks of hay for refreshment 5 
I send along also for the use of the farms a ship's chest in which 

12 grass scythes 

19 Hainault scythes for grain 

9 horse traces, 8 collars, 4 whips, 4 dozen whiplashes 

also a hamper in which a small keg with 33 m treacle as 

medicine for the horses 
two fine firelocks 7 with powder flasks, one of which is a 

matchlock 8 
also a bastard greyhound for G*. de reus 
A silver-plated rapier with baldric and a black hat with plume, 
to be presented to Rutger hendrixsz van Soest in his capacity as 
officer and schout of Rensselaerswyck, for which purpose I give 

8 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.14. 

* smaltonnen. 

1 tot ververschinge. 

* sichten; short single-handed scythes, also called Flemish scythes. 
T vuyrroers. 

* snaphaan. 


your honor proper power of attorney to administer to the same the 
usual oath of fidelity. I should be pleased if this matter were 
disposed of as soon as possible, and if the opportunity does not 
present itself for your honor to see him or have him come to see 
you soon, you will please give a power of attorney to the then 
commis of Fort Orange to administer the oath to the said Rutger 
with the proper formalities, if possible on the farm which he now 
occupies, and thereafter to offer him the rapier and the hat. 

Also, four black hats 9 with silver bands, to be presented in my 
name to the following persons, whom I have designated as 
schepens and councilors of Rensselaerswyck according to the ac- 
companying power of attorney: 

Roelof Jansscn van Masterland 

gerrit theussen de Reus 

maryn adriaensz vand. vere 

Brandt Pelen vander nykerck 

Laurens laurensz van coppenhagen 

For which purpose I send by you a formal power of attorney 
made out to the aforesaid officer Rutger hcndrixsz to be handed 
to him with the copy of the accompanying schepen oath, whereupon 
he shall summon the aforenamed persons to his place of residence, 
have the aforesaid power of attorney and schepen oath read to 
them, and after suitable remarks and with becoming respect, as in 
the presence of God, administer the said oath and thereafter pre- 
sent each one of them with one of the aforesaid hats. 

And whereas Wolffert Gcrritsz has requested to be released from 
his engagement, although I had expected that he would have moved 
his residence up above, or at least have stayed there for some 
months the better to look after my affairs, you will grant him his 
request; and as I have been informed that he has not troubled 
himself much about my affairs and has also been but seldom up the 
river, you will make such arrangements with him as the circum- 
stances require and see whether you can not buy some animals from 
him for me, as I understand that he has a good quantity of them 
left, the price of which and the charges for his trouble you may 
add together. 

Meanwhile, you will please take charge and superintend my men 
as much as possible and request somebody at Fort Orange to keep 
an eye on them during your absence and, in case they should be 

• vier swartte hoeden; though five persons are named. 


Lr£m, M who haTTrawn" lU UQed ° f SOme ° ,1C t0 W1 ' ite ° r t0 read 

be e suiubTe ff^p^r- their instructions, to take charge of that 

SSafcS^a^JSW also ' or do what in ^ our °P inion sha11 bc 

if he should remain and if advisable and of service to me. 

he does not thereby be- 

cSm^ uspected by the Concerning Officer Notclman, who was 
to deliver to me all the animals and farm 
implements w Inch belonged to Gerrit de Reus after compensating 
the Company for them according to the contracts of the farmers, 
I understand that he has been prevented by frost from bringing 
them up above before the winter, but he promised me that he would 
do so at the first opportunity in the spring, of which I doubt not. 
However, if he has not at all or only in part carried out his promise, 
you will cause him to do so, as I need the animals as well as the 
implements very much for my men and farms, and would suffer 
great damage and delay in case he acted contrary to his agreement. 
Of the horses and cows which he has kept over winter, he has 
enjoyed the dairy products and the labor, having so overworked 
the horses that they have all thrown their colts prematurely. 
Nevertheless, you will in all justness settle the matter with him 
and as, so far as I know, I am still several animals short of the 
complement of the two farms of Evert focken and of Gerrit 
de Reus, for which I must pay the Company, you will take care 
that I obtain the rest. You must know that the two old stallions 
which Roeloff Jansz: has and also the horses of the stave splitters 
are not included therein, but must be paid for separately and, as I 
have not received any hogs and Officer Notelman has a good quan- 
tity of them to spare, you might take the same over from him or 
from some one else for the Company and according to the contract 
cause the same to be delivered to me. 

J understand that Claes cornelis-2 radeuuieeker v - is quite willing 
to give up some horses and cattle; if you can obtain any from him 
or any one else, von will not fail to buy the same for my account, as 
I am fully determined to take over all animals that are for sale, 
whether old or young, at a reasonable price or at the rate of those 
sold before; and as many young animals as arc to be had on the 
farms of Minuit and Bylvelt of which I shall apparently obtain a 
goodly number, you will please send all of those up the river at the 

10 Apparently a draft of the map of the colony of Rensselaerswyek reproduced in 
this volume; sec p. 33. 

11 Marginal note in handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 
M rademaecker means wheelwright. 


first opportunity ; and as it is apparent that several farm hands when 
their time has expired will come home, you will select from them 
the best and as many as you shall judge necessary for my farms and 
animals; and if there are any suitable blacks, provide me with them 
if you think that they will render me good service. On the con- 
trary, if there are any persons in my employ whom your honor 
considers unserviceable to me and who do not properly acquit 
themselves of their duties, whether master or servant or whoever 
it may be, you will ipso facto deport and discharge the same, and if 
they return home, they will in all such cases do so at their own 

Herewith I send also two barrels in which are g]/ 2 schepels of 
buckwheat for seed, to be divided among my farmers. 

Also half a barrel, in which 2 schepels, and one firkin 13 of rape 
seed, also to be divided among my farmers, and to be seeded in 
such places as they find suitable thereto, taking good care to pre- 
serve the crop, so that in the future they may sow the same again 
and advise me if it succeeds well. 

In case you are of opinion that I could run the brickyard with 
profit, you will please see to that, as the clay of which the bricks 
and tiles are burned must be taken from my land. 

If the savages should be inclined to sell the small islands above 
Fort Orange, as well as that opposite the fort and those of Paep- 
sickene (which are also situated on the east side somewhat farther 
south than Castle, now called West Island), I should be pleased to 
buy the same, as my colony would then be complete 14 and no one 
else own land therein. 

You will also please notice whether any silkworms are found 
there and whether it would be advisable to do anything with them, 
as mulberry trees occur in my colony and such worms are likely 
to be found there. 

Herewith goes a copy of the instructions to Rutgcr hendrixsz 
van Socst, together with the contract made with Gerrit Theeussa 
dc Reus, of which your honor will please send a copy to Fort 
Orange in order to hear the decision of the other farmers respect- 

13 vierdevat. 

u This expression is significant in connection with the patroon's statement in his 
letter to de Laet, June 27, 1632, that they had "all the shore along the river, on the 
west side, from beeren Island to Momncnis Castle," a distance, according to the map 
of Rensselaerswyck, of exactly four Dutch miles or leagues, the extent of territory on 
one side of a navigable river allowed by the fifth article of the Freedoms and Exemp- 
tions, which the patroon evidently understood to be inclusive of the islands. Cf. note 
on p. 167. 


ing it, whether they would be willing to accept similar conditions or 
not, whereof your honor will please send us definite advice. 

The horses and cows which I and other farmers must furnish to 
the Company from the respective farms, according to the con- 
ditions, I am satisfied to retain and accept at the price formerly 
paid and as fixed by the Company. I request your honor not to be 
too saving in this matter, that I may get the same, specially those 
of zvolffert gerritssen, who, as I understand, is willing to deliver 
his at the first opportunity in order to have his other animals free. 

Instructions to Rutger Hendricksz van Soest, schout, and the 
council of the colony of Rensselaerswyck 15 

July 20, 1632 

Instructions for Rutger Hendricxssen van Socst, officer, and for 
his associated council 16 in Rensselaerswyck, sent him by Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer, patroon of the said colony, according to which, so far 
as they apply, he and the other inhabitants of the said place must 
faithfully and honestly govern, comport, conduct and acquit them- 

1 First, Rutger H endriexsz aforesaid, after taking the oath of 
fidelity and as officer aforesaid, shall present himself before and 
call on the commis of Fort Orange and offer him every favor, 
assistance and the usual tokens of friendship, in order that they 
may mutually aid one another not only with word and deed, but 
in time of danger with life and limb against the common enemy ; 
and he shall further entertain constantly friendly relations, each 
respecting the other. 

2 On all occasions when a council meeting is held (which must 
take place at the officer's house), they shall not .neglect to invoke 
the name of the Lord, and every Sunday and on the usual holidays 
they shall come together to read aloud some chapters from the 
Holy Scriptures, for which purpose a Bible is herewith sent to 
them, as well as a huyspostille SchultetV 7 in which every Sunday 
throughout the year has its special lesson and exposition of God's 
Holy Word, to which reading Brandt Peelen vandcr Niekerck is 
hereby authorized. 

3 Third, the officer shall select one of the schepens or some one 
else whom he may judge fit to record the resolutions of the council. 

15 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.17. Extract of these instructions in V.R.B.Mss 36; 
see p. 701. 

18 bygevoegde Raden. * 

*f Abraham Spujtetus, Huys Postillen. 


4 If any one of the schepens should misbehave himself, so that 
the officer have cause to enter a complaint against him, the de- 
linquent shall during the deliberation on his affairs absent himself 
from the council. 

5 In order that the officer and the schepens may know the better 
the Freedoms of the patroons and colonies, I send herewith five 
printed copies, one to be given to each of the schepens, and a sixth 
for the officer, and those who can not read shall immediately have 
the same read to them by others, that they may in no wise exceed 
their rights. 

6 And although the fifteenth article of the said Freedoms con- 
cedes to the patroons, at places where the Company has no commis, 
the trade in beaver, otter, mink and similar peltries, and my colony 
extends several leagues above and below as well as opposite Fort 
Orange, which as well as the example of other patroons might 
easily induce my people to engage in such trade of peltries, it is 
nevertheless my express wish and desire that without my further 
order no one, be he free or servant in my employ, or living in my 
colony, shall presume to barter any peltries with the savages or 
seek to obtain them as a present, on forfeiture of their earnings 
and all their other effects according to the conditions and express 
stipulations of their contract; and in order that no one should in 
any way pretend ignorance thereof, the aforesaid officer shall sum- 
mon before him all the inhabitants of Rensselaerswyck, together 
with all those who are in my service, whether old or young, man or 
woman, master or servant, no one excepted, in order to notify them 
of this my intention. But in case any savages should offer any one 
of them two or three skins for food or drink, he must deliver the 
same immediately upon receipt to the officer aforesaid, who at least 
once every month or six weeks shall turn the said skins over to the 
commis at Fort Orange, and take proper receipt therefor. 

7 The seawan, pearls, minerals, crystals or similar things which 
any one of them may find or obtain he must deliver into the hands 
of the officer, who shall keep the same in safety and at the first 
opportunity have report thereof made to the patroon in order that 
he may take proper measures in regard to the same. 

8 Forbidding all inhabitants of Rensselaerswyck, in case they 
discover in the said colony or outside any gold, silver, copper or 
other mines or any marble quarries, or pearl fisheries and whatever 
else might be of importance, to reveal the same to any one but the 
officer, who if the same are situated outside of the colony, but not 

14 . ._ . . . •- 


otherwise, shall report the same to the commis at Fort Orange in 
the name of his patroon as the first finder and immediately advise, 
his patroon thereof, who shall thereafter regulate the matter and ac- 
cording to circumstances offer a substantial reward to the first 

9 The officer is hereby warned that rock crystal is found in de 
Lacts kil opposite Fort Orange, above and inland from the dwelling 
of Roeloff lansrj, and that care should be taken to see whether the 
mountain from which the same drops into the creek can not be 

10 The officer shall with the advice of the council take measures 
to have the following farms put into working order at the earliest 
possible moment, to have the houses erected and the farms provided 
with people and animals. 

The first farm shall be that on which the officer lives now, called 
Rensselaers burgh, and of which he, the officer, shall remain farmer. 

The second, that across the river, where Roclof Janssz dwells, 
called de Lacts burgh, on which the said Roeloff shall remain far- 

The third shall be established on Castle Island, now called West 
Island, the house to be erected where it shall be most convenient and 
as near as possible to every other farm, on which farm, which shall 
be named Welys burgh, Brandt Pelen vandcr Niekerck shall be 
farmer, who shall have half of the said island for his use. 

The fourth shall be established on the fourth creek lying north of 
Fort Orange and south of the islands which lie in the river. On 
this farm, which shall be called Blommacrts burgh, gcrrit theusz de 
reus shall be farmer. 

And in order that the two houses which have not yet been com- 
menced may be the sooner finished, the officer shall request of the 
commis at Fort Orange the assistance of the carpenters, smiths and 
other workmen, at the expense of his patroon. Meanwhile, Roclof 
Janssz, Laurcs laurcssz, Barent thcunisz and all others who are at all 
capable of working on the aforesaid houses, shall assist each other 
diligently and faithfully, so that the aforesaid houses may be erected 
and finished. But even if they can not get any assistance from 
the men of the Company, they shall all without exception help one 
another faithfully, as people having but one and the same master. 
To the director, Wouter ran Twitter, T have handed a copy of the 
conditions made with Gerrit Theeuzvisz dc reus concerning the farm 
above Fort Orange, and am willing to let all my other farmers en- 
joy the same conditions also. However, as the farms of the officer 


and of Rocloff Janssz are already in working order, the conditions 
respecting the same mnst go into effect on the first of January next, 
bnt for the farm to be established for Brandt Peelen, they shall go 
into effect only on the first of January 1634, like those of Gerrit de 
reus; acceptance whereof, so far as he is concerned, each one must 
without fail send me by the first ship. 

Nor must they neglect to send me by. the ship de walvisch 18 , which 
towards winter will come to fish in the South River and will leave in 
the spring, information of everything, to wit, what kind and how 
many animals each farm has, how many of them have died and what 
the increase has been, what grain there is in sacks, in the granary 
and on the field, what the profit or loss of each farm has been, how 
much land is attached to each farm and further everything that is 
necessary, so that the patroon may know from year to year exactly 
what his profit has been and which farmers have exerted themselves 

If any farm hands or even farmers or any one else should mis- 
behave themselves, especially those who through quarreling or fight- 
ing, through laziness or drinking, neglect the profit of their patroon, 
they must be corrected and punished according to the customs of 
these lands and especially according to the laws of this province of 
Holland, without regard to person. 

Concerning the milk, butter, cheese and further all kinds of grain 
and root crops which every one has in store, they shall try to sell 
these to the best advantage for the patroon, either to Christians or 
savages, and if they have so much grain on hand that it can not be 
used there, they shall send it over to this country in the ships of the 
Company with proper invoice, after having inquired of the director 
how much room for that purpose there is in the ships. And if they 
think it advisable to erect a brandy distillery or a brewery, they shall 
ask the director for the large brewing kettle and brandy kettle which 
is at the Mahhattes and sell the brandy and beer either at Fort 
Orange or at the Manhattes or elsewhere. 

As to the young cows, as soon as they are of suitable age they 
shall be covered by the bull in order to increase the stock, and the 
bull calves shall from the first be castrated and kept in order to 
fatten them, but the young horses shall not be covered before the 
third or fourth year. 

Further, a goodly number of hogs shall be kept on each farm, 
which can be trained to run in the woods in the daytime and to 
come home at night, and if they must be tended by a swineherd dur- 

18 The Whale. 


ing the day it is not necessary that each farm have a boy for that 
purpose, as one person could easily watch all the hogs together, and 
if the houses are too widely separated, the hogs might be taken for 
the night now to one farm and then to the other. 

The people shall supply and furnish one another all such tools and 
victuals as one is provided with and the other not, in such way how- 
ever that each one must keep account of what he gives out and re- 
ceives. As I do not doubt that this next slaughter time some of my 
young steers will be fit to kill, you must sell the same either at the 
Manhatas or at Fort Orange to my best advantage and do the same 
year after year, and each year try to increase the amount. 

In case you should have more milk or butter than can be consumed 
there in the country, you must take care to preserve the butter with 
salt so as to be fit for shipment. But to my mind it would be more 
profitable to make cheese than to churn the milk into butter. 

If the commis at Fort Orange, contrary to expectation, should 
act in an unneighborly manner, you will carefully examine the 
printed Freedoms and do whatever be found there to my advantage, 
making use of the sixth article, by which fishing, shooting of birds 
and grinding of meal within my colony are reserved to the patroon 
or to the person having his permission and by which all the lands 
above as well as below and opposite Fort Orange are under my juris- 
diction. As during the winter large quantities of venison are 
brought to the fort by the savages, with which they readily part in 
return for milk, butter, etc., care must be taken to buy up and salt 
the same for use either pickled or smoked, not only for your own 
needs but also as food and provision for the Manhatas and other 
quarters, and if they have enough, to send it here. You must also 
know that opposite the fort toward the south, there are large quan- 
tities of geese and turkeys, so that I am inclined to think that my 
colony will soon be in a flourishing state, specially if you on your 
part show no lack of diligence, industry and work. 

If any one who is not in my service should wish to do some farm- 
ing in my colony, specially on the lands bought by me, you must 
not permit but must prevent the same, as you are hereby advised 
that all the lands lying on the west side of the river, from beyrcn 
Island to Moenetninnes Castle, have been bought by me and paid for, 
even including the place where Fort Orange stands, but if those of 
the fort offer you the helping hand, you shall in return accommodate 
them as much as possible, in order that one hand washing the other 
they may both become clean. 19 

19 For additional paragraph, see p. 701. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Coenraet Notelman 20 

July 20, 1632 

Laus Deo, this day, 20 July 1632, in Amsterdam 
Conrad notelman 

Mon cousin: I find myself with your favor of the 15th of Jan- 
uary last past, with the account of the f30 given to you here and 
the f2i received from Rutgert hendrixsz, which is therefore set- 
tled. I have further given to your wife £75, as she states in her 
letter I suppose, which you must make good there. I have also 
given her the 2 RD- 1 of Gerrit de Reus and the 3 RD of the Noor- 
mannen. The f36 of hendrick gysbertsz van Vianen were received 
and given to my brother in law to hand to your wife, but this she 
did not know yet when she wrote her letter. ' 

The f3 of minne bouivessz are still lacking . . , 22 on account 
of the great changes which have taken place here, and if I had not 
exerted my influence they would have recalled you together with 
others whom they are ordering home, as my nephew Woutter van 
Twiller, who now goes there as director general, will no doubt tell 
you. He has also done his best to keep you there, so that you will 
now have to pay close attention to your duties and perform them to 
the best services of the Company or they will the next time easily 
find occasion to remand you. However, I have no doubt but you 
will properly acquit yourself of them. 

I have asked my aforesaid nephew to look a little after the affairs 
of my colony, which you will please do also and faithfully advise me 
of all that happens there. 

I have released Wolff ert Gerritsz, on your advice and at his re- 
quest, and also given my nephew orders to talk over with you the 
tilings of which you write. I see that of my eight calves six arrived, 
of which two died later in that country, so that there are still four 
left, which no doubt you have sent up the river with my other ani- 
mals in good time in the spring. I hear some complaints that you 
have worked my horses a little too hard so that they have all thrown 
their colts prematurely. I hope that this is not true, but that on the 
contrary they brought forth the colts last May. I wish, now that the 
farm of minuit has been granted to my nephew wouter van Twiller, 
that you might get that of Bylvelt, and also that I might get the 

*> V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.21. 

21 RD stands for rijksdaalder, or rix-dollar, a silver coin of the value of 2.50 guilders. 

•* Here a line or more must have been omitted in the Letter Book. 


surplus young stock of both, as otherwise I do not know wherewith 
to support without loss the 50 persons whom I must have there 
within four years. The hogs which must still be delivered to me 
by the Company, I have requested my nephew to take of you on 
proper payment. I am glad to hear that Rutger hendrixsen has ac- 
quitted himself so well and has a fine farm with a good farmhouse 
and 16 morgens winter wheat in the field and apparently will have 
sown also a good quantity of summer wheat. 

I have made him officer over my colony named R.ensselaerswyck, 
and presented him with a plated rapier and baldric as well as a hat 
with plume. 

I have thought fit to establish another farm above Fort Orange, 
of which Gerrit theeusz dc reus shall be farmer. I have promised 
to return to him the animals which came from him and I have no 
doubt that he will find them there on his arrival. Also a fourth 
farm on Castle Island, next to Rutgers, of which Brandt peclen will 
be farmer. I hope that I shall have animals enough for the afore- 
said farms, which with that of Rocloff Janssz will then be four in 
number, and if I can get more animals, I should by the next ship 
like to fit out two more farms and send the people for them over at 
the same time. I beg you to look well after these matters, especi- 
ally when you go up there to note how everything proceeds and who 
acquits himself best, just as you have done lately, for which I thank 
you very kindly. In turn I shall on all occasions look after your 

For the rest I refer to the verbal report of my nephew W outer 
van Twitter, to whom I have recommeded you most highly. I 
doubt not but he will be more favorably inclined toward you than 
his predecessor has been. But you have occupied yourself a little 
too much with the personal question against the director, notwith- 
standing I had warned you so strongly against that. In all well 
ordered governments one must respect his chief and work not for 
faction but for the common good, for where the head is against 
the members and the members against the head everything must be 

Wherewith ending, mon cousin, I commend you to the gracious 
protection of Almighty God and with hearty salutations from my- 
self, my wife, her mother, sister and brothers and all the friends, 

Your willing servant and Cousin, 

K. V. R. 


N. B. I should like nothing better than to hear by your next let- 
ter that you are on goods terms with my nephew, the director, and 
if you hear anything to his disparagement, you will properly defend 
and warn him. The letter of your wife, I have sent by him; it is 
in the chest 23 in which are my farm implements, such as Hainault 
and grass scythes. Vale. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Dirck Cornelisz Duyster- 4 

July 20, 1632 

Lous Deo, this day, 20 July 1632, in Amsterdam 

Honorable, discreet S 1 Dirck Cornelisss duyster: This will serve 
[to let you know] that I have duly received your writing of the 1st 
of November last past, from which I learn the situation of my farms 
and your opinion of wolffert gerritsen, whom I have released at 
his request. You thank me that I have procured you the office of 
commis, which I did with great pleasure, conscientiously believing 
that you merited it. I only wish that my successors had done so 
likewise, but as new lords usually make new laws, I have heard a 
rumor that they have appointed some one else above you and also 
that they summon home albert diteringh and Bastiaeu Jansss crol. 
Therefore, if you should make difficulty about accepting again the 
office of onder-commis, no one of the old servants would remain 
there, which might easily cause great changes and the complete de- 
struction and ruin of the flourishing trade which now increases so 
much, and at the same time completely spoil my young and tender 
colony which has already cost me so much, and place the people in 
great peril, which I hope Almighty God will graciously prevent. I 
should be pleased if you could resolve to stay there, as I do not 
know at all the commis'-' who is to be there, and as I hear that he is 
quite prejudiced against the colonies, so that instead of showing 
friendship, he will seek to offend me. If he do so, I shall oppose 
him, and who knows how it will go ten months from now, when 
again six directors must retire. I have already brought some order 
in my colony called Rensselaerswyck, namely I have appointed Rut- 
ger hendrixsen as officer and schout and also chosen five schepens 
to guard my rights there, and I have sent to each a printed copy 
of the Freedoms with full instructions according to which they 

^ cargasoen kistgen. 

■*r. R. B. .!/.«. Letter Book, f.22. 

- 5 Hans Jorisz Hunthum. 


must regulate themselves. If the commis refuse me favors that he 
could easily grant without prejudice to the Company, I must look 
out for myself, as all the land from beeren Island to Moenemins 
Castle belongs to me by lawful purchase and conveyance, even the 
land on which Fort Orange stands, and nobody may without my 
consent fish, fowl or shoot game, or even do any farming on my 
land, according to the sixth article. However, if he is disposed to 
act in a proper and neighborly manner, I seek only peace and pleas- 
ant relations, but if he is not willing, I shall not trouble myself much 
about him. I have prohibited my people from trading in peltries 
notwithstanding I have as good a right as others, 26 according to the 
fifteenth article of the Freedoms. I have done this to avoid dispute 
with the Company and therefore hope that as hitherto they will not 
act otherwise than fairly towards me, unless the commis who is now 
going there should be partial, as I fear he will be, and as I have 
been told he has already sufficiently intimated here in this country. 
The Company might better have entrusted the trade to you, or at 
least could have sent another and less notorious 27 person than this. 
I am very anxious [to know] whether he will prove the man [to do 
the things] for which some have forced him in fairly against the 
breast of many of the directors. They have made my nephew Wout- 
ter van Twitter director general, who also goes over now. I have 
most highly recommended you to him. He is quite content with you ; 
would that he were equally satisfied with the other, but time will 
show. If you can not resolve to stay at Fort Orange, you might 
try to exchange places with Jacobus van Coder, that he might be 
appointed at the fort and you as commis at the North. 28 If you de- 
cide to stay, I recommend you to do your best, and inasmuch as 
Rutger hendrixsz and my other men are not very ready with the 
pen, be pleased to help them a little and I trust you enough for them 
to let you read my letters and instructions. Wherewith ending, 
I commend you to the gracious protection of Almighty God and 
greet you heartily. 

Your affectionate friend 

Kindly do me the favor to have albert dieterinck or some one 
else some day pace off the farm lands from Moenemins Castle to 

M The original has alsoo geen recht hebbe als andere, which is apparently a mistake 
for alsoo goed een recht hebbe als andere; see article 6 of instructions to Rutger 
Hendricksz, p. 209. 

27 opspraechelyck. 

- 3 om de Noort; literally, around the North. The expression refers probably to Fort 
Good Hope, on the Connecticut River. 


the falls and from the falls to the pine wood 20 lying above the is- 
lands ; also the lands near the mill creek, 30 and the farm lands op- 
posite Fort Orange, as well as those which lie between beijrcn Is- 
land and Sma.v Island, that I may know how many paces long and 
how many wide each portion is, and to have philips Jansen van haer- 
len make a map thereof. The [map of the] other [land] which 
M r crijri 61 measured, I have duly received. I shall also write a 
short letter to albert dicterinck and another to Bastiaen Jansen crol, 
as I very much desire this done, gerrit dc Reux will no doubt 
help also. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Bastiaen Jansz Krol 32 

July 20, 1632 

Laus Deo, this day, 20 July 1632, in Amsterdam 
Bastiaen Jansz crol 

Honorable, prudent, very discreet Sir : I find myself with your 
favor of the 33 January, in which you thank me that I helped to 
promote you to the directorship, 34 which I did with pleasure. How- 
ever, though new lords make new laws, I am astonished at the 
great changes which they are making, inasmuch as they summon 
you and albert ditering home and send a new commis to Fort Or- 
ange, appointing Dirck comelissz again as ondcr- commis, and if the 
same refuse to accept this, as I half fear he will, not one of the old 
servants will be there, with the result that the trade which has now 
been placed upon such a good footing by you might again be com- 
pletely ruined, unless something worse happen, which God forbid. 
I thank you for the purchase of the land and other courtesies done 
to me, as well as for the communications sent to me, and although 
they now send my nephew Woutter there as director, believe me 
freely that he has not tried in the least to oust you from your office, 
as the directors have offered it to him without his asking for it and 
without my speaking to any one about it for him, going on the 
general principle that they wanted to call all the people home (which 

20 greyncn bos; the site of the present city of Watervlict. 

80 Meulekil; the Normans Kill. 

n Crijn Fredericksz; see p. 636. 

32 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.2ic. 

38 Day of month not given. 

84 Krol was director general of New Netherland for 13 months, apparently from the 
end of February, or beginning of March 1632 to the end of March 1633; see Examina- 
tion of Bastiaen Jansz Krol, June 30, 1634, on p. 302. 


thus far they have not been able to do however) and send altogether 
a new set of people, a few excepted. Whether they act prudently 
and wisely in this, I leave for others who are cleverer than myself 
to judge. The result will show it ; and whether they are not recall- 
ing more efficient and faithful people than some of the new ones 
they send out; the Lord only knows. At all events, many of them 
are sorry to send any one who is favorable to the patroons, even 
without harm to the Company. But they can not yet do every- 
thing they would like. I commend to you once more the best inter- 
ests of my colony, which has already cost me a great deal. Where- 
with ending, I commend you to God's gracious protection and send 
hearty greetings. 

Your very favorably disposed friend 

I should be pleased if albert Dietcrinck or some one else would 
some day pace off those of my farm lands which -M r crijn S5 has not 
measured, to wit : opposite Fort Orange ; also near the mill creek ; 30 
further above the pine wood 37 to the falls, from there to Moene- 
mins Castle, the length and the width. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wolfert Gerritsz 38 

July 20, 1632 

Laus Deo, this day, 20 July 1632, in Amsterdam 
Honorable, discreet Woifert Gerritsz: 

Your letter of the 9th of January last I duly received, from 
which I learned the condition of my farms, as also that I should 
send some farm hands, to which end I have engaged Gerrit theeussz 
dc reus, who goes thither with some servants. I did not send 
more, as I thought that for the present this would be enough. T 
had hoped that you would have settled in my colony but, as I am 
told, your wife was not much inclined thereto, which I imagine to 
be the reason that you seek to be released, and as I should be sorry 
to keep anybody in my service against his will and to his discom- 
fort, I have ordered by nephew Woutcr van Tzvillcr, who now 
goes thither as director general, to settle your past accounts in all 
fairness and at the same time to negotiate with you about the 
animals that remain in your possession, as I still need quite a num- 

35 Crijn Fredericks? ; see p. 636. 

M meulekil; referring to the Normans Kill. 

37 grejnen bos; the site of the present city of Watervliet. 

* V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.23. 


ber for the completion of my projected farms and Officer notelman 
has advised me that you will let me have some. I should have been 
pleased if you had sent me the account of the various kinds of 
grain which were grown in 163 1 and whether they amounted to 
enough to furnish food for all my people and animals, as I can 
not learn what was grown in 163 1 ; I hope that this year will be 

It shows bad management that Rocloif Janssen could not get 
any winter seed ; I hope that he has sown the more summer seed. 
If my people had a good supply of grain, I should think it not a 
bad plan if I established a brewery and brandy distillery in my 
district, in regard to which I shall be pleased to receive your advice 
at the first opportunity, as also how many farms there could be in 
my colony giving every farmer 20 or 30 morgens arable land be- 
sides pasture and meadow land. For the rest I refer to the verbal 
communications of my nephew, the director, commending you 
meanwhile to the gracious protection of Almighty God and salut- 
ing you heartily. 

Your very willing friend 

I have recommended you to my nephew, who I have no doubt 
will show you every favor so far as the service of the Company and 
his commission will allow. 

Memoranda about letters to Albert Dieterinck and Jacobus van 
Curler and about Rutger Morris 39 

July 20, 1632 

N. B. The letter to oclbcrt dicttcrinck respecting the pacing off 
of the farm lands. 

N. B. Ditto to Jacobus van Corlcr to take the place of dirrick 
cornclisscn Duyster as ondcr-commis at Fort Orange, who in turn 
could in his stead become conunis at the North. 40 

N. B. The English boy who came, over from the South is called 
Rutgert Moris; he is drummer at the Manhatans and has sown 
tobacco for Director Minuijt. From 300 plants the director had 
at a guess 80 lb; it was sown in the fall, covered during the winter 
with manure and transplanted in the spring. 

s0 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.23. 
*• See p. 216. 


List of animals in the colony of Rensselaerswyck 41 

July 20, 1632 

( lassification of the animals belonging to the colony of Rens- 
selaerswyck with specification 42 of the persons from whom I have 
obtained them, this 20th of July 1632 

Mares 3 from the farm of Evert focken — there remains still 
1 belonging to the Company. 

1 bought of the stave splitters has died in the posses- 

sion of Rutger 
4 bought of the Company, 1630, which are now all fully 

Sy 3 years old 
4 from the farm of Gerrit de Rcux which bore colts 
2 from the farm of Bylevelt which bear colts 

Total 13 

Stallions 2 foaled in 1630, bought of P r minuijt 

1 foaled in 1630, from the farm of Bylevelt 

2 old ones bought of the Company, on the farm of 

Roelof jansen 
1 thrown in 1629, bought of the Company, coming from 

1 thrown in 1630 bought of minuijt. N. B. This shall 

be yours provided you give me some colts thrown 

May 1632 in return 
1 thrown in 1630 or 163 1, bought of Gerrit dc Reus 
1 colt, thrown in 1631, on the farm of Rutger; do not 

know whether it is a stallion or a mare 

Total 22 horses with the increase which they have had [till] May 
1632. Among these are probably 20 fit for work, 
even if you took the stallions from them, so that at 
least five farms could be stocked therewith. 

Milch cows 2 from the farm of Evert focken 

O 1 ditto died on the farm aforesaid 
2 bought of Minuyt 


thcro remain fcc- 
lonsinR to flir 
Company i cow 
and 2 heifers 

41 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, t.26. 

4 * The words here italicized were added in the margin by Kiliacn van Rensselaer. 



delivered by Gerrit de Reux to nootelman; should 
have been only 4, received therewith only 1 year- 
ling and I have paid for the increase in value to 
Reux, to wit, 150 

bought from the farm of Bylevelt 

bought of the surplus of Bylevelt 

Total 15 cows 

Heifers 1 then a yearling, with the 5 cows of Reux. There are 

4 cows and 2 yearlings instead of 5 cows and 1 
yearling. Extra payment as above f5o 

2 born 1630, bought of Reux 

4 born 1630, bought of minuyt 

1 born 1630, bought of bylevelt 

1 born 1630, bought of the farm of bylevelt 

Total 24 animals, most of which will have calved in May 

1632 and with which at least 5 farms can be 

stocked and Laurens Laurensen no or man be 

given 2 or 3 besides. 

4 heifer calves born 1631, of the 8 sent over with 

1 ditto born 163 1, raised by Rutger hendrixsen 
1 ditto born 163 1, from the farm of Bylevelt 

30 heifers and calves 

also 10 yearling bulls and oxen, to wit, 1 yearling ox 
bought of Reux, 4 which Rutger hendrixsen has 
had, 2 bought of minuijt and 3 of Bylevelt 

also 6 heifer calves which will now go across with Reux 

by this ship; cost f8i 113 

The purchased hogs with the increase of young pigs, you will 
please also distribute over the five farms and, as I have now a 
fair quantity of animals, the farmers can give the hogs the surplus 
buttermilk to drink and have those that can not be sold in the 
country killed toward winter when they are fat, and salted and 
cured, and if due attention is given thereto I imagine that it can 
be made a source of great profit, as they can get most of their 
food from the woods. 


List of the men on the farms 4 " 

July 20, 1632 

The men on the farms 

On Renselaers burch 

Officer Rutger Hcndrixscn, farmer 
Cornells jacopsen van martens dyck 
Seger jansen van nieukerck 
picter hcndrixscn van so est 

On Welys burch 

Brandt peclcn van nieukerck, farmer 
Barent jansen van Descns 4 * 
Marcus mense van cuyleborch 

the fourth reux will have to do without if your honor can 
not get another in his stead 45 

( )n de lactsburch 

Roelof jansen van masterlandt, farmer 
Claes Clacsen van vlecker 
Jacob Goyversen van vlecker 

On Blommaert Burch 

Gerrit Teeusen den reux, farmer 
hendrick frerickscn van Bunnick 
Cornells Thonissen van meerkerck 

On Godyns burgh, to be erected near the mill creek where there 
is much timber, or, in order to be nearer by, at the next 
creek toward Fort Orange, opposite Castle Island, or 
otherwise, if that can not conveniently be done, on the 
east side of the river near Roelof jansens 

The foreman of Pieter Bylcvelt to be made farmer, a farm 
laborer to be engaged there and also another laborer or a black 
in his stead. 

If there are suitable farm hands whose time is up and who want 
to come home, some more might be engaged with the advice of the 
farmers if the wages are reasonable. 

N. B. If the laborers of Bylevelt should not be willing to serve 
me or not be satisfactory to me, you may engage theunis willemsen, 

« V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, i.zd. 

14 becrent lanscn ran esen[enf], p. 308. 

*'' See p. 196, 204. 


who was left over in Swaenendacl* 6 to serve out the rest of his 
term as farmer up the river. 

I hear also that Cornells van voorst has laborers whose time is 
up and that he has engaged new men. It would not be bad either 
to use Laurens Laurensen or his mate as farmer. 

Inventory of goods and animals sold by Peter Minuit to Wouter 
van Twiller and Kiliaen van Rensselaer 47 

July 20, 1632 

Gerret Jans en van oldenborch, foreman on my farm, or some one 
else in his absence, shall let Wouter van twiller, director of New 
Netherland, have these following animals and tools, sold and ceded 
to him of the animals which I had in stock in January 1632 accord- 
ing to inventory of the council signed by bastiaen Jansen Croll, 
with this understanding that if any one of them have died they 
shall be charged to the said van Twiller, in return for which he 
shall have the benefit of the colts and calves thrown since: 
four old mares, with colt at the time 
four old cows, also with calf 
two heifers, then one year old 
six sheep 
six hogs 

These sheep and hogs Minuit did not receive from the 
Company ; van tzviller must claim them therefore of 
the Company or deduct from the horses and cows 
which he must hereafter furnish to the same, 
a goodly number of chickens and pigeons 
a half-worn wagon 
an old ditto 

two plows with their belongings 

about 15 morgens of winter seeding; also seed ordered 
and directed sown as follows : 

three morgens of oats 
one morgen of peas 
a well seeded and planted garden. 

* a die in Swaencndacl overgcschoten is. This phrase may mean either that Theunis 
willcms was engaged in excess of the nun required in Swanendael or that he survived 
the massacre, the news of the destruction of the colony having reached Holland May 24, 
1632. From the account of the destruction of Swanendael in de Vries, Korte Historiacl, 
p. 1 01, it would seem that all the colonists were killed. 

47 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, {.23b. This document is in the handwriting of Peter 


For which aforesaid items the said van twill er shall pay as fol- 
lows: to the West India Company for the rent remaining unpaid 
the sum of 500 guilders; to the aforesaid Peter Minuit the sum of 
one hundred and fifty guilders;* 8 to the aforesaid Company two 
horses, two cows, three sheep, three hogs; in return for which 
aforesaid items he shall be credited with the first 100 guilders which 
Minuit has paid on the lease and shall have the food supplies for 
men and animals till next harvest, left there by Minuit, who was 
not obliged to supply them longer than till the first of May 1632, 
the said minuit to pay the wages of the farm hands till the first 
of May 1632. He, twiller, shall also have the benefit of the in- 
crease before May 1632, that is to say, what it amounts to over 
and above the loss through death of the old animals; also the im- 
provement of the garden and newly cultivated lands as well as the 
larger part of the winter seeding and all the supply of summer 
seed; also the improvement of the horses during the years as also 
that they are mares. 

The said gerret Jansen van oldenborch shall deliver to the afore- 
named Wauter van twiller for account of killiaen van Renselaer 
these following animals sold to him, upon condition that the loss 
of those which shall have died after the 14th of January 1632 shall 
be borne by the said Renselaer, who in return shall enjoy the 
growth and increase since the aforesaid 14th of January 1632, pro- 
vided he supplies them with food till July 1632 : 

two fillies born about May 1630, together f 80 

one young stallion, also born about May 1630 f 40 

two milch cows, three years old and with calf fi6o 

four heifers with calf, born in 1630 fi6o 

two bull calves, one year old in January last f 20 

three hogs, all old sows f 40 

Total fSoo 

for the colony of Rensselaerswyck 

In witness of the truth that this has been thus agreed, I, the 
underwritten, have signed this with my own hand. Done at Amb-' 
sterdam, the 20th of July 1632. 

[signed] Peter Minuit 

48 Underlined in original. 




tJ . ^i - 


5 be 

£ c ~ 

1 ^ 

Co rn 

.S o 

r- U 


Bill of sale of increase of animals on farm No. 3, on the Island of 
Manhattan, by Pieter Bijlvelt to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 49 

July 20, 1632 
I, the underwritten, Pieter pieterscn bljlevelt, hereby acknowledge 
that with the consent of the lords directors of the Chartered West 
India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam, I have sold to kiliaen van 
Rensselaer the following animals, being- the increase, over and 
above the animals and implements which belong to the farm and 
which I leave there till further order, having sold only the surplus, 
to wit on farm No. 3 : 

one of the six milch cows left on said farm No. 3 the 

first of January 1632 with a calf f 80 

one of the two heifers — -born in 1630, with the calf if 

there is one, at f 40 

three bull calves born in 1631 f 30 

seven young pigs, then four months old 

four old hogs." Total for the 11 animals fioo 

In all f250 

It being well understood that with the cow a heifer calf shall be 
delivered if there is a heifer calf from the six cows, otherwise in 
its stead a bull calf; also a heifer calf if there is one from the two 
heifers, otherwise also a bull calf; also the young pigs raised from 
the 1 1 ; provided that he must feed the said cattle and hogs till 
the new planting. 

I therefore order Tennis dirxsen van vechten as farmer, or who- 
ever shall be on the said farm in his stead, to place the aforesaid 
cattle and hogs at the disposal of the said Rensselaer or his agent. 
Done at Amsterdam this 20th of July, sixteen hundred and thirty- 
two, [signed] p r . Bijlvelt t 

I, the underwritten, acknowledge that I have received from the 
hands of Kiliaen van Rensselaer the sum of 125 guilders, the re- 
maining 125 guilders to be paid as soon as I am advised that the 
above cattle and hogs have been delivered. Done as above this 
20th of July 1632. 

50 Rd at 50 st each fi25 [signed] p r . Bijlvcltt 

N. B. For the colony of Rensselaerswyck 

1632 20 July 

P r : Bijlevelt £125 

49 V. R. B. Mss 5; in the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. Also in Letter 
Book, {.24. 


Promissory note of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Bijlvelt for 
increase of animals on farm No. 3 50 

July 20, 1632 

Receipts for payment on same 

February 24, 1634 

I, the underwritten, promise hereby to pay to pietter Bijlevelt 
the sum of 125 guilders, being the balance on account of the cattle 
sold to me, as soon as he shall receive tidings that the same have 
been delivered to me or my agent in New Netherland. 

one milch cow with a heifer calf 

one heifer with a heifer calf 

three bull calves born in 163 1 

seven young pigs, four months old in January 1632 

four old hogs 
On which items I have paid him 125 guilders; the remaining fi25 
I am to pay as stated above. Done at Amsterdam this 20th of 
July, sixteen hundred thirty-two. 

[signed] Kiliaen van Rensselaer 

N. B. that Cornelius van Voorst has caused a cow to be taken 
from the farm of bijlevelt, pretending to have bought the same, 
though bylcvelt on the contrary declares that he has sold none to 
him or to Mr paauw. 

I, the underwritten, acknowledge that I have received from the 
hands of kiliaen van Rensselaer in satisfaction of the above account 
the sum of 45 guilders, the sum of 80 guilders having been de- 
ducted for a cow which Cornells van Voorst in the name of Mr 
Michiel paauiv has taken. This cow I have sold to the said 
renselaer and promise to deliver according to the above contract 
of sale. In testimony of the truth I have signed this in Amsterdam 
this 24th of February 1634. 

[signed] p r Bijlvelt 

18 rix-dollars a 50 st — f45 — 

1634 24 February 

P\ Bijlevelt . . f45 

Received from the hands of Kiliaen van Renselaer the sum of 
80 guilders, to wit, 45 guilders on a promissory note for 125 guil- 

00 V. R. B. Mss 7. In the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 



f * vs j^ ^ JV; 44 ' 



J 3 * is IT** 


if 1 




ders-due for cattle sold to the said Renselaer to be delivered in 
New Netherland and also 35 guilders on a note for 125 guilders on 
account of my farm with the cattle and implements also sold to 
him, everything according to the contract and the aforesaid prom 
issory note. In testimony of the truth I have signed this our writ- 
ing on the 24th of February 1634 in Amsterdam with my own hand. 

[signed] p 1 '. Bijlveltt 

1634 24 Feb. 

P>. Bylevelt . . f8o 

Bill of sale of animals and implements on farm No. 3, on 
the island of Manhattan, by Pieter Bijlvelt to Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer 51 

July 20, 1632 

I, the underwritten, acknowledge hereby that I have sold and 
transferred to Kiliaen van Rensselaer, who acknowledges that he 
has bought and taken them over, the following animals, implements 
and other articles belonging to me and at present in New Nether- 
land, on farm No. 3 last occupied by me, and this after previous 
offer of sale as well to the directors of the Company as to the 
secretary Jehan ran Rem and; neither the Company nor renutiid 
being willing to accept the same, the said directors have granted 
me permission to sell the same and accordingly I have sold to the 
said rcnsselacr the following items according to the inventory of 
my possessions taken by the council on the first of January last, 
the decrease or increase, losses by death and increase of calves, 
colts, pigs and other animals to be to the profit or loss of the afore- 
said rensselaer: 

two old mares bearing colts 

one young ditto, two years old 

five milch cows of the original six, all believed to be with calf 

one of the two heifers born 1630 

one heifer calf of 1631 

six sheep 

six hogs 

Of these bylevelt has received from the Company only four 
sheep and no hogs, which the Company must make good 

a large number of chickens 

61 V. R. B. Mss 5. In the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 


a new wagon, the wheels having iron tires 

three plows with accessories 

the crop of seven morgens of winter seeding, as well as all 
provision of summer seed which he has left, namely oats, 
barley and gray peas with the crops thereof 

the well seeded and planted garden 

also cost and wages of his workmen till May 1632, which 
audries hudden has undertaken to furnish for the milk and 
butter which he is to have 

also forage for the stock till the next planting 

a barrack 52 with seed estimated by the council at 90 schepels, 
both rye and wheat, which belong to him and on which he 
owes the Company 100 guilders due May 1632, which Rens- 
selaer agrees to pay 

also the oats, peas and barley which may be left shall belong 
to renseler, in return for which he agrees to pay 400 guilders 
to the Company for the remaining four terms 

also two horses and two cows to be delivered to the Company 
according to the contract 

In addition he is to pay to me, Pietcr bijlevelt, for the fulfilment 
of all the foregoing the sum of 150 guilders, to wit, 50 guilders now 
and the remaining 100 guilders at the first notice that the goods 
have been delivered to him. 

Done at Amsterdam this 20th of July 1632. 

[signed] Pieter Bijlveltt 

Promissory note of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Bijlvelt for 
animals and implements on farm No. 3 s3 

July 2j, 1632 

Receipts for payments of same 

November 11, 1632 
February 24, 1634 

I, the underwritten, hereby acknowledge that I owe Pieter Bij- 
levelt the sum of 150 guilders, the balance on his cattle and im- 
plements (which he has in New Netherland) taken over from him 
according to the contract made with Wouter van Twillcr, which 

62 Berch. 

» V. R- B. Mss 6. In the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 


aforesaid sum of fi5o I am to pay him on the first notice of the 
delivery of the said cattle and implements. In testimony of the 
truth, I have signed this in Amsterdam this 27th 54 of July sixteen 
hundred thirty-two. 

[signed] Kiliacn van Rensselaer 

This nth of November 1632 received hereupon from the hands 
of Kiliacn van Rensselaer the sum of 65 guilders, leaving there- 
fore a balance of 85 guilders. 

According to the decision of the council of New Netherland of 
the 18th of July 1633, Rensselaer must deduct from the account of 
Bijlcveldt the sum of 50 guilders, whereof the said bij level t may 
demand an explanation showing the reason why this is done. 

Done at Amsterdam this 24th of February 1634. 

I, the underwritten, acknowledge having received from Kiliacn 
van Rensselaer in satisfaction of this account the sum of 35 guil- 
ders with the reservation that, if it should prove later that the 
action of the said council in regard to the 50 guilders, either en- 
tirely or in part, had been taken unjustly, the said Rensselaer, 
according to his agreement in regard thereto, shall make good and 
pay me the same. In testimony of the truth I have signed this in 
Amsterdam this 29th 55 of February 1634. 

[signed] p r . Bijlvcltt 

14 rix-dollars at 50 st £35 

1632 n November 

P r : Bijlcvelt £65 


24 Feb. to ditto £35 . . f35 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 56 

July 2J, 1632 

Wouttcr Van Twiller, at the Texel 

In Amsterdam, this 27th of July 

Mon Cousin: Yesterday, on account of the lack of time, I sent 
jan pcclcn with hendrick Schacf' to get a copy of your contract. 
They saw Lybcrgcn™ who told them that he would bring it today 

54 Possibly an error for the 20th of July 1632. 

r5 Apparently a mistake for the 24th of February 1634. 

M V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.24b. 

67 A notary public at Amsterdam; see Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 2:189. 

68 Either Daniel or Arnoult van Liebergen, both directors of the West India Company. 


before the meeting as there was no opportunity yesterday. Secre- 
tary Remundt told me that he would leave this afternoon; lie is 
now summoned to leave here this morning as the wind is easterly ; 
you will therefore have to insist that those who are at the Texel 
sign your honor's contract. At the same time I shall insist here, 
even after your honor's departure, unless the commissioners at 
the Texel shall have signed it, of which you must advise me. 
Herewith goes the contract of sale of the animals, tools and other 
things of farm No. 1, entered into with the former director 
Minuit, attested by his signature, by which you can see what be- 
longs to the farm and what the surplus is which he has sold to 
me. The fi50 I shall pay him for your honor; place this to my 
credit and with it purchase for me some more animals in New 
Netherland. I presume that wolphert and others will be quite 
willing to sell, as so many of the people leave. 

N. B. He has told me that he recommended to your honor for 
your own use. the young stallion sold to me; if your honor should 
like that horse or anything else that is included in my purchase, 
you are free to take it. If you keep the stallion, you may give me 
in return for it as well as for the fi5o as many of your young colts 
and calves as you think proper. 

n. b. Contract I send also the contract concerning the surplus 
Pietlr Ml animals bought of Pieter Bylevelt; and as to the 

bijieveit™ aniuwls and tools belonging to his farm, I have 

bought most of them from him also. But on account of the hasty 
departure of the secretary, I can not send your honor the document 
inasmuch as he, bylevelt, will not be here till an hour from now to 
close the matter finally. In the meantime, consider them as sold. 
I send herewith the inventory of all his animals and implements; 
the terms arc that he pay the first fioo to the Company to which he 
must sell; that for the second fioo he surrender [his claim to] go 
schepels of rye and wheat which are due to him ; ,iu the remaining 
f /oo the purchaser must pay to the Company, also deliver to the 
Company two horses and two cows. He must supply them with 
fodder till the next harvest, also pay the wages of the men till May 
1632, which lie says andries hudde has agreed to do in return for 
the milk and butter of the cattle. He cedes further a wagon and 
plows as well as the winter grain and the supply left there for sum- 

59 Marginal note in handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

80 tegen dc tweede fioo heeft hy Ic goede 90 schcpcl roggc ah terrewe dot hy doer 
voor ovcrgeeft. 


mer grain, provided I pay him in hand fijO. I have offered him 
fioo and a small diamond, so that it is pretty nearly settled. I 
shall still send yon the deed if I have time. 61 Your honor must 
take out of his animals first those which he has sold to me ; the other 
terms I am content to leave to nootelman, provided he gives me for 
the t'150 which I must give in addition young or other animals. 
There are six milch cows ; I have bought one, so that he can prob- 
ably spare two cows and some calves. The two old mares will 
also have colts of which he can probably spare one also. The hogs 
and sheep the Company has furnished. 62 These animals nootelman 
can use on the farm of Gerrit de Reus, which he now occupies. 
N. B. If nootelman has driven my horses so hard that they have 
lost their colts, he must furnish me others in their stead there. 
He has 15 morgens of winter seed, so that he is already supplied 
and this he has cultivated with my horses. And as to the right 
which the Company might claim to the seeding of the farm of 
Byleveldt, to that N. B. bylevelt says that the directors have ejected 
him therefrom and that it is not his fault that the farm must lie 
idle, as he has not been able to leave it to anybody and as he offered 
it to Secretary Remundt who would not accept it, so that he has 
obtained permission to sell the cattle. There would also be little 
objection to paying the Company for its right as aside from the 
summer seed there are [but] seven morgens on the farm that have 
been seeded, of which the Company must have every sixth sheaf 
and counting this for the four years which his lease lasts, the Com- 
pany would in all have a right to 4/6® [of the crop] so that there 
would remain still 2/6 over and above the right of the- Company 
even if the land remained idle. Meanwhile the land will fallow and 
recover and before the four years are past the calves will be cows 
and the colts, horses. Other farms could be treated in the same 
way, and if the secretary were [not] provided with a farm, he must 
have the preference as I promised him, and you may undertake to 
deal with others in a similar manner and leave to nootelman the 
animals of bylevelt as said above. You can see by this what ad- 
vantage you have in taking over the farm and animals of Minuijt 
on which offhand over 100 pounds Flemish is made and in case 
nootelman is supplied, as wulfert gerritsen had offered to sell him 
four cows and two horses, keep the animals and farm of bylevelt 
for me and do with the grain as stated above, to wit, deliver to the 

" This italicized section underlined in the Letter Book. 

02 heeft de Comp. presteert. 

63 This italicized section underlined in the Letter Book. 


Company the 4/6 for the remaining four years and take his men or 
other suitable people whose time is up and at the first opportunity 
during the winter cause a house to he erected in Rensselaerswyck, 
either near Roelof janscn or at the mill creek, C4 with a view to send- 
ing the people and animals and tools up the river as soon as the 
water is open. In the meantime they might stay the winter over on 
the farm of bylevelt which will already he sown with winter seed, 
which is well, and cost only the wages of the men, the animals being 
with young also. This would then be my fifth farm, which I com- 
mend to your utmost care as by so doing the number of my men will 
increase and gradually come to the 50 souls. 

The same scheme 65 could be used with regard to the wheel- 
wright," 6 whom I hear the directors summon home and who has 
many animals. And even if the secretary should wish this farm, 
his profit shall largely consist in that he leaves me the old horses and 
cows, for which I would then have to pay him, and the young colts 
and calves he can easily have taken care of. They will be fit to use 
in two years and I would consent to have them brought to and 
taken care of at Rensselaerswyck under contract; meanwhile the 
exhausted land will recover and thereafter with the same labor pro- 
duce the double crop. The right of the Company can be paid for 
the remaining years of the lease all at one time out of the seeded 
land, to wit, 3/6 [of the crop], leaving still 3/6 for his supply of 
seed, which he will cause to be sown in the fall either by the wheel- 
wright or by others of his condition. This is my proposition. 

N. B. Before this zvas finished, Bylvelt came, whose animals and 
tools and other property I have bought, everything conformable to the 
contract made with him which I send enclosed herein, and after 
thinking it over properly, I think it advisable not to leave these to 
notehnan but to keep them for myself and establish a fifth farm 
with them as stated above. Bylevelt says that his foreman is ac- 
tive and intelligent and well suited for the management of a farm; 
you may therefore engage him or some one else with a laborer and 
a boy or, if need be, a black, and meanwhile cause a house to be 
erected at Rensselaerswyck to be occupied in the spring. You must 
notify the officer, Rutger hendri.rsen, hereof so that he and my other 
men take this in hand. As to nootchnan, let him deal with wolphert, 
who has offered him four cows and two horses, and to my mind his 

04 meulckil; the Normans Kill. 
e5 strecck; literally, trick. 
00 Clacs Cornelisz, see p. 206. 


office frill give him enough to do. However, accommodate him, as 
well as the secretary, as much as possible. It were better for the Com- 
pany as well as for the farmers if they let the exhausted land lie 
fallow for a while and only seeded one half ; they would get better 
crops than now and that with half the labor and half the number of 
animals. This by way of advice and all at your discretion and for 
my best interests, laying especial stress on the fact that if I can not 
get animals, I shall not be able to send over 50 persons and that 
then certain partial people would soon call for action. I have al- 
ways understood from Minuyt that in that country at the Manehates 
there is an English runaway boy named Rutger Moris, who is a 
drummer and understands tobacco planting, and on the chance that 
Maryn can learn something from him, you might send the boy some 
day to Fort Orange ; he has planted and cured at least 80 lb for 
minuijt, which proceeded from 300 plants, and as my eye is mainly 
fixed on tobacco planting by which I can support many people, and 
as every morgen of land needs not less than five or six men to do 
well and will produce some 6000 lb, I would get the start of all 
the English in Virginia and the French on CHstoffel, 61 by reason of 
the extreme duties and returns to be paid to the king and the officers. 
There are, according to what I hear, about 4000 people in Virginia 
who live mostly by tobacco. 

Minuijt has also told me that he has sown tobacco seed in the fall 
and covered the same during the winter with horse manure against 
the frost and snow and has kept the same over and transplanted it 
in the spring, of which excellent tobacco came, and as you well know 
N. b. Omit not to advise that all winter seeds or crops are better than 

Maryn of this or to ,. , , . 111 • „„ 

mention it to him by the summer crops, this would be a new mven- 
word of mouth, as i have tion which in my opinion would surpass all 
*Jt Etv^d the others. He found it out accidentally the first 
support hundreds of people; time and thereafter thought it a good plan. 

then the farms would do , , , . . 1 , 11 

welL If Maryn should in any wise have trouble 

with his tobacco, do not neglect to send him the English boy to 
show him the way of preparing and curing it and tell him the ex- 
perience of Minuijt of sowing the tobacco in the fall toward winter 
so that it can come up and then covering it with some manure or 
other warm stuff, such as hay or straw, whereby it will be pro- 
tected and in the spring come up earlier and better than otherwise, 
which is a good scheme in cold countries. 

St Christopher, an island in the West Indies. 


The knife merchant was here today; he has not given long credit. 
I shall pay him the £1630:19 which are due him according to your 

And herewith ending, I commend you to the gracious protection 
of Almighty God, who grant you a speedy voyage and good success 
and proper respect in the execution of your office, for which we 
must constantly pray and invoke Him. I recommend to your honor 
above all things to keep the fear of the Lord before your eyes ; by 
performing the service of your masters in accordance therewith, 
you will without doubt obtain His blessing. Please to accept our 
common greetings; our young Jcremias is in great peril of dying, 
having severe convulsions. Vale. 

Pieter Bijlvelt to the copartners of Rensselaerswyck' 8 

[1632 f] 

Gentlemen : I have no doubt but your honors still remember the 
request which I have made several times before to the honorable 
gentlemen individually and I hereby earnestly pray your honors to 
let me serve your honors properly and satisfactorily, as your sup- 
pliant for a considerable number of years has filled the office of 
commis of the honorable directors of the West India Company, had 
the management of the furs and merchandise, rendered proper ac- 
counts of the same and also kept the account of the men, both the 
salaried employees and the free colonists, etc. 

Your suppliant prays therefore as above that the honorable pa- 
troons will be pleased to employ him as commis of the fur trade, of 
which your suppliant by each ship that arrives will send to the 
aforesaid honorable gentlemen strict accounts together with 
the bartered skins ; for such commission as the honorable pa- 
troons may be pleased to give me on the skins so bartered ; also of 
the trade in merchandise promising to render accounts and vouchers 
to the satisfaction of the aforesaid gentlemen, for which the hon- 
orable gentlemen will please to grant the suppliant one stiver on 
every guilder as commission on the goods sold, the same as the com- 
missioners of New Netherland have paid their agents ; also for the 
management of the sales of the provisions with what belongs there- 
to, and for this also one stiver on every guilder as above; also to 
keep the account of the men, both free colonists and salaried per- 
sons, for whatever the honorable gentlemen may please to allow the 
suppliant for that. Etc. 

I signed] pieter Bijlveltt 

V. R. B. Mss 4- 


Memorial presented by Kiliaen van Rensselaer to the Assembly 
of the Nineteen of the West India Company 111 ' 

November 25, jojj 


Presented to the Assembly of the XIX of the Chartered West India 
Company, the 25th of November 1633, m Amsterdam 

Noble, Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Gentlemen : 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer, in the capacity of patroon of his respective 
colonies situated within the jurisdiction of New Netherland, shows 
with all due reverence how he, the remonstrant, formerly di- 
rector of said Company and commissioner of the aforesaid regions, 
found the affairs of New Netherland in the beginning' of his ad- 
ministration, namely, that sundry colonists, as early as 1623, had 
been conveyed thither with instructions to dwell there as free per- 
sons and to carry on trade, principally in the furs abounding in that 
country. And considering that if this trade should be free to all 
without restriction, the fur-bearing animals would be too much 
hunted and the furs would be sold here below their value, to both 
the damage and the loss of the Company, which had as yet no other 
source of income from those regions to meet the expenses connected 
therewith, he therefore so influenced his fellow commissioners that 
they deemed it advisable to curtail this trade somewhat for a time ; 
in the meanwhile planning how the Company, according to the char- 
ter, might settle the said regions at the least expense and with the 
greatest benefit to the country, considering that the same is a salu- 
brious and fertile land, situated from about 38 to 48 north lati- 
tude, being provided with an extraordinarily fine climate and many 
beautiful, deep rivers, embracing within its limits more land and 
coast, sea and river 'than all the seventeen provinces of the Nether- 
lands, from all of which, in time, much good may result to the Com- 
pany; being, moreover, an excellent rendezvous for all ships, which 
can arrive there in 14 days from the West Indies, and being also 
well adapted for raising all kinds of grain and animals which could 
thence be sent here or at least within other limits of the charter, as 
Cape Verde, Guinea and Brazil. Following this, it was found good, 
with the advice of the Assembly of the Nineteen, to send a large 
number of farmers, animals, horses, cows, sheep and other neces- 

09 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.4i-53b. Printed in Dutch in Oud Holland, 1890, 
8:55-69, as Appendix A to Mr de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 


saries, in order thus to relieve the Company of the heavy expense of 
transporting all sorts of provisions needed by the people in that 
land. This intention was diametrically opposed to the views of 
those who had no other aim than to send their ships from here to 
trade in the aforesaid places, notwithstanding that it was clearly 
pointed out to them that such trading could bring no profit to the 
Company but rather decided damage and continual loss, since the 
amount of furs coining thence — seeing that the trading places are 
so distant from each other — could bear no heavy outlay ; besides, 
that other nations of adjoining regions, when our ships should be 
away from there, would immediately seize and occupy these and 
keep us out, as they now do in Virginia, Canada, New England and 

Now when the aforesaid farmers and animals had been sent 
thither and when, as is generally the case with new undertakings, 
everything did not succeed at first as might be wished, certainly not 
nearly so well but that the contrary minded could find occasion for 
fault-finding, the Company proceeded after this fashion : on the one 
hand, since there were now farmers and animals, they decided that 
little or no provisions ought to be sent, not considering that it takes 
time to clear the land before it can be plowed or cultivated and that 
in the beginning several horses and cows perished which they would 
not replace, whereby the people were forced to take the merchandise 
and trade it for provisions, thus damaging the Company to an in- 
credible number of thousands ; on the other hand, instead of an or- 
dinary freighter 70 of large hold which would need to sail only once 
a year, they have sent usually two, three and more small vessels, so 
overloaded with skippers, officers, provisions and ammunition that 
the three together could not take in half as much for the country as 
the larger alone [while the latter would not have] cost [much more] 
than each of the small vessels in view of the fact that usually many 
people sail back and forth who could man the large ship but would 
overload the small ones, which error has cost the Company no less 
than the other. 

By these means and many others, too long to be here related, the 
condition of New Netherland continuously deteriorating, all the 
blame was laid mainly to the account of those who favored the colo- 
nization, and especially to the commissioners for that region, who to 
clear themselves asserted that they were willing to undertake the 
colonization at their own expense and without cost to the Company, 

70 een ordinaris veerman. 


if the Company would only favor the matter a little and render 
some assistance, and that they would make no objection and would 
be satisfied if all participants should be thereunto invited and pub- 
lic freedoms and exemptions framed concerning it. This proposi- 
tion, though as just as anything in the world can be, nevertheless met 
with great difficulty before it could be brought about. The con- 
trary minded, seeing that they could no longer prevent it directly, be- 
gan indirectly under pretext of economy to curtail these freedoms, 
finding no other way than to exclude the fur trade, which had for- 
merly been granted to others who had been sent there and were 
supported by the Company, asserting that this colonization had no 
other intent than to lay the expenses to the Company's charge and to 
take the trade in furs away from it, which was pure calumny, as the 
following will clearly show, since several of the Colonies were regis- 
tered before the Freedoms were extended to include the fur trade. 
And now when the contrary minded could no longer prevent action, 
some of the Freedoms and Exemptions were finally passed by the 
Assembly of the Nineteen, March 10, 1628, with the exclusion of the 
fur trade however, which was the only objection of the opponents 
and amounts to little, as will later appear. That the Freedoms 
were too much limited and the patroons too much restricted caused 
great discontent among the chief participants, and on February 1, 
1629, this grievance was publicly stated (not by him, the remon- 
strant, who was director elected by the chief participants, but by Mr 
Charles Looten and others), and request made that a committee be 
appointed to amend the Freedoms which had been granted, who, 
being nominated the third of the same month, took the matter up 
and drafted several articles, which, however, through his refusal [to 
serve on the committee] because he was himself in favor of the colo- 
nization, were never communicated to him, the remonstrant ; and in 
order to give no one any cause for reproach, although at liberty to 
do so, he would accept no appointment, either from the directors or 
from the chief participants, to investigate this matter and also re- 
fused to be present at such investigations even when the Assembly 
of the Nineteen by resolution of October 25, 1628, thereto invited 
him and opened the door, but charged his associate 71 with the direc- 
tion thereof without communicating with him, which he is obliged to 
add here, since the chief participants have been made to believe, in 
order to vilify him, that he, the remonstrant, is the greatest cause 
thereof (although the very opposite is manifest and, even if it were 

T » Assessor, 


true, it would be no disgrace to him but praiseworthy). Hereupon 
it happened that the delegates of the chief participants setting out 
the 2 1st of February following and presenting themselves in person 
in competent numbers before the Assembly of the Nineteen, requested 
that the Assembly would make an agreement with them, since they 
intended to organize colonies and were not satisfied with the former 
Freedoms. (Alas, how have these men now changed !) And doing 
all they could, they were unable to bring the matter to a conclusion 
in the Assembly, since the contrary minded (with whom they are 
now on such good terms as the following will prove) opposed them, 
yet they accomplished this much that the Assembly of the Nineteen 
saw fit on the 26th of the same month to pass a resolution making 
the propositions of the chief participants a subject for discussion at 
the next meeting and to this end ordering the points of difference 
to be set forth and sent to the Chambers ; whereupon it followed 
that the leading Chamber of Amsterdam issued a call for a meeting 
on April 18/ 1629, article 2 of which reads as follows: "To recon- 
sider all the former articles, freedoms and exemptions granted the 
respective colonies in several former meetings and the matters con- 
nected therewith, and to deliberate whether the same might be am- 
plified by the accompanying articles requested by several influential 
participants and amended as the occasion requires." To consider 
which articles, a committee was appointed the 29th of May follow- 
ing, who after many long debates finally decided the matter and pre- 
sented the amendments to the Assembly, who read them several 
times, voted upon diem and finally approved them in full, June 7, 
1629, as they stand recorded in the Resolution Book and were after- 
wards issued in public print; and these have never been revoked or 

Hereupon several registrations were immediately made, and the 
work was undertaken with great courage by many. However, it 
did not last long for the opponents rested not but watched all trans- 
actions sharply, finding a pretext in that the late Mr Samuel Godijn, 
some time before, viz in December 1628, sent two persons thither 
with the consent of the Chamber of Amsterdam and knowledge of 
the chief participants, according to the report of February 1, 1629, 
provide'd with merchandise, to buy and pay for the places indicated 
to them, with further consent that he might exchange his remaining 
merchandise for furs, but must consult with the Company in regard 
to this matter, since at the time of sending his people tin- Freedoms 
had not been extended to the fur trade, all done in conformity 


with the letter of December i628, 71a addressed to the director 
of- New Netherland. These persons on returning home re- 
ported with joy that, to the great satisfaction of the inhabitants, 
though in spite of the opponents, they had purchased, paid for and 
obtained title to the land ; that, furthermore, they had exchanged 
the remaining merchandise for furs and sent these with bill of lading 
and with knowledge of the director to their patroon. The returns 
of the sale of these furs, amounting to about f 5,600 (from which 
must be deducted the merchandise given in exchange, the interest, 
the insurance, the expenses, the freight and the duty to the Com- 
pany), were so magnified by the contrary minded, who had their 
supporters as well among the directors as among the chief partici- 
pants, that [it seemed that] two individuals with but a small quan- 
tity of merchandise had purchased a large quantity of land and had 
besides obtained immense returns, from which these opponents took 
occasion to proclaim that the patroons were not contemplating colo- 
nization at all, but only the securing to themselves of the fur trade 
and depriving the Company of the same, which would be total ruin 
to the Company as regards [profit from] these regions, not knowing 
or else intentionally ignoring that the expenses of the late Mr Godijv. 
would first come in when he should be obliged to send with his own 
ships at his own expense so many people, animals, provisions and 
other necessaries, that these f5,6oo would not even enter into con- 
sideration; yet by their calumnies they brought it about that they 
found many sympathizers who gave credence to the same. Thus 
they injured Mr Godijii exceedingly, withholding from him to this 
day the aforesaid f 5,600 (which he must yet seek to obtain by suit), 
furthermore constraining him to dismiss the people whom he had 
undertaken to convey thither and surrender them to the Company, 
also to part with his merchandise and provisions which he had 
brought together with difficulty and put the same in the hands of the 
Company. They did not stop even here but sought to make the re- 
monstrant also odious (although he, as above stated, had acted so 
impartially in the matter), asserting that he and the other patroons 
had taken possession of the best places and that those who followed 
would come too late, though the contrary is true since not a hun- 
dredth part of the land has as yet been trodden by Christian foot, and 
daily and even by the latest letters new places, far excelling the first, 
are revealed, where there is room enough for directors, chief and 
lesser participants and all the inhabitants of these lands, J3y these 

™> Day of the month left blank in the Lett,-, 


means, however, in addition to the former slanders of the late 
Godijn, they brought it about that several chief participants, yes, 
even some of those who had so fervently supported the affair, now 
became prejudiced and opposed to it, siding with the contrary 
minded, who, being- now strengthened, sought means to insult the re- 
monstrant publicly at the meeting of the chief participants, inso- 
much that five or six of them came together two hours before the 
meeting in order to devise some way of accomplishing their ends in 
the meeting, which they would also have, carried through had not 
the remonstrant been warned of it and been on his guard, refuting 
with sound arguments their slanders which, with your- permission, 
they spit out (of which they may well be ashamed), charging that 
he and the other commissioners of New Netherland, who were pa- 
troons, had damaged the land by some hundred thousands for the 
sake of their own designs (of which damage not they, but the con- 
trary minded are the cause, as has already been mentioned). They 
proceeded with such bitter injuries against others who had also 
registered colonies, that they thereby intimidated several, who were 
obliged to abandon the work already begun because others who 
shared therein declined to go on. And thus was undermined the 
necessary, laudable and good work which had been undertaken with 
such exertion and had taken so many years and had been discussed 
at so many meetings of the Nineteen and examined by all the Cham- 
bers, in and before its beginning, by so little an occasion as the re- 
turn of the f5,6oo, concerning which of a truth it may be said, that 
instead of shearing the sheep when they had wool, they were skinned 
at birth when they had no wool, and all this under the pretext that 
the patroons had no other design than to deprive the Company of the 
fur trade and charge the expenses to them, as has been heretofore 

In order now to prove what a shameful slander this is, and on the 
contrary to show the diligence in the matter of colonizing the afore- 
said region of the late Godijn aforesaid in his own colony, in which 
the remonstrant shared and was included, and also what the re- 
monstrant himself has accomplished in his colony and what ex- 
penditures they together have made in face of the opposition they 
received, the following brief statement is given. In December 1630 
they equipped a ship of about 150 lasts, named de Walvis, ballasting 
it with all kinds of materials, such as lime, brick and tiles, also put- 
ting on board four large horses, twelve cows with calf, also several 
boats for whaling, all kinds of ammunition, provisions and merchan* 


dise, and over 80 persons, costing all together, including the yacht 
de Salrn, of which mention will hereafter be made, over 50,000 guil- 
ders, which indeed, is ten times more than the f5,6oo which in the be- 
ginning they received for their returns, upon which all their calum- 
nies were founded. With this ship and people, they, the remon- 
strants, took possession of, settled and peopled the fertile and well 
wooded island of Tortuga, located on the northwestern side of His- 
panola, placing thereon over 25 able-bodied men, well fitted out, 
besides the people 72 of the Frenchman Franco ys Roulant, and sev- 
eral negroes, supplied with provisions, arms, ammunition and other 
necessaries, besides proper instructions, all in accordance with the 
consent of the Chamber of Amsterdam, of date August 28, 1630, 
which was given for one "oyage only. And although the remon- 
strants would afterwards in accordance with their request of March 
15, 1632, very gladly have assisted and continued the work or con- 
sented that the Company should do so itself, they could by resolution 
of the 25th of the same month obtain no other action than that the 
said [second] voyage was refused them notwithstanding the Com- 
pany did not undertake it, and so this beautiful island fell into the 
hands of the English losing all that had been expended on it, scat- 
tering half the people and causing the rest to perish, for which dam- 
age they will seek redress at the proper time. 

With this aforesaid ship de Walvis, they also in 163 1 took pos- 
session of the bay of the South River in New Netherland, occupy- 
ing the place of their colony with 28 persons engaged in whaling and 
farming, and made suitable fortifications, so that in July of the same 
year their cows calved and their lands were seeded and covered with 
a fine crop, until finally by the error of their comutis all the people 
and the animals were lamentably killed, whereby they suffered incal- 
culable damage, which damage the remonstrants attempted to repair 
in the year 1632 with the former ship den Walvis and besought the 
Company to lend a helping hand, who neither by word nor deed 
would render any assistance but forbade them by resolution of 
April 26, 1632, to take with them more than 300 guilders worth of 
merchandise, for which they obtained about 200 beaver and otter 
skins, while they would have obtained much more from nations who 

vHaddc oock mode eenigh Volck om te scltcn acn 't Eylandt van Tortugos »n West- 
Indien/daer wy met sestigh Francen ghecontracktecrt hadden/hct solve Eylandt voor 
o„s tc houden ah ecu Colonic ondcr de II. M. H. Staten ende West-Indische Com- 
pagnie. We also had on board some people to land at the island of Tortuga in the 
West Indies, having contracted with sixty Frenchmen to hold the said island for us 
as a colony under the High and Mighty Lords the States General and the West India 
Company, De Vries, Korte Historiael, p. 95- 


had never traded with the Company if they had had more merchan- 
dise, from which the Company would have realized the duty of one 
guilder per skin, which [profits] both now lose. And the most in- 
tolerable of all is, that after the remonstrants had given these 205 
skins upon their arrival into the hands of the Chamber of Amster- 
dam that it might levy its duty on the same, this Chamber threw 
them among and mingled them with its own skins and also sold 
them with its own goods, contrary to the will of the remonstrants, 
just as if all the goods of the patroons were free booty or confiscated, 
(who is so perfect, that he can bear all this wrong!), and still* they 
must hear that they intend nothing else than at small expense to de- 
prive the Company of the furs. 

Furthermore, he, the remonstrant, in December 1630 [sent] the 
yacht dc Salm, accompanied by the aforesaid ship den Walvis, to his 
granted colony, the island dn Sable, in order that this yacht, being 
supplied with people, provisions and all necessaries, might take pos- 
session of said island and settle it, since it was uninhabited and 
abandoned by the French, which yacht, to his misfortune, was cap- 
tured and brought into Dunkirk. 

What the remonstrant has further done towards the promotion 
of the population of his colony called Rensselaerswyck, on the North 
River of New Netherland, may be seen from his declaration of De- 
cember 2, 1630, submitted to the Chamber of Amsterdam, and so 
continuing from year to year, until in July 1632 he was pro- 
vided with people and animals enough to start five farms, 
which would have been done had not the Company by resolution of 
July 20, 1632, refused him carpenters, smiths and other mechanics, 
when these were not working for the Company, although he was 
willing to pay their expenses to the Company ; this is quite too par- 
tial a policy, not only hindering him in his good undertaking, but 
doing so to the damage of the Company which would otherwise have 
had the benefit of the wages, while they on the contrary, according 
to the last letter written him from there, do employ his carpenters 
and others of his people in their service. 

The Company has never attempted to make room in their ship^. 
according to the tenth article of the Freedoms, for the transporta- 
tion of animals and such like, only allowing him to place a few 
calves on the upper deck, and they were all thrown overboard in the 
encounter with the Turks. The Company also prevented him from 
conveying bis animals from the Manhattans to his colony, and most 
of them died from rough treatment and the like, which loss be also 


means to recover from die Company. It has likewise happened 
lately that the director of New Netherland has held his people idle 
for a long time at the Manhattans and would not let them travel 
farther up the river unless they took an unlawful oath, given him by 
the Chamber of Amsterdam, although these persons had already 
here taken the usual oath and had besides given bond and security 
to the satisfaction of the Assembly. 

The Company by the above resolution of July 20, 1632, also re- 
fused to give him any merchandise in that country to purchase the 
rest of his territory, notwithstanding his reasonable request, and by 
the same resolution declined to furnish his people with any provi- 
sions or victuals in exchange for grain, butter, cheese and the like 
with which they would pay, although their people would have suf- 
fered from hunger if his farmers had not supplied them with wheat 
and rye, ground in his mill (as the Company has none at that 
place) ; and what is worst of all and most to be regretted, instead of 
the servants of the Company being on good terms with the patroons 
and their servants, they on the contrary have appointed as conunis 
at Fort Orange, situated in his colony, against the wishes of the 
remonstrant, a person who has publicly slandered the Company, has 
helped those sailing into that region from other kingdoms to buy 
the smuggled furs and is disliked by the savages, who complain that 
years ago he treated them cruelly, so that they will not deal with 
him but on the contrary try to affront him, to the Company's in- 
jury, as by way of revenge they have already burned the yacht de 
Bever which was anchored there, and according to rumor (as the 
remonstrant is informed by letter) they seem to have killed all the 
remonstrant's animals, horses, cows, sheep and hogs, apparently 
also on account of the hatred they bear towards him [the conunis]. 
This person is also highly antagonistic to the remonstrant, since he 
has been told what reports of him the remonstrant made during 
his administration, although he and others to whom the administra- 
tion was committed reported nothing but the truth. What trouble 
the remonstrant has to expect from this can be easily understood, 
for either his colony will be ruined by the savages in order to af- 
front the conunis at Fort Orange or, if this does not happen through 
the savages, then the conunis himself will do his best towards it. 
So the case stands thus, that probably the whole trade of Fort 
( )range will be lost to the Company and the remonstrant's colony 
will be destroyed without hope of redress, against which the neces- 
sary precautions should be taken. 


All this strife is caused solely by the opponents of the coloniza- 
tion and of the patroons who, when the latter as a result of the 
change had retired from the administration, obtained full power to 
carry out all their plans (upsetting- the existing order of things and 
calling home all the officials, who having no other occupation will 
spy out the laud, this one on behalf of France and that one on behalf 
of England, as has already happened and as will happen again) ; 
it was even decided by resolution of March 25, 1632, with the advice 
of lawyers and counselors, despite the opposition of the patroons, 
to deprive them of the Freedoms and Exemptions which had been 
granted and given to them with so much difficulty by the Assembly 
of the Nineteen. 

Now the main cause of all these differences is nothing but the 
trade in furs or peltries found in that country and the question by 
whom it shall be conducted. The contrary minded maintain that 
it will be most profitable for the Company to have only the directors 
of the Company trade in furs, excluding all patroons, colonists and 
others. The patroons, on the other hand, maintain that this trade 
can be carried on, not [only] without loss to the Company, [but] in 
all cases, with less expense and more profit to the Company, by their 
servants than by those of the Company, and that they can make a 
profit and pay duty to the Company where the Company must suffer 
loss. As to the first alternative, instead of this course being the 
most profitable for the Company, it is really true that it will bring 
not profit but loss, considering that out of all New Netherland only 
60,000 or 70,000 guil tiers at the most can be obtained in returns, 
which by their methods will not be increased but diminished, as will 
be further shown. In order to get these 60,000 or 70,000 guilders, 
it is necessary that at least once a year a well equipped vessel be 
sent thither, supplied with merchandise for trading, especially if the 
colonies were gone, since then the provisions for the employees in 
that country must be sent along from here. Hereto must be added 
that in case the vessel should perish, not only would all the trade for 
that year be lost but their people in that country would be in great 
danger of famine, and besides, that to suspend business even for one 
year would diminish the fur trade and perhaps divert it entirely. 
Moreover the fur trade in New Netherland is carried on, not in one 
place (as on the river of Canada), but what is much more costly, in 
many places, and these not only many convenient but also many in- 
convenient places far distant from each other, as the bay of the 
South River, 30 leagues from the Manhatans, not up the river, but 


from bay to bay over the open sea. The Sankekans, a trading post 
on the South River, is in addition to the aforesaid 30 leagues, 35 
leagues farther up the river, making 65 leagues from the aforesaid 
Manhatans. Up the North River to Fort Orange is quite 40 leagues. 
To the north, up to the Sloeps-baye 72si is also fully 40 leagues, 
so that the distance for a single trip would be about 175 leagues 
going and as much returning, making 350 leagues for an entire jour- 
ney. Besides this, the furs are not all to be found at these places 
but are scattered about among many rivers and brooks, which must 
be sailed up and down, sometimes 10 or 20 leagues, and the savages 
are at enmity with each other almost everywhere and do not allow 
each other to pass to and fro. Moreover, since it sometimes freezes 
three or four months continuously in that country, the rivers are 
closed, not only by storm and wind but also by ice, and all the trad- 
ing posts are cut off from the Manhattans, the place of rendezvous. 
All this being true and perhaps unknown to many, it follows of ne- 
cessity that these places must be provided with forts, and also with 
sloops to fetch and carry goods to and fro from the places of ren- 
dezvous, or else that yachts or sloops touch at these places and do 
the trading. It must also be taken into consideration that, the best 
season of the year being the winter time when most fur-bearing ani- 
mals are caught, these yachts and sloops would have to leave their 
trading posts and go to the place of rendezvous, so that instead of 
the aforesaid distance of 350 leagues, going and coming, at least 
700 leagues would have to be covered in two journeys. And then 
there is the sailing back and forth to furnish each other with sup- 
plies and information of everything, in addition to the risk of perish- 
ing by water and, if they be not strongly enough manned, of being 
attacked on land by the savages (as they have attempted more than 
once). All this being well considered, it will be found, no matter 
how economically it may be managed, that the ship which must go 
with merchandise from the fatherland and return — not counting 
the interest, risk and ill usage — the garrison and fort at the Man- 
hatans, the garrison and fort at Fort Orange, the yachts and sloops 
for the trade on the South River and the northern regions, besides 
the sloops plying between, counting all the expenses of building, 
mounting, equipping, keeping up, manning and victualing, will cost 
so much that the aforesaid 60,000 or 70,000 guilders, which are the 
utmost to be expected thence, will come far short by many thousands ; 

'-■> Om de noort tot aen de Slocps-baye. Slocfs-baye was the Dutch name for Narra- 
gansett Bay, in Rhode Island. 


besides they must also expect and withstand general uprisings of 
the savages; all of which the remonstrant offers to prove and es- 
tablish and has often maintained for many years. But they would 
grant him no hearing and even accused him of doing it all for his 
own benefit in order to take away the trade from the Company, al- 
though he, as stated in the beginning, was the sole cause of this 
trade being restricted which formerly stood free and open. He 
argues that the nature of those regions being well examined, the 
case stands thus, that nothing can be accomplished there by poor 
people, who are like a dying plant or leaking roof, also that the rich 
and well-to-do will not go there themselves, but that a good work 
can be accomplished by the two, just as the blind can carry the crip- 
pled and the crippled can show the way to the blind, so the rich may 
stay at home and send their money thither and the poor may go and 
perform their work with the money of the rich. To this end free- 
doms and exemptions were needed in order to raise up patroons who 
should send out many laborers, as it appeared that the remonstrant 
and his associates have done, and many others would have followed 
their example had they not been treated so indiscreetly and been 
forced to suffer loss, with loss also to the Company. 

But to return to the subject, in order to dispose of the objections 
of the contrary minded who may say that much more than 60,000 or 
70,000 guilders could be gotten there annually, especially if the 
colonists who so defraud them were gone and if attention were 
devoted entirely to the benefit of the trade, it should be stated that 
the remonstrant gives much the highest figure, and that during the 
ten years that the Company has traded there, taking one year with 
another, there has never been nearly so much as this received, but 
ordinarily only 50,000 or 60,000 guilders. But instead of this being 
the fault of the colonists, the contrary appears ; for instance during 
the two years when the late Mr Godijn and his people were trading 
in Swanendael, the Company received from the South River through 
their servants a no less quantity of skins than in former or later 
years, but he obtained his furs in addition to these by bartering with 
other tribes. This caused so much jealousy that the Company or- 
dered their director to send a conimis there, which was done [with 
the result that the Company's servants], trading close by the people 
of Godijn, deprived him in one year of over 500 skins in Swanendael 
alone, for which the Company is justly bound to pay, since they had 
never obtained more than 20 to 30 skins a year in that region before 
this colony was started. It is maintained with insufferable imperti- 


nence that the Company has excluded all but themselves, not only 
from the fur trade, but even from the whale fishery, etc., just as if 
their High Mightinesses, having granted the Company the Guinea 
trade to the exclusion of all others, had not shut out themselves, 
but were alone allowed to send merchandise and to trade for gold 
through one or two commisen, while the Company was obliged to 
pay for all the other expenses of forts and fitting out of ships. It 
is evident that many wish the patroons to found colonies to their 
own loss, and then to have [the Company] send a commis or " assist- 
ant," who under their sheltering wings and protection may buy in 
the furs at small cost and deprive the patroons of them, notwith- 
standing the fact that all the game and the free right of hunting 
within their territory has been granted to the patroons by the 23d 73 
article of the Freedoms. 

It is further to be considered that the Company, to protect them 
against attacks of the savages, must keep their forts, yachts, and 
sloops manned by man}- idle people, who must cost much more than 
the people of the patroons, since they send not idlers but laborers 
who in some degree must earn their bread and need but one commis 
and " assistant " to do all the business for which the Company needs 
at least 25 persons ; besides, the servants of the Company, serving 
for hire, are only seeking to make a good deal of money and then 
get away ; they will not trouble themselves to make perilous jour- 
neys inland, because their pay goes on just the same. The patroons' 
people, on the contrary, having families of women and children, 
who after some time will become established there, try to make terms 
with the savages and, pushing far inland for their own profit, dis- 
cover much more than do those who only lie in garrison. • So that 
it is far more profitable for the Company to have no expenses, turn 
over the trade to the patroons and draw a clear profit than to deprive 
the patroons of their privileges and on the other hand encumber 
themselves with the maintenance of forts, sloops, yachts and people, 
the which expenses, as before stated, amount to so much that they 
suffer loss where they otherwise might draw a clear profit. Besides 
this loss, which must be borne, the colonies also will be ruined if 
they are shut off from the fur trade. The farms which now af- 
ford them sustenance will at the same time fail and all provisions 
must then be sent over from here as before at ten times the expense. 
To go on doing this, added to the loss, would be double folly, while 
on the other hand [everything would go well] if the trade were 

73 Should be 22A. 


granted to the patroons, who have money and means to send every- 
thing- at their own expense, which right of trade, as stated above, 
was formerly with good intentions (though too soon for the time) 
fully granted to the poor people, who having no means had to be 
supplied by the Company with everything. Is it not better that the 
Company should draw a clear profit than make themselves trouble 
and loss? 

Are not the contrary minded well aware that their course will 
never increase the trade because the savages, who are now stronger 
than ourselves, will not allow others who are hostile and live farther 
away and have many furs to pass through their territory, and that 
this would be quite different if we had stronger colonies? Yes, 
that the Maquaas, who will not allow the French savages who now 
trade on the river of Canada and who live nearer to us than to them 
[the French] to pass through to come to us, might through persua- 
sion or fear sooner be moved to do so and that from these savages 
more furs could be obtained than are bartered now in all New 
Netherland? This is only one of many things, but should be well 
considered as it can be accomplished in no other way than by estab- 
lishing colonies. Do not the contrary minded comprehend that if 
they had not so unbearably treated the first patroons but had given 
them a helping hand, so that in place of such great loss they might 
have made a little profit, great numbers would have followed them? 
Do not these people know that they alone are the cause of the loss 
of the island Tortuga and other places, and also that various islands 
in the West Indies, the east side of the South River, the Fresh River, 
the Sankikans on the South River, and also the Sackcnamcs, for all 
of which colonics were registered, were not settled because the 
founders, on account of these harsh proceedings, gave up and let 
the work go which would otherwise have had such great results? 
And is it not also certain that they alone are the cause that from the 
beginning the Company has lost so much in those regions and is 
still daily losing and causing- others to lose, where on both sides 
they might liave made large gains and have fared well, because they 
continually go against the stream, doing what they should leave un- 
done, fearing what they should wish for, blaming whom they 
should praise, envying whom they should pity, hindering whom they 
should help, and who by these proceedings have nothing else to 
expect, than to lose wdiat they still have? 

All of this the remonstrant has kept secret until now, but having 
been solicited by resolution of the 19th inst. to make a statement 


of these grievances, he could not in good faith neglect to put the 
same in writing, in the shape of a complaint. Addressing himself 
first to the deputies from their High Mightinesses, he prays them 
in all submission so to arrange this matter that the govern- 
ment of this country be not deprived of such a spacious, beau- 
tiful and well situated territory for which other nations are so 
earnestly longing, having already settled near its boundaries on the 
east and west as well as on the north, which surely will happen if 
the course which has been taken for some years back be persistc:! 
in, hut that, on the contrary, it may flourish under the authority of 
their High Mightinesses and the direction of the Company and that 
to this end the populating for which their High Mightinesses made 
such special provisions by the 2d article of the charter of the West 
India Company may be duly promoted, those who labor zealously 
therein supported and continued, the conceded Freedoms and Ex- 
emptions with amplification of the same not only maintained but 
even in spite of all passion and chicanery enlarged and extended in 
so far as it can be done without loss to the Company in order that 
persons who have been disheartened may be again inspired to re- 
sume the work with courage, the patroons receive indemnification 
for all losses which they Have suffered, what they have obtained by 
right enjoyed by them in rest and peace and, above all things, the 
spread of the Christian reformed religion promoted in those re- 

Addressing himself then to the directors of the respective Cham- 
bers, the remonstrant urges them to so manage the affairs of New 
Netherland that the Company, instead of continual loss, may re- 
ceive a vast annual income ; to examine the course pursued for some 
years and to charge the instigators of the same to draw up a com- 
plete statement showing in what way the Company can make a 
profit instead of proceeding blindly and passionately as heretofore. 

Further he prays the deputies of the Chamber of Amsterdam that 
they will be pleased to use their influence in their Chamber that no 
passionate persons be appointed as commissioners for that work, 
but only reasonable men who are in sympathy with the work and un- 
derstand their business, and to recall the commis of Fort Orange, 
who is not only antagonistic to the remonstrant but of no service to 
the Company. 

And finally he prays the lords directors and representatives 74 of 
the chief participants, in particular those of the Chamber of Am- 

74 Assessorcs; i. e. associate directors representing the chief participants. 


sterdam, to be pleased to defend him in the assembly of the chief 
participants against all calumnies and injuries which have been or 
may be spread against the remonstrant and his associates, notwith- 
standing their innocence. 

To all of which the remonstrant awaits the favorable resolution 
of the very honorable assembly. 

Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Jacob Albertsz 

Planck 75 

March 4, 1634 

This day, the fourth day of the month of March in the year 
sixteen hundred and thirty-four, before me, Simen Ruttens, notary 
public admitted by the Court of Holland, residing in Amsterdam, 
and before the hereafter named witnesses, appeared and presented 
themselves Mr Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, as patroon of his colony 
situated on the North River of New Netherland called Rensselaers- 
wyck, of the one part, and Jacob Allersss Plairk of this afore- 
said city, of the other part, both of which parties, known to me, 
the notary, declared that they had contracted and entirely agreed 
about the following things and conditions. First, tne aforesaid 
Iacob Planck acknowledges that he has bound and hereby does 
bind himself to the aforesaid Mr Rensselaer, to go and sail at the 
first opportunity to his aforesaid colony in New Netherland and 
Three to remain there for the period of three consecutive years, 
which shall begin and commence on the date of his arrival 
in that country; the aforesaid three years to be a fixed term and 
the said Iacob Planck not to have the right to quit or leave except 
with the express will and consent of his aforesaid lord and patroon. 
And in case he should act contrary thereto, he shall compensate 
and pay his aforesaid patroon for all hindrance and damage which 
he may suffer thereby, pledging and mortgaging therefor all the 
goods, wares and effects which he shall have acquired in that 
country or brought with him, none excepted, submitting the same 
as well as his person to the constraint and real and immediate 
execution of all judges and courts. 

Secondly, that the aforesaid Jacob Planck shall hold in the afore- 
said colony the position of officer 11 and sellout, as his aforesaid 

75 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.32. Extract in V. R. B. Mss 38. 

n SiiU' heads in this document are in the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

77 Underlined in original. 


lord and patroon has already given and granted him the said 
office, according to the instructions heretofore made or still to he 
made by the aforesaid patroon, to which reference shall always be 
had. The aforesaid Jacob Planck has thereupon accepted and 
promised, as he hereby does accept and promise, to conduct and 
exert himself well and faithfully in the said office (which he grate- 
fully accepted) as becomes an upright and faithful officer and 
Officer and sellout 770 - and as he ought to do, and moreover, as soon as 
he arrives in that country, he must present himself to the 
director general of New Netherland, in order to take before him, 
for the behoof of his aforesaid lord and patroon, the proper oath 77 * 
The of fidelity conformable to the instructions and authorization 
given by the said patroon to the said director general, for 
which three years of service he, Planck, shall be entitled to the 
third part of the fines 77 * received by the officer and which from 
Fines time to time may be levied, and in addition shall receive 
from the hands of the aforesaid director general a present of the 
a rapier silver-plated 77 * rapier with baldric and the hat with plume, 
baldric which are in the latter's custody for the aforesaid patroon. 78 
Thirdly, the aforesaid Planck has agreed, as it shall also 
be his duty, to exercise proper supervision over all 77 * the men, farms, 
Supervision over animals and everything else that may have to be 

the farms, men, . 

and everything else done in that colony or at the Manhatcs in the 
m the colony and at nam e of the aforesaid patroon; also to keep an 

the Manhatans 

Keep record exact record and account 7711 of everything and 

re o * t ccount an to make report thereof by every opportunity, 

Seek in everything and in everything to seek the best advantage 77 * 

best advantage . , r ... • ,. 1 

of patroon of the patroon as far as it is possible and 

feasible. Also on Sundays and other suitable days to perform 
Read tne duty f reader and to offer up the public prayers, for 
which he shall receive the twentieth penny, or one stiver out of 
every guilder, of the net proceeds or profit which the patroon 
1 st out of every shall receive yearly of all and everything, 

guilder of profit , . , , , . , , , ,, j 

of the colony nothing excepted, of which he shall send me 

77a Underlined in original. 

78 eiuic dacrenboven tot ecu vereeringhe uijt handen va'nden voorsz Dircctcur Gcncracl 
ontfangen den versilverden Degen met ten draeghbandt, hoel endc pluymagie, die den 
voorss Ilr Patroon onder hem heeft hemslende. This refers to the silver-plated 
rapier and plumed hat sent July 20, 1632, for Rutger Ilendricksz van Soest, which are 
mentioned in the memorandum to Director van Twiller, p. 204. The statement is not 
clear as to whether "the objects were left in van Twiller's charge by Rutger Hen- 
dricksz on his return to Holland or had remained in van Twiller's custody from the 
time they were sent. 


proper account, 78 * it being understood that this includes the 
sale or furnishing of the clothes and other necessaries which may 
be sold for the patroon to the farmers, also the increase of the 
animals, provided that the old number must be maintained; there- 
fore, as soon as he, Planck, gets there, he shall take proper ac- 
count of everything and specify the same by inventory. Ex- 
cluded from this, however, shall be the profit which the patroon as 
well as he shall derive from the following conditions. 

Fourthly, the aforesaid Jacob Planck has consented to transport 
Jacob Planck to go himself with his son and one servant™* thither 

and return and live 

in that country with by the first ship that goes to New Netherland 

his son and servant 1 • 1 • 1 1 • 1 1 , 1 

at his own expense aild U1 wlllch lle 1S able to SeCUre passage, and 

this at his own expense and charge of going and coming; also, to 
support himself there and provide himself with everything, nothing 
excepted, but the patroon shall do his best to obtain some work 
for him on the ship so that he may cross over for his board, and 
if he does not succeed therein, the patroon shall give him for the 
130 to Planck three of them the sum of 1.0 guilders. Having with 

toward his ex- . O S> , ,, 

penses God s help arrived in that country, said Planck shall 

exert himself as much as possible and at the first opportunity 
move to the aforesaid colony and in the middle of the east side 
of Castle now West Island, on the river side, cause a suitable dwell- 

Dwelling to be erected • tQ bg erected at his Qwn expense, bllt the 

at the expense of ]. ° r 

pianck who will receive patroon shall contribute 78 * 100 guilders to it 
is'worth f2oo U1 L "'P on condition that the building shall be 

valued at 200 guilders at least. 

The aforesaid patroon or his farmers must pay proper wages 
Farmers or patroon to the servant of the aforesaid Planck when he 
£ U th e y a empi r oy nt sha11 be employed in their service. Also to pro- 

him vide the grain, meal, bread, butter, milk or cheese 

which he and his men may need for their proper support (if they 
are supplied themselves), paying for the same as follows: for the 
Wheat and rye at f 2 a wheat and the rye an average of two guilders 

schepel; butter at 6 st 1 1 r 1 1 • j 

a lb 2 st a schepel for a schepel, for the butter six stivers a pound, 

grinding for the buttermilk one half stiver a mengel 

and for the cheese accordingly and for the grinding of meal two 
stivers a schepel. 

Further, of all kinds of grain, wheat, rye, barley, oats and others, 
which arc grown in the aforesaid colony, after the men and animals 

Underlined in original. 


have been provided for, the farmers, without any fixed remunera- 
tion by the patroon, must turn over and deliver to Iacob Plank, 
on proper receipt, the share which the patroon has in the said 
grain, of which grain he, Planck, at his own expense and risk and 

full charge, may distill brandy, anisette or other spirits, or brew 
To distn brandy b eer to k e so \^ to t i ie men f t i ie Company or to 

and anisette and , .... . . , ,, 

to brew beer at the savages, or do otherwise therewith as he shall 

his expense think fit. Said Planck ought not to pay anything 

for the said grain, nor shall he have the right to charge the pa- 
troon anything for the purchase, or for charges of himself or his 
men, or for any expenses incurred in connection with the same; 
and of the entire proceeds, without any deduction from the afore- 
said grain, or from the amount realized or received for the same 
in the end, whether in money, merchandise or other returns (but 
Freight charges and freight charges, insurance and duties to the 
duties t be deducted Company to be deducted therefrom) one half 
shall go to the patroon and the other half to him; and if he has 
1/2 to go to the patroon bread baked thereof, two thirds shall go to 

and 1/2 to Jacob planck . . .... 

and his men. the patroon and one third to him on the 

Bread, 2/3 to the pa- above conditions. 

troon and 1/3 to planck 

But he, Iacob Planck, shall not have the right to engage in any 
private business for himself, on forfeiture as above. As to the 
share of the grain to which the farmers are entitled ok which he 
shall buy at the Manhatcns or elsewhere from the savages, the 
patroon shall pay four guilders a mudde for rye, wheat or corn, 
and shall also pay one half of what it costs above that amount, pro- 
vided that the proceeds shall be divided as above, one half to the 
patroon and one half to him, Planck. 

Other expenses to be incurred in connection with the grain or 
otherwise and which are not specified here, shall be borne half and 
half, except so far as the grain shall be baked into bread, which 
expense Planck shall bear entirely; on the contrary the draff and 
all other by-products and profits derived from the manure of cattle 
or hogs, shall be shared half and half. 

All that Planck himself, or for his men, shall consume in the 
way of the aforesaid brandy, spirits, beer, bread or other things, 
he shall pay for ; the brandy at 20 stivers the Amsterdam kan and 
other goods accordingly. 

Further, the aforesaid Iacob Planck has promised as he does 
n. b. Not to hereby, not to trade in furs either for himself or 
fur3 for others, directly or indirectly, contrary to the 

granted Freedoms on pain of the punishment and correction pro- 


vided therefor by the West India Company, but to regulate him- 
self in all matters according- to the aforesaid Freedoms. 

The patroon shall buy two good muskets, one of which shall 
be paid for by him and the other by the said Planck and the owner- 
ship shall be half and half. 

And on these conditions and in this manner, the aforesaid Iacob 
Planck has bound himself to the aforesaid patroon Rensselaer, 
promising to observe and fulfil faithfully all that is stated above 
with its implications and consequences, without anything contrary 
thereto being done either by himself or any one else, directly or 
indirectly, within or without the law, in any manner, under bond 
and submission of his person and goods, present and future, in 
that country, as is stated above. In good faith, with the consent 
of me, the aforesaid notary, this has been duly authenticated, one 
or more copies in debita forma to be delivered to each of the 
parties. Thus done in the aforesaid city of Amsterdam, at my, 
the notary's, house and office, in the presence of Anthony Martcnssz 
and Jan Stoffclssz as witnesses hereunto invited, who together 
with the aforesaid contracting parties have signed the original. 

Underneath was written: In fide in ct testimonium, rogatus et 
requisitus, and was signed, S': Ruttens nots pub cus . ss n 

Concordat haec Copia cum Originali 
Quod attestor infrascriptus publicus 
S: Imperiali: Curiaeqz Hollandiae 
authoritatibus Notarius Amstclodami residens, 
hoc die 21 Aprilis A : 1634. 
[signed] /; vandc Veu 

Nots Pub cus ss H 

A : 1634. 

Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Michiel Pauw 79 

March 10, 1634 

Whereas Cornells van vorst, in the year 1633, by contract turned 
over three cows (two of which had been delivered to him by 
Bastiaen Ianssz Crol by order of Director Pieter minuict and the 

"> V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.S3b. 


third by Andries Huddcn from the farm of P r Bijlevelt) to the 
new director," W outer van Twiller, for the behoof of the colony of 
Mr Kiliaen van Rensselaer, the said Mr Rensselaer and M. Paauw, 
as patroon of Pavonia and for his director 80 Cornells van Vorst, 
for reasons them hereunto moving, have contracted and agreed as 
follows : that the contract between Director van Twiller and Cor- 
nells van Vorst shall both, qualiiatc qua, be executed and held firm 
and the exchange be accepted; but that an estimate shall be made 
of how much the less the three cows which Cornells van Vorst 
received in return were worth at the time of the last delivery than 
the three cows which Director van Twiller received, without any 
further claim on either side being made regarding the past trans- 
action, which difference in value shall be charged to Mr Rens- 
selaer on condition that the money for the three cows purchased 
by van Vorst shall be turned over to Mr Rensselaer; and, in case 
Cornells van Vorst has not [made] the payment there, that Director 
van Twiller as well as van Vorst be requested to make a statement 
thereof, signed by both of them, and send this to the respective 
patroons by the next ship. Done at Amsterdam, 10 March 1634. 
Was signed in the several hands well known to me, the notary: 
.1/ Paauw, K V Rensselaer. 

Concordat haec Copia cum original]. Quod attesf. infra- 
scriptus Publicus S. Imp 1 . Curieque Hollandie authoritatibus No- 
tarius Amstel mi . residens, hac die 13 Aprilis A . 1634. 

[signed] /: vande Ven 
Nots Pub. 

J 3 

A . 1634 


Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Cornelis Teunisz 

van Breuckelen 81 

April 5, 1634 

I, the underwritten, Cornells Tlieunlssen van Breuckelen, 82 about 
30 years old, acknowledge by this my signature, that I have entered 
the service of Kiliaen van Rensselaer, patroon of the colony called 

80 M. Paauzv als patroon van Pavonia voor syn Directeur Cornelis van Vorst. In 
Rensselaerswyck, the title of director for the chief agent of the colony was not used 
till the arrival of Brant van Slichtenhorst, in 1648. 

81 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.27. 

82 His full name was Cornells Authorise van Schlick, or as it was later spelled, van 
Slyck; in the present work as well as in the account books among the Rensselaerswyck 


Rensselaerswyck lying on the North River of New Netherland, 
and this for the period of three years commencing with my arrival 
there in the aforesaid colony, to help my aforesaid patroon or him 
who in his stead shall have the direction or administration there, 
during the aforesaid period in all diligence and faithfulness in 
carpentering, bricklaying, farming or such other work as I shall 
be ordered to do or be capable of doing, without distinction of 
work, and that I will not engage, without the consent of my afore- 
said patroon according to the Freedoms granted him by the 
Chartered West India Company, in any fur trade or obtain furs by 
gift or barter, upon forfeiture of all my goods and even on pain 
of peremptory correction touching my person or goods, and this 
for the sum of 180 guilders a year, to be paid to me or my order 
there or here on proper settlement of my account, provided that 
if possible the aforesaid patroon shall procure passage for me in 
the ship which is being fitted out and pay. my board at six stivers 
a day and besides making me a present of 25 guilders for my passage 
going and coming, which I acknowledge that I have received, with- 
out deduction from my wages, and if within the aforesaid period 
of three years I quit his service without his express consent, he 
shall not be bound to pay me a single penny of all that I have 
earned and I nevertheless be held to satisfy him for the remaining 
time. I also bind myself under all such regulations and instruc- 
tions as my aforesaid patroon has already made or shall cause to 
be made hereafter or which shall be made in his name, to regulate 
myself accordingly, under penalties and punishment thereto at- 
tached, it being understood that over and above the 180 guilders, 
I shall have also free board, and in case the patroon or his agents 
should not be satisfied with my service, they shall be free to dis- 

Mss, he is frequently referred to as Broer Comclis. O'Callaghan, History of New 
Netherland, 1:434, erroneously includes Cornells Teunissen van Bretickelen among the 
settlers who sailed in 1631, and on p. 439 gives Cornells Anthonissen van Slyck, alias 
Broer Comclis, the first patentee of Katskill, 1646, among the settlers of 1641. The 
identity of the two men is clearly established by the fact that in the account books 
appears but one Cornelis Teunisz van Breuckclen and that this man's account, running 
through different ledgers from Aug. 12, 1634, to May 1, 1661, contains among other 
items charges for rent at 500 guilders a year from Aug. 28, 1652, to Aug. 28, 
1658, which are stipulated by the lease printed on p. 752-53, which is signed Cornelis 
Anthonisen van Schlick. On May 1, 1 661 , Cornelis Teunisz van Breuckelen was indebted 
to the colony to the amount of 4337 guilders, 10 stivers, and the same sum is charged 
against him in a list of debtors of 1674. The name van Slyck appears in the account 
books but twice, in 1664 and 1C66, in connection with an account for beer. An entry 
in Proceedings of the Commissioners or Magistrates, 1676-80, in the Albany County 
link's oilier, under date of Jan. 2, 1677, ordering the constables of Albany to take 
charge of the estate of Broer Cornelis, shows that Cornelis Anthonisz van Schlick, from 
Breuckelen, died in 1676. 


charge me before the expiration of the aforesaid three years at 
any time they please. All this in good faith and in witness of the 
truth I have signed this together with Jacob Dlrcxsss vogel, 
formerly baker, who offers himself as surety for the aforesaid 
Cornells Theunissz, in Amsterdam, this fifth of April sixteen hun- 
dred and thirty- four. Was signed: Jacob Dircxssen vogell, Cor- 
nells thonlssen. Endorsed : Received from the hands of Kiliaen 
z>an Rensselaer according to the contents of the instrument written 
on the other side of this sheet, as a present for the passage going 
and coming, the sum of 25 guilders, this 5th of April 1634, in Am- 
sterdam. 10 RD at 50 stivers f25 — and was signed: Cornells 

Underneath was written : Also received from the hands aforesaid 
the sum of five guilders in order that I may equip myself the better 
with axes, adzes, trowels and other tools which will not be deducted 
from my wages. Done as above. 2 RD at 50 stivers f 5 — and 
was signed: Cornells Thonlssen. [signed] /. v. 83 

Further contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Michiel 

Pauw 84 

April 13, 1634 

This day, date underwritten, the undersigned have entered into 
further agreement, to wit : that all the animals, whether horses or 
cows, old or young, which from now on and for six consecutive 
years shall be offered for sale in New Netherland, shall be bought 
of the Company as well as of private individuals, whether residents 
or strangers, according to this instruction and commission, which 
must be exhibited therefore wherever it is necessary, and this to be 
done for the profit and service of each of the contracting parties, 
half and half; each promising in good faith not to deceive or take 
advantage of the other but sincerely and in good faith, whenever 
any animals shall be bought, to give the other a half share and let 
the same be divided by lot, with the understanding that herein are 
not included such animals as before the delivery of this instrument 
may have been bought of the director general for one or the other, 
or those concerning which the aforesaid Rensselaer is negotiating 
with IVolffert Gerrltssz. In testimony of good faith, both parties 

1 Joost van tie Ven, notary public at Amsterdam. 
V. R. B. Mss. Letter Book, f.54. 


have signed this also (the original of which remains in the custody 
of me, the notary) the 13th of April 1634 in Amsterdam. 
Jta attestor qui retro 

[signed] /: vande Ven 
Nots Pub. 

A 1634 

Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Lubbert Gijsbertsz 

van Blaricum^ 

April 15, 1634 

On the terms hereafter specified, Lubbert Ghijsbertss, 33 years old, 
from Blaricum in the Goeylant, Sii has freely and advisedly entered the 
service of Kiliaen van Rensselaer, patroon of Rensselaerswyck, 
to betake himself with his wife and three children at his own ex- 
pense to the aforesaid colony by the ship that is now being made 
ready by the West India Company (to sail to New Netherland with 
God's help), provided that his aforesaid patroon shall pay and sat- 
isfy the Company and be reimbursed as hereafter described, which 
said service shall last the period of three consecutive years from the 
time of his arrival in the aforesaid colony, without right on his part 
to quit the said service before the expiration of the said period on 
forfeiture of all his estate and property and under bond of his 
person and what is further required by law, during which time he 
shall make his residence in the aforesaid colony as a free man, 
unless the patroon decide with his advice and consent to transfer 
him to the Manhatas or elsewhere, and shall have liberty to choose 
his place of residence with the advice and consent of the aforesaid 
patroon or his agents where he can most conveniently perform his 
work, namely his trade as a wagon maker or wheelwright, for which 
he shall take all the necessary tools with him from here at his own 
expense. He shall not be allowed to work for any one else so long 
as the patroon or his agents have work to give him, either for him- 
self or for others, everything at the prices for which the former and 
present wheelwrights have made and furnished the same, but if it 
happen that they have no work to give him, either wagon making 
or farming, he shall be allowed to work for other people. The 

80 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Booh, f.28. 

86 Same as Gooiland, a district in the southeast part of the province of North Holland. 


aforesaid patroon guarantees that within the period of three years 
aforesaid he will order him to make or buy from him at least 12 
wagons, good and substantial for their money, for the sum of 30 
guilders apiece ; the aforesaid patroon shall further cause to be fur- 
nished to him out of his earnings and at proper prices grain, butter 
or cheese produced in his colony, if there is a sufficient supply, pro- 
vided that proper proportion be kept with respect to the work for 
which the patroon shall wish to employ him aside from wagon mak- 
ing, whether carpentering, farming or anything else. 

The aforesaid patroon gives him permission to live with one of 
his farmers, but at his own expense as to board, as before stated, 
and on condition that he prepare and put in order his shop and 
sleeping rooms in or next to the said dwelling in such a way that the 
farmer shall not be inconvenienced by them; or otherwise, he shall 
be allowed to sow two or three morgens with hemp, linseed, colza 
or other seed, also at his own expense and profit, and not pay the 
patroon more thereof than the just tenth of the full crop and this 
as long as he serves as wheelwright and no longer. The aforesaid 
patroon shall also pay him in advance the sum of 50 guilders for his 
equipment and in order to provide himself with the proper tools, be- 
sides a large firelock of which the patroon will bear the expense 
and which he, Lubbert, will be allowed to use and at the end of hi? 
service return to the patroon, in the same way as he shall be obliged 
to make good in money or labor all that the patroon shall advance to 
him before, in or during the voyage, as well as in that country, or 
shall pay in his stead to the West India Company or others, in such 
a way however that the patroon shall not be liable otherwise than as 
before stated. The aforesaid Lubbert shall have no right to trade 
in any otter, beaver or other skins, on pain of forfeiture and punish- 
ment therefor provided by the West India Company. The afore- 
named patroon promises, however, that as soon as he shall erect the 
fourth farm in the aforesaid colony, he will make him, the said Lub- 
bert Gysbertssz, farmer thereon on the same terms as the other 
farmers, more especially the terms of the contract made with Gerrit 
dc Reus. Uut [in counting] the farms [those] about which the pa- 
troon is negotiating with IVulffcrt Gerritsen with a view to [his] 
moving from the Maiiliataus up the river shall not be included. The 
aforesaid Lubbert Gysbertssz shall, however, at the same time exer- 
cise his trade as wheelwright for the accommodation of himself 
and others, and as to what he shall earn thereby, like the grain, one 
half shall go to the patroon and the other to himself. 


The aforesaid Lubbert Ghijsbertssz shall be obliged to respect and 
obey the said patroon or those whom he may appoint, as faithful 
subjects are bound to obey their lords and magistrates, with regard 
to the instructions and regulations already made in the said colony 
of Rensselaerswyck or to be made hereafter. 

All this in good faith ; for greater security this has been signed by 
the aforenamed patroon and Lubbert Ghijsbertssz on the fifteenth 
of April in the year sixteen hundred and thirty-four. Was signed 
in the several hands, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Lubbert Ghysbertssz. 
Lower was written : in my presence as witness, and was signed, J : 
vande Ven, notary public. 

Contract between Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Hendrick Conduit 
van Coninghsbergen 87 

April 15, 1634 

Contract made and entered into by Kiliaen van Rensselaer as pa- 
troon of his colony called Rensselaerswyck, with Hendrick Con- 
duit van Couinghs-bergen, 32 years old, as farmer on a farm to be 
established on the west side of a river to the north of the mill creek S8 
on the slope of the clay hill, 83 being about the middle of Castle, now 
called West Island, which farm shall be called Godyns-Burgh, this 
15th of April 1634, in Amsterdam. 

First, the aforenamed hendrick Conduit shall promise under oath 
and on forfeiture of his stipulated wages and his property there, not 
to trade in furs, specially otter and beaver skins, nor to acquire the 
same by way of present or in any other way, without the express 
consent of his aforesaid patroon. 

The aforenamed patroon shall provide him, Hendrick Conduit, 
with the following animals, if he can procure them, as soon as he 
shall take the third farm in hand, counting that of Rntgert Hen- 
drickssen called Rensselaers-burgh, as the first, that of Gcrrit de 
Reux, who is now on de laets-burgh, as the second and that of Hen- 
drick Conduit, called Godyns burgh, as said above, as the third, it 
being understood that the farms about which the patroon is negoti- 
ating with Wolff ert Gerritssen with a view to [his] moving up above 
from the Manhatas, are not included [in this number]. 

And from the time of his arrival in the said colony till his, the 

" V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, {.29b. 
M Meulen kil; the Normans Kill. 
"' kteybergh. 


third, farm shall be erected, he must help other farmers or do such 
other work as the patroon or his agent shall direct, on condition that 
he shall receive 150 guilders a year in addition to his board, but as 
soon as the buildings are under cover and the farm is ready to 
commence work, he shall receive 180 guilders a year till the shares 
begin, and as a start be furnished with three or four horses, as 
many cows and in addition sheep and hogs according to circum- 
stances. He shall further have for his assistance, if they can be 
obtained, two men and a boy, for whom are proposed Cornells theun- 
issz van Breuckelen, carpenter and mason, who must do farm work 
when he is not otherwise employed, also one of the men whom Ger- 
rit dc Reus has brought into the country, or one of the men of Roe- 
loff janssen, if the same will stay, or otherwise a negro, or the serv- 
ant of Officer Iacob Albcrtsss Planck, and this at the expense of 
the patroon for the period of one year from the time that he shall 
begin to draw the 180 guilders, which payment of 180 guilders shall 
not continue for longer than one year ; from which time on and for 
the period of four consecutive years, not leaving on pain of for- 
feiture and under bonds as above, the aforesaid Hendrick Conduit 
shall receive no wages, but the wages and board of the men and the 
boy and the house servants, as well as all other expenses of whatever 
nature, the damage and loss of animals, wear and tear of wagons, 
plows, in fine, all and everything, shall be paid during the aforesaid 
four years, half and half, and be deducted from the common fruit, 
en >ps, milk, butter, cheese and increase of stock, and the balance and 
gain shall be evenly divided between the patroon and Henrick Con- 
duit. With this understanding, that the patroon may take at his 
option the animals apportioned to henrick Conduit at the rates here- 
tofore fixed by the West India Company, and the grain at such 
prices as those of the Manahatas are obliged to furnish grain to the 
Company for. And every two years, an inventory shall be take i 
of the stock and what shall be found in addition to the number de- 
livered to him, is included in the aforesaid condition. But, if the 
number shall have decreased, the said henrick Conduit must try to 
raise again so much stock that he attain the former number and 
shall not be allowed to derive any profit till the original number is 
restored. The said Hendrick Conduit shall raise as many sheep 
and hogs as possible, and those which he sells or the amount which 
he receives for them, shall in the same way be divided half and 

At the time that the aforesaid partnership begins, an exact list 


and inventory shall be made of the grain in the field, or in the 
houses or barracks, also of the live stock, furniture and household 
goods, butter and cheese, grain, meat, bacon, wagon and plow, 
and further of everything else that shall be on hand and belong to 
the patroon in particular, which shall again be done at the end of 
four years, when the patroon must get back as much as he has 
supplied, or the value thereof according to the valuation placed upon 
them as above. 

As to the passage across, the patroon shall if possible seek to ob- 
tain permission for the said Hcndrick Conduit to earn boatswain's 
wages, but if this can not be done, the patroon must pay for board 
and henrick Conduit shall receive no monthly wages. But the 
transportation of the servants, the patroon charges himself with, 
while Henrick Conduit must take care of the calves which he may 
send and the farm implements which he will send over by this ship. 
Henrick Conduit shall distribute the manure of the animals over 
the land to the best advantage and if necessary mix it with sods ,J0 
and so increase the heap. 

The patroon shall provide Henrick Conduit with a good firelock, 
costing fn:io, which sum Henrick Conduit shall pay the patroon 
at the end of his term and keep the firelock. 

If (contrary to our hope) there be no prospect of obtaining ani- 
mals to establish the aforementioned farms, hcndrick Conduit shall 
not be obliged to serve longer than one year for the aforesaid 150 
guilders a year, but the patroon shall try to get him employed on 
fair terms on the farm of Bijlevclt at the Manahatas, provided he 
advise the patroon in time. 

All that is stated above, the aforesaid Hcndrick Conduit by true 
and manly words promises faithfully to fulfil and accomplish, 
thereto binding his person and goods, movable and immovable, pres- 
ent and future, submitting all of them and the choice of them to 
the control of all laws, courts and justices, in good faith, without 
guile or deceit, in witness whereof the contracting parties have 
signed this with their own hands, this 15th of April of the year 1654. 
in Amsterdam, and was signed in the several hands, Kiliacn Van 
Rensselaer, Hcndrick Conduit. Lower was written: In my pres- 
ence as witness, and was signed, /: vandc I'm, notary public 

00 plaggen; heather or peat sods, sometimes used in the Netherlands for compost heaps. 

ft; r^^lft 

g CO 

o . 


u *- 



Names of colonists ready to sail in de Eendracht 91 

April 20, 1634 

Names of persons whom the underwritten has ready to sail for 
New Netherland, to his colony, in the ship d'Eendracht, this 20th of 
April 1634. 

Jacob Planck van Edam, to eat in the cabin 

Abraham Iacobssen, also from Edam 

Labbert Gysbertssz van Blaricum, with his wife and 

three children of 10, 6 and i~y 2 years, all sons 
Cornells Theunisss van Brenckel 
absent Hendrick Conduit van Coninxbergen 
Hendrick carstenssz van Norden 

Underneath was written 

Kiliacn van Rensselaer 

packed in a 
dry cask 

N°. A 


Invoice of goods sent to the colony 92 

[April 20, 1634?] 

Invoice of the following- goods which the aforesaid Rensselaer 
has sent open and loose to the warehouse of the Company and in 
the presence of its officers has caused to be packed in the following 
casks and boxes in order that they need not again be unpacked and 
inspected. Marked as in the margin. 

one brandy still, weighing 
115 lb, costs with condens- 
ing coil 

three green and three white 
blankets, cost 

three bolts of coarse cloth 
and one of somewhat 
finer, cost 

one small bag of 
hemp seed, con- 
taining one schepel 

one ditto with lin- 
seed, contains two 
fourths of a barrel 

100 lb of pig lead 
3 small tin pots 

12 bags of Oriental malt, 
costs 85 gold guilders a 





f52 10 

^cost f 4 10 

f 8 
f 2 


f2 3 8 4 

8t V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.73. 
82 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.73. 



a box 

N°. B 

a box 

N°. C 

in a dry 
N°. D 

N°. E 
N°. F G 

M Blank in Letter Book. 

94 zvagenseelen. 

95 achterwagen seelen. 
98 smaltonnen. 

24 pair of Flemish stock- 
ings at 11 stivers a pair 

24 pair of linen drawers, at 
19 stiv. each 

24 linen shirts, at 31 stiv. 

24 ditto, somewhat smaller, 
at 25 stiv. each 

46 pair of watertight 
leather shoes, averaging 
23^ stiv. a pair 


at 6 stiv. each 

one ship's pound of white 
Letyden cheese, cost 

3 sieves, 3 strainers, cost 
24 iron straps with bolts, at 

6 stiv. each 
24 horse bits, at 6 stiv. each 
9 chains, at 3 stiv. each 
18 surcingles (but only 12 

found), cost 
6 head stalls 

24 traces f3:io — 9 lines f 3 : 
14, together 

9 linen coupling lines f2:6 
— 9 wagon braces 94 f4 14, 
9 rear wagon braces 95 f5 114 
— 18 halters f2:i5, to- 

4 long grain scythes f 20 — 
4 Hainault scythes for 
grain f6, together 

12 axes, at 25 stiv. each 
2 strainers of the above 3, 
which could not go into 
N°. C 
16 bags of Oriental malt, at 
85 gold guilders a last 

one hogshead of brandy con- 
taining 16 steekan, [7?] 
mengel, costs with the 

two kegs 96 of salt contain- 
ing 3 bags, cost 

[Total of A-G] 

fi3 4 

f22 l6 

*37 4 

*54 1 
f 7 10 


f 4 12 8 

i 7 4 
f 7 4 
f 1 7 

f * T^ 
f I 

f 7 4 

f 6 10 

f 8 9 



{70 8 

f 7 8 4 

fio 4 

f689 o 8 



to distribute 
among the men and 
to keep account 

N°. H I 

4 fathoms white 
6 fathoms black 

The goods on the other side 
[of the sheet] without 
counting the expenses 
amount to f68o, o 8 

Also given to Iacob planck 
to take with him, the fol- 
lowing : 

10 fath- 
oms, 07 
I at f6 f 60 

2J lb of gunpowder in a 

small keg, 98 cost f 12 17 

paid for books, paper and 

ink f 10 14 

2 firelocks, cost f23 

2 muskets, cost f20 

4 shoulder straps f 2 4 

one bullet mold fio 

total f 45 J 4 

Being two small barrels 1 

with salted meat from 

Craloo, valued at f44 
22 sacks to be distributed 

among the farmers, 

bought of Mr Michiel 

Paauzv, cost 18 stiv. each f 19 16 
1 sack included in the 

aforesaid 22, in which one 

schepel of colza, bought 

of said Mr Paamv f 2 10 

1 red flag with the arms of 

the colony, to be hoisted 

on certain occasions, costs 2 
one tool chest from Jacques 

dc Boremaker? for Cor- 
nells Theunisss van 

Breuckelen. Memoran- 
dum 4 

87 Article not given. 

88 Tonneken. 

09 Note in handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

1 smaltonnen. 

2 Amount not given. 

» Jacques Spierinck, the auger maker, see O'Callaghan, History of New Netherland, 
1:430-31, and also p. 433, where he is erroneously given as one of the settlers of 1630. 

4 The last two items added by way of memorandum in handwriting of Kiliaen van 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van T wilier 5 
April 23, 1634 


Wouter van Tzviller, director in New Netherland 

This day, 23 April 1634, in Amsterdam 
Mon Cousin: Passing over the letter which your honor wrote to 
me from the island St Martin (since the ships Gelderlant and Nieu 
Nederlant have both been taken by the Dunkirkers), I find myself 
in receipt of several letters from your honor, of date March 18, 
1633, sent to me by the ship de Goede Hoope, of May 9, by de 
Walvis, and of July 17, 20 and 22, by de Soutbcrgh, and now 
finally within the last two days, that of September 14, in the care 
of Marrten Gerritss by way of New England, which although in 
many things too late, yet nevertheless came well apropos before 
the departure of this ship d'Ecndracht, for which the last lighter 
with goods and people leaves tomorrow evening, bound for the 
Texel, just as the news of the killing of my animals came at the 
last moment before the departure of the ship den South ergh from 

I am not ungrateful but understand and appreciate the great 
friendship which your honor has shown me, while attending to 
your official duties and according to the 25th article of the granted 
Freedoms of New Netherland, which Freedoms after much difficulty 
have been approved anew by the Chamber of Amsterdam and 
the Assembly of the XIX and are declared legal and rightly 
acquired, the remaining differences being submitted to their High 
Mightinesses, all conformably to three distinct resolutions under 
Letters A, B, C, sent by my officer Jacob Planck, in whose hands 
your honor can see the same and from whom you can* receive 
copies thereof. These same Freedoms therefore, as they are there 
given, are indisputable, and according to the 15th article freely 
allow the patroons, not only in their colonies, but also wherever 
along the coast of New Netherland and the circumjacent region 
the Company has no coinmisen, to trade their products of the soil 
in exchange for all sorts of merchandise, even beavers, otters and 
the like ; the point of sending merchandise thither only being- 
disputed, which must be decided subsequently by their High 

6 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f. 55-70. Printed in Dutch in Oud Holland, 1890, 
8:267-86, as Appendix G to Mr de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 


Mightinesses. I therefore send with the Company's knowledge a 
brandy kettle for distilling brandy from my surplus grain, which is 
to be sold there in the country according to the aforesaid article. 

The indemnity demanded by your honor for the loss I have in- 
curred will come in well for part of my expenses. I shall endeavor 
again most earnestly to deserve it from you, as I have already 
done, for believe me freely, had your honor not had me here they 
would have summoned you home with an affront, which the Lord 
God this time has graciously forbidden. Such a shameful pot has 
been on the fire for you that I in all my life never would have 
believed that one could find men base enough to plan it, and, what is 
worse, the same business has not only taken hold among the direct- 
ors, but been scattered far and wide, even in the full board, so 
that it was publicly proposed to look around for another director 
without first duly examining your case, for which reason I went at 
/ r ogelaer in such a way on the crowded Dam that he will not soon 
forget it. Upon the counsel and advice of Mr Coenraets, I have had 
a sworn statement made which I send your honor herewith en- 
closed under No. 1, from which you may see what has happened 
here. Yes; even more shameful than is stated therein, among 
other things, that your honor, being drunk, had run out on the 
street after the minister with a naked sword; that your honor had 
given another person a suit of clothes ( ' for the reason that, etc. 
Hi is last Gras 7 told me zvas trite. 8 

I have to several directors individually, to the commissioners 
separately, and likewise in the full Assembly, several times affirmed 
your innocence and said that, if they would carefully examine, they 
would find that they ought to praise you for the very thing for 
which they blame you, that you had long served the Company, 
that they ought to know you better, that you have outserved all 
your masters, who were in power before you began, and that at 
present none of the former were in office except Messrs Coenraets, 
Rcael and La Mync (who are all three on your side, especially 
La Myne who defends you bravely; to which three, and also others 
whom you most trust, you must not neglect to write discreetly, as . 
being your old masters, requesting them to take your honor under 
their protection against all injuries and slanders which are injuri- 
ously spread and accepted to your great prejudice). But what is 

6 cen pack kleeren geven; literally, to give a suit of clothes, but here apparently used 
in a figurative sense like een pack slaag geven, to give a beating. 

7 Jean Gras, director of the West India Company. N. de R. 

8 Underlined in original. 


the case : the crown which the secretary Sa had placed on the head of 
Minuict, rests now on yours ; the enemies of Minuict are now 
yours. This crafty knave has stirred up the present minister 
against you, as he did the former against Minuict (who I think 
will receive from Domine Badius, to whom he has written, another 
letter than he expects. But the man has been misled; it is not 
his fault.) Therefore forget all the foregoing and keep up kindly 
relations. Domine Roelof Pieterssen has shown your honor in this 
matter much friendship, also through his nephew, the secretary 
de Vries? who is one of the commissioners though he seldom at- 
tends. Do not neglect either to write to both of them. Likewise 
to Licbergen, with whom I some time ago had a confidential word. 
1 have told the officer Dincklagen, who comes in the place of Notel- 
man, all about this. I think that your honor may trust him, be- 
cause he was first recommended by Mr Foeyt, who is a friend of 
the colonies. Then first try him well, and since he has studied, 
he can serve you with advice, since such people can see deeper 
into a matter than those who have not studied. The secretary has 
furthermore also incited against you all the directors and chief 
participants who are opposed to the colonies. (I do not hear Van 
dc Linge slander so much as he did) ; but 10 spouts fire and flame, 
the more so because your brother Hcndrick in the Nieuzve kerckc, 
when he would not move up a little, pushed him with force (which 
he should not have done) ; however, I had him up and showed him 
his fault, whereupon he toned down a good deal. All these quar- 
rels, added to the dissatisfied people who returned, so overwhelmed 
you that no contradiction sufficed. Mr Paauzv, who has much in- 
fluence with Coenracts, was also very sorely out of patience with 
you because of the severe proceedings against Cornells van 
Vorst, which he in the beginning also showed. But I won him 
over and made satisfaction (even to my own loss as will hereafter 
appear) so that we are now entirely reconciled to each other and 
you will find henceforth a friend instead of an enemy. If you 
find it advisable, write him a short letter, for I see that one can 
not accomplish as much by well doing as by having friends in the 

Vogclacr declares to me that he is your friend, as are also his 
followers. But I know better than that. They are too much 
smitten with the secretary. I told him in the presence of all the 

8a Jan van Renuind. 

"Frederick de Vriis. secretary of the city of Amsterdam; see p. 64. 

10 The writer has here scratched out the words " the marked humpback." N. de R. 


commissioners that for many years I was prejudiced against 
Minuict by the same poison, and that after awhile he would find 
it out also. If your honor could win over the minister 11 — I think 
that he has credit with Vogelaer and his people — and make him 
understand that the secretary had acted with falseness, the ship 
might be brought on another tack. It should be noted in this 
connection that the wife of Remunden told the wife of Jeronimus 
that her son being on the island St Martyn with Willem van Wouzv 
and asking to come on board, your honor being drunk said " let 
the dogs swim aboard." Vogelaer has told me (and apparently it 
comes from the secretary) that when your honor went with the 
minister to the preaching at St Marttyn, it would have been better 
if you had stayed away ; wishing to have it understood that you 
had drunk too much. Of these two things he has knowledge, the 
third may enlighten him still more, namely, that he said in con- 
versation with Dirck Cornelisz Duyster that he had made an agree- 
ment with you and that each side promised the other not to write 
anything about it, but that there were some, notice this, who had 
advised him not to trust you (who I suppose must have been 
Remunde). This is now clearly found to be a false calumny, as 
your honor has never mentioned a single word of it to either the 
directors or to any of your friends, but he 12 has done so to Dr 
Bad ins (although indirectly, without mentioning your name but 
with sufficient application) and to this Remunde would appear to 
have brought him according to a letter from Remunde to his wife. 
By this he thought he would set the crown of thorns on your 
honor's head. It was read at the meeting of the directors but I 
do not know whether it was written from New Netherland or from 
England, apparently from the former, and he took it with him and 
sent it from England or perhaps by the Soutberch. Of that I am 
not sure. 

This false secretary, who has slandered many men behind their 
backs, was by a righteous punishment arrested at Rotterdam for a 
theft of which he was not guilty, and was then charged with the 
manslaughter; whereby he would have lost his head had the ac- 
cusers of the theft "not bravely interfered for him and his corre- 
spondents here, burdening their own consciences, held back the 
attestations come from there (saying that they were given out of 
partizanship) ; and besides that, he greatly abused the Prince of 

11 Everardus Bogardus. 

12 Bogardus. 


Orange. He has now been sufficiently warned. From what I 
hear he must pay £300 to the friends of the deceased, and that will 
free him. Among other defenses for this manslaughter, he took 
occasion to accuse your honor of being the cause of it by not 
having been willing to settle the differences. He gave this out in 
public statement to your- prejudice in the full assembly of the 
directors before his arrest. Whether he will now behave himself 
better, remains to be seen and hoped. 

As to Hunthum, I can not yet find out how he behaves. I 
would have liked that your honor had written me the reason why 
the Maquaas killed my cattle and, in order that there may be a case 
against him if he misbehaves, I have ordered my officer Jacob 
Planck to get from you the attestation of the abusive words which 
he has spoken against me and mine and, when he comes out of the 
fort, to bring him before the court of Rensselaerswyck for such 
punishment as the laws of the land provide. The abuse can only 
make him infamous, and he is enough so already, but the court can 
make him retract his statements and can force the words down his 

I had earnestly wished that Dirck Cornclisscn might have gone 
over again; they were not willing to allow this. Vogclacr is too 
much against him ; Cocnracts is most of the time at the Hague ; 
Dc Vrics seldom attends the meetings and Lybcrgcn is so-and-so. 
The last meeting of the directors was much in your honor's favor. 
Those whose terms have expired are : Bicker, Bartclotty, deceased. 
Broen, Hamel, Valckenburgh, Verdocs, Oycns. Their successors: 
Cocnradns, Read, Secretary dc Vrics, Enart Man, Schuylcnlmrgh, 
Bartrinck. The disparity is too great, and as some can now do no 
more harm among the directors, they are trying to bring it to 
pass by means of the chief participants. They have secretly tried 
to make Isaac de Rasiere, 13 who married the niece of Ray, director 
in your place, as I have only lately found out. Mr Cocnracts was 
invited to the wedding and diligently courted but, with his wonted 
discretion, he did not allow himself to be used for such a shameful 
proceeding, giving me sufficiently to understand that I must watch 
and secure proof thereof, which has also been done. 

It is a wonder surely, that all the patroons and their associates, 
who have enjoyed no particular friendship from your honor in the 

13 Under date of April 19, 1637, the baptism in Brazil of Ysaac de Rasierc, son of 
Vsaac de Rasiere ami Eva Bartells, occurs in " Doopregister der Hollanders in Brazilie," 

Algcmeen Ncderlandsch Familieblad, 1888, 5:142. In the same register the father's 
name appears as witness as late as 1651. 


country over there, defend your cause more strongly than do those 
persons whom you have so faithfully served (even against justice 
and reason in the execution in the colonies of their unlawful ordi- 
nances and the administration of the severe oaths to all the people). 
From those people there are no thanks to be gained; they can spit 
no honey, since they have nothing but gall in their mouths. Our 
Jcroiiimus 14 is very much alarmed and would like to have his son 
at home again. He has sent me the enclosed memorandum marked 
No. 2. He takes your side, as does also Grictgc, who is very sick. 

It was not until lately that Aldrichs* 15 could get permission, to 
order a suit of clothes for you (since they were busy with Rosier e 
up to the last) and only a few days ago they decided to allow the 
remaining thing of your memorandum. I have paid him £150. 
I will give him the rest when he brings me the bill. 

After a long chase I have just been able to secure the conditions 
of your appointment, as given in the copy No. 3 ; herewith are 
also added some others marked No. 4 & 5. I shall keep the orig- 
inals here. 

The heads of the accusations against you, coming from outside, 
are that you are proud and puffed up ; always drunk as long as 
there is any wine, and thereby the cause that the ship was sent 
off so long after the last of June, lazy and careless, hostile to the 
minister and no defender of religion. The following comes from 
inside : that you write so few reports to the Company, that you 
have not enough prudence and judgment to rightly discharge your 

14 Perhaps Jeronimus Lacroix. A person of that name — his son? — made a tour of 
exploration into the wilderness from Fort Orange for the Company. His journal exists 
among the patroon's papers. N. de R. 

This journal which is referred to in the patroon's letter to Wouter van Twiller, May 
6. 1638, on p. 401 of this volume, was not in the Van Rensselaer Bowier collection 
when placed in the hands of the present editor. It seems likely that it is the same as 
the account of the journey to the Senecas secured by Gen. James Grant Wilson at 
Amsterdam in the summer of 1895, and published by him in the Independent, 1895, 
47:1317-20, and in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1895, 
7:79-101, under the title "Arent van Curler and his Journal of 1634-35." If the same, 
there is no Rood reason for calling it, as Mr de Roever does, Lacroix' journal, for 
de la Croix appears throughout in the third person. That Gen. Wilson on the other 
hand is wrong in ascribing his document to Arent van Curler is evident from the fact 
that the man who speaks in the first person, and who of the three men in the party is 
the only person not named, describes himself as one of the commisen of the West India 
Company, and from the further fact, based upon statements in the patroon's letters 
in this volume, that in December 1637 Arent van Curler was but an inexperienced 
youth of 18 years. 

lr ' Jacob Aldrichs; see p. 273. Possibly this is the same person as Jacob Alrichs 
who in 1656 was appointed director of the colony of New Amstel, on the Delaware. 
A Mr Jacob Alrichs appears as witness to various baptisms in Brazil from 1637 to 1651 
in " Doopregister der Hollanders in Brazilie," printed in Algemeen Nederlandsch 
Familieblad, 1888-89, v. 5-6. 


functions, that the accounts which you send are not carefully 
examined, that the books have not been kept in good order (to 
which I replied that they must send a bookkeeper, whom they 
should pay for the work that they required of him, because that 
was not properly your business). Crol complains that you have 
held his books there. But Conraets says, and justly, that your 
honor ought to have written to the Company what ships or sloops 
of the English or Brownists had been there, for instance Captain 
Stoon,™ with whom your honor was on somewhat too familiar 
terms, also Jan Brouwer 11 and others, in order that the Company 
might have given the necessary orders for such cases. Therefore 
be on your guard. Secure affidavits even from Hunt hum and 
those who may be opposed to you, by which you will know them, 
for you have now evidence enough to do so. 18 Inform those who 
arrive and keep on good terms with those who remain, so that in 
their letters to the Company they may justify you against such 
shameful calumnies and slanders, for if you can once clear yourself 
of this the venom will not be able to affect you again. Consider 
these warnings, and take it well from me that I thus, prescribe for 
you, although you know it well enough yet nevertheless it is need- 
ful to refresh the memory: 

1 Be God fearing and an example to the people 

2 Be temperate in eating and drinking 

3 Be faithful in your service, injuring no one 

4 Be diligent and vigilant in the execution of your official duty 

5 Be cautious in everything and with what persons you associate 

6 Be humble when you are exalted 

7 Be patient when you are injured 

8 Trust in God when you are chastised 

If you do this the curse will change to a blessing and slanders re- 
dound to your honor, Amen. 

1B Referred to by David Pietersz de Vries (Kortc Historiacl, p. no) as Captain 
Stoons, from London, of a prominent family. De Vries met this captain in the West 
Indies and in Virginia and, June 15, 1633, on his return voyage to Holland, found him 
outside of Sandy Hook in command of a vessel laden with cattle bound for New Eng- 
land, endeavoring to reach New Amsterdam in order to obtain a supply of water- 
Under date of April 18, 1633, de Vries mentions the arrival at New Amsterdam of an 
English captain from New England who was invited by van Twiller to a dinner party 
at which the guests became intoxicated and fell to quarreling, according to de Vries, 
much to the surprise of the Englishman, who did not know what to make of such irregu- 
larities among the officers of the Company and lack of authority on the part of the 
director. It is not unlikely that the patroon received his information from de Vries 
but confused the two captains referred to. 

17 Mentioned in Utter from Sijmon Dircksz Pos, Sept. 16, 1630, p. 170. 

1S Bcleggct attcstatien, sclffs van Ilunthum ende die U parthijc moghten wesen, 
wacracn ghij sc kennen stilt; want ghij hebt nu stoffe gctwegh om sulex tc doen. 


Now I will turn to the answering of your letters. As to that 
from de Holder, I thank your honor in the name of Johannes and 
Baptist for the fn.13 out of which my wife bought them fur caps 
as your honor desired. As to that from Wight of the 17th of 
August, I have paid the fi50 to Minuyct and added it to the 1250. 
I will add to this what I must now advance to Jacob Aldrichss, 
and subtract the which I am to receive from the cashier 
Reach Your mother told me that you had divided this amount, 
which I well believe, but without your express order to me I can 
not do it; therefore be so kind as to let me know your honor's in- 
tention, and when this ship comes home draw as much of your 
salary as you can, for the sum increases if they keep the people 
waiting longer. 10 Dirck Comelisz has not yet got his money. 
They have allowed him f24 per month as commis, a shame, since 
they give Hunthum, a rogue, £75. But he expects to earn it by 
sending 13,000 skins yearly, which I think he will fall far short 
of, and this will not advance his cause. The money of Wolfcrt 
Gerritscn I received but lately also. I have kept back f300, of 
which I will write him further. They would not let Dirck have 
his eleven skins, a thing they have done at other times. He says 
that he informed your honor and others of them ; he requests ex- 
planation, according to the letter here enclosed as No. 6. Coen- 
radus has promised him that they will make it good to him. 
Vogclacr is especially hostile to him. 

In regard to the letter of the 3d of September from Wight, I 
met Vogelaer after its receipt and asked him whether the Company 
had received letters, saying that I had a short letter; he said at 
once, " There you see, he is already too great to know even his 
masters." To which I answered that he must first be sure whether 
your honor had not written and that he should not flare up so 
hastily. He denied it at once, saying in the presence of Mr Blom- 
maert, who had heard it as well as I, that I lied. This was the 
beginning. When he afterwards heard from St Marttijn that you 
had taken a prize, he began at once to scold that your honor had 
not despatched the sugar by the two large ships GelderJant and 
Nieuw-Nederlandt in order to balance therewith the shortage of 
Hunthum and Rciuuudc, but hearing afterward that they were at 
Dunkirk he kept still. Think how he must seek occasion against 
you, of which his aforesaid comrades give him enough, being not 

VA, ah dit schip t'huys compt, treckt soo reel van U gagie in als ghij condt, want 
dc sominc groolcr wordt, soo sij het volck longer ophouden. 


only venomous but writing to him in the most corrosive extract, 
so that you must be bravely on your guard. And Jeronimus does 
not doubt but there are spies going over, to dog your steps. 20 

Regarding the letter of November 25, by the Cat from St. 
Marttyn, I will say that your honor should be most grateful to 
God that he has delivered you out of the hands of the Turks (even 
if my calves were cast overboard; your honor made this good again 
to me in your last deal with the Maquaas). Vogelaer and his 
friends have here cause enough to praise you most highly, but it 
will not come to pass. The newspaper 21 enclosed as No. 7 by 
arrangement of Mr Paauw and myself refers to you. I keep your 
letter secret but you can well scent what it means to say. David 
Pietersz., against whom you warn me (and who also severely 
criticizes your honor), has turned out even worse than you stated. 

I have not received the letter of December 24. It went to Dun- 
kirk ; the letters from Gerrit dc Rcux with one enclosed to Provoost 
were sent to me from Dunkirk, but no others. 

Regarding the letter of March 18, 1633, I will say that I thank 
the Lord with you for your safe, though difficult and perilous 
journey, being pleased to hear that you like the country so well 
and that you feel so well. But I am sorry that the savages to the 
south are so rebellious. They ought to be attended to or they 
will give others a bad example, but yet this should be clone with 
great and Christian discretion. 

Concerning the animals bought by me from Minuit and Bijle- 
veldt I have this to say, that I have perfectly agreed with Mr 
Paauiv although I had the most right, as it was done with the con- 
sent of the Company. Minuit and Bilcvclt did not deceive me al- 
though matters did not go just right. Minuit says that he offered 
them to Mr Paauw and on his refusal sold his animals to me, but 
Mr Paauiv appears to be ignorant of this. 

Bijlevelt had given no orders to Andries Hudde, who neverthe- 
less sold the one cow to Cornells van Vorst, so I did not find it ad- 
visable to dispute with Mr Paauw but sought to have him for a 
friend, especially since he had greatly injured your cause with 22 Mr 
Coenraets and the others. Therefore wc have made such an agree- 
ment in regard to these three cows as appears by the enclosed copy 
No. 8. And we made also the following agreement. No. 9, that 

-" om U met looden schoenen naer tc gaen; literally, to follow you with leaden shoes, 
(o follow you cautiously. 

21 CO II III lit. 

22 Underlined in original. 


all the animals that shall be for sale in that country shall be bought 
in by your honor on our mutual account, except those which before 
the receipt or delivery of this contract No. 9 shall have been bought 
in or engaged by your honor, everything as stated in the said con- 
tract which is to remain in force for six years, and I in all sin- 
cerity request that it may be observed, as I have voluntarily (al- 
though for the reasons before mentioned) agreed thereto. We can 
not' limit your honor in prices, but it seems to me the Company 
formerly wrote to Director Minuict and the council about them, so 
that he, and afterwards Croll, by the Company's orders bought up 
all the animals that were for sale, half for Mr Paauw and half 
for me, at the same price, so that it is sufficiently known and cus- 
tomary. I hear that private parties are buying animals. The 
sellers have no consent for this from the Company, as Mr Paauw 
and I have, for their stock is the offspring of the Company's 
animals, unless the Company has since given other orders unknown 
to me. With regard to the animals that you may henceforth deliver 
to us from your farm, we can not well fix the price here, because 
there is so great a difference in quality and age ; for horses rated 
at fi2o if good, your honor may charge us fi5o; for cows rated 
at f8o, £95 or fioo; and so in proportion; and those your honor 
buys from others, at cost price according to your honor's letter. 

Referring again to the three cows, namely the two of Minuyt 
and one of Bijlcvclt, since I now have the claim against them of Mr 
Paauw in regard to nondelivery (and as our agreement does not 
concern them), be pleased to send over to me the resolutions which 
the council made respecting it, with the proofs of Cornells van 
Vorst } who says tliat he bought the cow belonging to Bijlevelt from 
Andries Hudden for f6p: — for I have not yet paid Bijlevelt for 
it but Minuit lias deducted liis amount from what he owed me. 23 

Further Bijlevelt appeals to the contract made with me, that 
he is treated unfairly by having f5o deducted just for the chickens 
and the garden, as the agreement will show, which I send your 
honor enclosed as No. 10. In his presence I sent for the skipper 
Jacob Jansscn Hes, who said that there were other things, and that 
the contract, signed by us both, was exhibited in the council. Be 
pleased therefore to have an abstract of this resolution made and 
certified. Bijlcvclt says that the chickens were given as boot. The 
contract does not say so. Moreover the boot must be paid over as 
well as the goods purchased. As to Mr Paauw, since he has three 

23 Underlined in original. 


other animals in place of these, the difference can not amount to 
much and the appraisal should be made on the basis of the value at 
the last delivery, that is, the time when your honor delivered the 
three substitutes to him. 

As to the farm of Bijlevcldt, I see that your honor has it worked 
by one farm hand and one negro, which may well be done and it still 
yield profit. In case the old mare has not died and is unfit for 
work, she may be kept for breeding. This farm is very destitute 
of horses and has had too much ill luck but is still well provided with 
cattle. Calves might be raised on this farm and then sent up the 
river. If two horses and two cows were left, the land could be well 
enough worked with them (that is, what has been cultivated before) 
or outside help could be obtained. 

As to the farm of Notclman, I have practically possession of 
that also for the following reasons ; in the first place, by virtue of 
the right of Gerrit de Reux who rented it as the other farmers ; he 
has had the use of it and paid the first instalment of 100 guilders 
and ceded all his rights to me according to the enclosed deed No.11. 

Further I bought of him all his surplus cattle, [later giving] an 
additional consideration of f5o for a cow in place of a heifer, and 
have paid him for the same, according to the enclosed bill of sale 
and receipt No. 12, so that now all the animals that remain, and 
about which there can be any question, are those that properly be- 
long to the farm, to wit: 4 mares with colt, 4 cows, 2 heifers (in- 
stead thereof he delivered 5 cows and 1 heifer, for which I gave him 
an additional f5o), 4 hogs, there still remaining for the Company to 
deliver 2 hogs. In place of 6 sheep which he was to leave for me 
on the farm, he paid Notclman f6o cash, all shown by the receipt 
and account herewith enclosed as No. 13. 

The agreement made with Notclman is that I shall keep for my- 
self all the animals belonging to the farm as well as the surplus of 
the same, but he is permitted to retain the farm for himself and 
work it with other animals, such as he may buy elsewhere — see 
his letter of January 15, 1632, enclosed here No. 14, which your 
honor will please send back to me — so that the animals belong to 
me and the farm to him. With regard to the animals which he re- 
ceived thereon, he must account for them and for those bred from 
them; and since he has made use of the same in his own service 
(although he suffered much loss which I can not help), he must give 
me satisfaction therefor. The number that he received can be 
found in No. 12 and No. 13. 

In Oct. 1631, 


to the 



f 4 mares, 3 of those first sent, one of those last 
sent, all with foal 

5 cows, 3 of those sent, 2 four year olds raised, 
with calf 

1 heifer, May 1632, two years old 

6 hogs, 2 of 1 year, 2 of l / 2 year, 2 that the Com- 
pany has yet to deliver 

6 sheep, for which Notelman 2 * paid him f6o cash 
f 2 heifers 


belonging "j i young steer 

to the farm [ I ' stalHon colt 

This, with those bred since October 163 1, is all that I can claim 
from him; and according to what I hear, the farm is not well pro- 
vided, so that they can not deliver the old number. This will turn 
out badly. He has used both the farm and the animals and treated 
the horses very badly, so that they have died. On the other hand 
I must pay 100 guilders yearly, Reux having paid for one year. 
And then there are coming to me the wagons, plows and whatever 
was sold with the animals by the Company. Now to make out the 
account, there must first be deducted such of the aforesaid animals 
as he has delivered to me. Then he must be paid fioo a year, 
there being due to me in return the fob received for the sheep. 

Further [must be counted] what the wagons, plows, etc., that are 
now there, may be worth more or less than they were at the time 
[he received them]. 

As to the delivery of butter and grain to the Company, that comes 
from the land and off the farm and not from the animals. 

Again, the animals of the foregoing number which are still left 
[on the farm] must also be turned over and delivered to me, giving 
me a reasonable remuneration for their work and increase in age. 

As to the rest, those which have died, there comes the dispute 
that, deducting those which he has delivered, he ought first of all 
to make the [number of animals on the] farm complete just as he 
received it ; all that then remains is that I maintain that the in- 
crease should be greater than the loss by death, that is, from ordi- 
nary causes and not from misuse. And in this way we shall be 
able to settle with each other, but otherwise not. 

The Company will also claim the two horses and two cows, which 
must be delivered to them, or at least their cash equivalent, and it 
must therefore be considered whether Notelman has fared well or 

M This should probably be de Reux. 


ill on the farm. If he has prospered, he can not refuse to make 
good my loss and to deliver the full number of all the animals with a 
reasonable amount of offspring'. If your honor can not make 
terms with him, let him in my behalf put the farm in your hands 
and above all take care that he shall devise some means to complete 
the number [of animals] required and make an estimate of the 
grain and implements that are on the farm. We may then try to do 
business here ; but I prefer to have it done there, for here I would 
not get much from him. This being done, your honor can issue 
an order in my name, that his farm and that of Bijlevelt shall be 
worked in my interest by a foreman and a boy or a negro and the 
animals which can be dispensed with may be sent up the river. 
Since the land is overworked and poor, I have proposed to the lords 
commissioners to let it lie fallow for some years, leaving there some 
foals and calves, which by that time will attain their growth, and in 
the meantime to pay the rent as before and to deliver as much of 
my grain at the market price as my neighbors do. They found this 
not unreasonable, but said that the manure must stay on the farm, 
to which I replied that it was better for the land to lie fallow than 
to put the manure on and take it out twice over by farming, but 
that the young beasts should stay on it. So if they do not write to 
your honor about it, you can arrange with the council that the Com- 
pany's interests shall not be prejudiced and that I may do with my 
own as seems to me most expedient. It may be that the farm of 
Notelman is in such a bad condition that I must reject it, then I 
must have back again the f 100 I paid on account of the first instal- 
ment, also [return] the surplus animals bought from Gcrrit de 
Reu.v and let Notelman do with them as he pleases. Yet I think 
it very advisable to hold on to the farm if it can in any way be 
done with profit or even appearance of profit. It will be of service 
to me, in that I can in time set a man over it, who could take charge 
of my affairs at the Manhatas and in the council, which will be most 
necessary in case they should recall your honor. Therefore do not 
let the farm go. 

Your honor writes indeed in general that the increase [of ani- 
mals] has been good, but not how many nor where they are. I 
have not been able to get the information from the Company and 
now it is too late to make request for it; be so kind as to do as much 
as this with the assistance of Jacob Planck and compare the in- 
voice of the animals bought from MUiuict, Bijlevelt and de Reux, 


with the animals on the two farms of Nottelman and Bijlcvclt, de- 
ducting- those that have died, adding the increase and where they 
are, and keeping a list and account of this in future. The exchange 
of the three young horses bought from Minuict at fi20 for an old 
mare, valued also at fi20, about which your honor writes me, must 
in no wise go through, for I am too well provided with old horses. 
I would rather have young ones; and if I should have two less than 
otherwise it would also be to my injury in respect to the contract 
made with Mr Paauw. I hear also that the mare which your 
honor would give me in exchange is very old indeed. Rather 
than lose these three horses, for I suppose your honor has kept 
them, I would pay your honor twice, yes, three times over for their 
keep. I am surprised that you propose this to me, as it conflicts 
directly with the memorandum given to your honor, where I have 
written on the margin, N. B. 1 stallion, thrown in 1630, bought from 
Mi nit it; this was to be for your honor provided you gave me for 
it some colts, thrown in May 1632, from which it is plain that I 
would rather have colts than horses considering their prices, for I 
can raise them at small expense, having grass enough in the sum- 
mer and in the winter hay for only the work [of getting it in]. 
Also your honor writes that on the farm of Minuit one cow has 
died and another has been bitten by a snake and has died also. I 
can not quite understand whether those that have died belonged to 
the general stock of the farm or to my own cattle, since these were 
not separated but were in the common herd when I bought them 
for your honor and myself from Minuit. It seems therefore that we 
should share the risk of loss by death, as well as the profits of 
the increase, unless your honor take the position (which I do not 
know) that the animals belonging to the farm were recognizable 
and the surplus, sold to me, also recognizable, and that of my recog- 
nizable cattle the aforesaid two have died. I have dwelt on this 
question so long because it will prejudice me in the contract of 
half and half made with Mr Paauzv. Therefore do me the favor to 
leave me my three young horses, and by substituting others for the 
two dead cattle let me keep the same number that I bought. I am 
willing to pay your honor as much money as you shall wish for their 
keep and the loss by death, for I must have cattle, all the more be- 
cause I bought them for my colony and made the contract with 
Mr Paauw chiefly on your account, so as not to have him against 
you. You can have no idea how he can hinder or help you ; I 
notice it [by comparing] how it was before, and how it is now since 


the contract. I may not write here all I know about it, since we 
are now agreed. It is not well to have him for an opponent; he is 
too clever. 

With these three horses and two cows and some from the farms 
of Noottclman and Bijlevelt, I can establish a third farm in my 
colony, since there are cattle enough up there to provide two farms. 
I made a contract for this with Hendrick Conduit, whom they call 
Szuager, 25 but he repented of the bargain and has escaped me; 
I send your honor a copy of this contract enclosed under No. 
D, given to Jacob Planck, who will show it to your honor. In 
place of this Hendrick Conduict, I can employ a person from 
your honor's farm about whom your honor and also he himself 
wrote me, since herewith are going three farm hands whom your 
father has hired for you, according to the enclosed contract No. 15, 
so that your honor can probably do without him. I will give him 
the same terms that Hendrick had. He may build the farm house 
on the place appointed or near Fort Orange. I have also hired a 
carpenter, 26 who is also a mason and understands farming. But he 
has not put in an appearance and the last lighter sails at noon today. 
There are still farm hands over there in the country who were trans- 
ported at my expense. They must serve me when I want them. In 
case Roeloff Jansz satisfies your honor and your foreman remains, 
you may give him the third farm, before named, on the same terms 
as Hendrick Conduit. 

Furthermore, regarding Wulffcrt Gerritssc or his son, who are 
very willing to go up the river, your honor can arrange with them to 
use half or two thirds of Castle Island (which contains 136 mor- 
gens) since I neither can nor may pass by Brandt Pielen, who lives 
with Rutger Hendricksen and has brought his farm into good con- 
dition and I have no reason to displace him. 

I find it every way advisable to deal with Wulffert or his son, 
as I have also said to Jacob Planck ; and see to it that you pay 
him for his cattle out of the indemnity of the Maquaas skins, since 
the Company can lay no claim to these or at the most claim no more 
than the duty of one guilder per skin. And in case your honor or 
Jacob Planck can not entirely agree with him, let it go until our 
meeting, as he intends to come home, telling him that we will cer- 
tainly come to an agreement with each other here. I should like 
to have his cattle as if they were excepted from the contract with 

25 Swager, at the present day, means brother in law; in 17th century Dutch, it is 
frequently used in the sense of son in law. 
20 Cornelis Teunisz van Breuckelen. 


Mr Paauzv. If he used half of the 136 morgens, it would be 68 
morgens; the 2 /z ar e over 90 morgens. That is quite enough for 
farm and pasture land ; the hay they would have to get from outside 
the island, from the mainland or from the upper islands. I shall 
hardly have time to write to Wulffcrt. Do what your honor can 
and do not give up dealing with him, in order that I may obtain 
the cattle. 

Your honor recommends Brant Aartsen 27 to me. That would 
have been well had I known how things stood with my cattle which 
I feared were dead, but now it is too late ; therefore I have agreed 
for the present with Jacob Planck, according to contract No. 16 
here enclosed, which your honor will please preserve, since he has a 
duplicate of it. Please to administer the oath to him as officer and 
have him select at least three schepens, who shall take the oath be- 
fore him; then he can convene them and hold court. For this I 
have given him two books, namely, Damhoiavcr on Criminal pro- 
cedure and the Ars Notariatus. But I am disappointed in him; 
there is not as much in him as I thought. However, I have engaged 
him ; I hope that he will turn out better. It is best that he should 
not have a large salary and should go at his own expense. Your 
honor must give him some instructions and cause him to make care- 
ful notes of the farms of Notclman and Bijlcvclt and also of the 
cattle, and let him settle with the people, but subject to my approval, 
since some have received money here. 

N. B. I find by the Company's books that I am charged for much 
provisions and merchandise, which my people are said to have ob- 
tained. If they go on in this way they will soon eat me up. Some 
are there at my expense as to board, others not, so that a distinction 
must be made. I wish that henceforth none of my people shall at 
their own request receive a stiver's worth from the Company and 
have it charged to my account. But those who want anything may 
apply to Jacob Planck, the officer, and let him apply to your honor 
or the respective commisen, who can give him what he needs upon 
receipt, so that I may know how the matter stands. I see that Roe- 
loff Janssen has grossly run up my account in drawing provisions, 
yes, practically the full allowance [even] when there was [enough in] 
stock. 27 " I think that his wife, mother and sister and others must 
have given things away, which can not be allowed. He complains 
that your honor has dismissed him from the farm and your honor 

27 Brant Aertscn van den Slichtenhorst, who later plays an important part in the 
history of the colony. N. de R. 
27a jae gcnocchsaem t'rollc rantsocn alsser voorract gcwccst is. 


writes me that he wanted to leave it. As to the wagons, plows, etc.. 
which are needed on my farm, and also on yours and those of Wolf- 
fert Gerritscu and others on the Manhatans, employ my wagon 
maker Lubbcrt Gijsbcrtsscn; he can send them down on sloops or he 
can come down for a time in order to make them at the Manhatans. 
Jan Evcrtsz Bout is going thither -also ; he has offered me his 
services, but the shirt is nearer to me than the coat. Mr Paauw re- 
quests that your honor will keep on good terms with Cornells van 
Voorst and that your honor will help him as much as can be done 
without damage to the Company so that these local dissensions 28 
may finally cease. 1 trust that the instructions which are to be 
issued through the efforts of Mr Cocnracts will not be conceived in 
such hostile spirit 20 [toward the patroons] as the preceding. 

The 51 whole and 14 half beaver skins coming from my colony, 
have been handed to me, although with protest. I hope that the pa- 
troons by [the time] the next [ship sails] will have the free trade 
in furs, even [in exchange] for merchandise, unless some restric- 
tions are added. Their High Mightinesses have appointed to settle 
this question Messrs Arnhcm, Weede and Donck, who well under- 
stand the rights of the colonies and the population and that the 
first adventurers ought to be favored in order to tempt others to 
follow. We find it not advisable to enter on this before the de- 
parture of this ship; but as soon as it has sailed, we shall come to it 
(God willing) and vigorously attack the management of Vogelacr. 

Please take charge of any grain raised in my colony for which 
Jacob Planck has no use, and deliver it to the Company. I hope 
however that he will be able to use it all for brandy-making and 
beer-brewing, if he only understands the business. I have had him 
examined by Claes Chtess". He requests that your honor will at 
my charge provide him with a comfortable little boat so that he can 
sail to and fro, which will be a favor to me as will all that may be 
further granted to my advantage. 

Regarding the grass and grain scythes which Gerrit de Rcux de- 
livered by my order to Mr Paauw, I have no memorandum thereof ; 
let Rcux give me an explanation, since Mr Paauw also knows 
nothing about it but says that Cornells van Voorst himself delivered 
such things to Reux. I am surprised that Marijn can not raise any 
tobacco. He can not understand it rightly or must have taken up 
too much land which he has not cleared well or not sufficiently 

28 inlandsche onrlogcu ; literally, inland wars. 

'-"' niet met sulcken passie sullen vermenghi sijn; literally, will not be mixed with 
such passion. 


spaded and broken up. If I had a supply of brandy and were pro- 
vided with a sloop, he would do for a skipper to cruise along the 
coasts of New Netherland and the adjacent settlements and sell 
it according to the Freedoms to our people, the savages and others, 
at places where the Company has no commis for furs as beavers, 
otters, etc., and at all places for seawan or for money, as is allowed 
everywhere by the aforesaid Freedoms. 

Mr Paauw and I have been busy trying to send over a ship with 
young cattle, but as they demanded too much, and I did not know 
how matters stood in my colony, and we were not yet quite settled 
with the Company, we have let it rest. We also intended to send 
over carpenters. Regarding the brickkiln, I can not yet say much ; 
at any rate I must be paid for the clay of which the former bricks 
were made, as it was from my land ; of which I have here notified 
the Company and also Crol. 

I wish that the remaining little islands and also the land that is 
on the east side of the river and belongs to the Mahycans, had been 
bought also. Be pleased therein to do your best, and give Jacob 
Planck instructions what to do. If the savages make a sale, let the 
transfer be made before my officer and the court of Rensselaers- 
wyck, using the form that Mr Paauw is now sending over to Cor- 
nells van Voorst. Ask him to give your honor a copy of it, only 
changing in it mutatis mutandis the names of the officers and colo- 
nies: he calls Cornells van Voorst his chief officer , 20a and I desire 
for my own reasons that Jacob Planck shall as yet not be otherwise 
entitled than as officer. N. B. Do not fail to get a copy of this 
form from van Voorst and give Jacob Planck a copy, not like that 
which van Voorst has, but changed as it must be for Jacob Planck. 
I fear I shall hardly have time to write out the instructions for 
Jacob Planck, as the lighter is ready to sail. Your honor can give 
him as many extracts from this letter as he needs, and also from the 
previous instructions I gave your honor for Rutger Hcndrickss n . 
adding to them what seems best to you and ordering him in my 
name to act accordingly. If you do not possess the books of Dam- 
houzver and the other, be sure to read these copies freely, since the 
court of Amsterdam generally follows this author, and recommend 
this also to Jacob Planck. As to clover seed, I would have sent 
some to your honor, but mine is on the way from Italy, shipped from 
Venice, and here there is little for sale and it is extremely dear, 

21>n hooft officer; the term used in former days to distinguish the public prosecutor of 
a court having full criminal jurisdiction from the ofUcicr, or prosecutor, of a local 
court which had civil and limited criminal jurisdiction only. 


besides being good for nothing since very little has come up from 
the last at CraLoo. H0 If another ship follows, and den Walvis has 
lain ready for seven months, I shall provide your honor with it. 
The confraters, however, will not send out the ship if they can not 
obtain the freedom of the fur trade. 

I am well aware of the advantages of the Fresh River. I have 
also spoken to Domps-elaer about it, but every one is afraid on ac- 
count of the disputes and opposition that arise. Blommaert long- 
ago registered his colony there ; we may see how it will turn out 
after the decision of the States [General]. Some years have 
elapsed as a result of these disputes, so that the four years 31 should 
not be counted to begin till after the aforesaid decision has been 
given and all disputes settled. It is bad that the English are begin- 
ning to get a foothold there. But Mr Vogelaer does not worry 
much about this, I think, since he says he would rather be bitten by 
strange dogs than by his own. 

The prices which the English ask for their cattle are not at all 
reasonable. I should think it quite unadvisable to pay any way 
near so high a price, for I notice that they are very apt to die and 
then the money is lost ; let us keep to those which are to be found 
in the country or which we send from here. I have heard here that 
Captain Stoon? 2 has been killed by the savages. 

There is much to criticize in the bill of Wulffert Gerritsz, there- 
fore refer him to me. He can not claim monthly wages when he h 
not in my colony, according to the copy of his instructions, No. 17. 
When he comes here, we will settle in all fairness. 

I have paid f.50 to the wife of Laurens Laurensz n . but I do not 
know how much is still owing to him. He bargained for no wages ; 
all I have to do is to provide his board, or in place of board, pay 

80 Tlie patroon's estate, Crailo, literally Crows-wood, in Gooiland, near Huisen. It 
lies a short distance from the railway station of Naarden-Bussum, and has been well 
kept up for many years by its owner, a prominent Amsterdam merchant. The patroon's 
energy and perseverance transformed a sandy tract into a fine estate, traversed by long 
avenues of beeches and firs, with groves of oaks. The picture gallery of the present 
owner stands on the site of the patroon's house. The estate is now subdivided, and the 
two villa-parks, Crailo and Loo, will soon be the most attractive of the environs of 
Amsterdam. S. de L. v R. S. 

31 Period of time within which the patroons were required to plant a colony of 50 souls, 
according to art. 3 of the Freedoms and Exemptions. 

32 " The 8th [of June 1639], in the morning, took our leave and went up the [Fresh] 
River and having proceeded about a league, we met between two high steep points 
some savages, in canoes, who had on English clothes and among them was one who 
had on a red scarlet mantle. I inquired how he came by the mantle; but they had some 
time ago killed one Capiteyns Soon [Captain Stone] and his men in a small bark, from 
whom they obtained these clothes. This was the captain of whom I spoke in my first 
voyage t<> America, whose vessel was placed in such distress that they ate one another 
and who finally lost his life here by the savages." De Vries, Korte Historiael, p. 149-5°- 


him fioo yearly, while I have half of all that he earns. And I 
have no account of what he has done or has earned. He is also re- 
sponsible for the other two and for the advance money that I gave 
to Andries Christensscn, who ran away. 

I have told them I will give no more money before I have an 
accounting. Enclosed is his contract under No. 18. Herein is 
enclosed a letter from Mr Bloemaert, No. 19, about the goods left 
with your honor by David Pietersse and Jan Tjepkens, 33 skipper of 
'/ Eeckhorntgen. Be pleased to advise him what there is about 
this, and if there is any of it yet unsold that Jacob Planck or my 
people may need, let him have it upon giving his receipt. The 
goods which I am now sending with him, according to the invoice 
under No. E, I brought into the Company's warehouse and they 
were packed there by their own people in order to be subjected to 
no more openings or inspection, since Mr Paauzv had a great dis- 
pute over their wishing to unpack his goods which were already 
packed; they released him from this, however, but it must be done 
on arriving in the country, which will not be the case with mine. 
I see also what cattle your honor has sent up the river. I hope 
that since then you have also sent some horses, etc., thither and 
that the third farm will have been established before the arrival of 
this letter and that now the fourth can be started, which I have 
promised to Lubbert Ghijsbcrtss' 1 , the wheelwright, according to 
contract No. F, herewith sent by Jacob Planck. I fear that you 
will lack farm hands. Those that came over with Reux and cost 
me a great deal you might try to get hold of again, wherever 
they may be, according to the nineteenth article of the Freedoms, 
of which I send your honor a printed copy under No. 20. The 
servants of Roeloff Janssen were engaged for four years from the 
time they came to the country, that is to say, to my colony, so that 
it is a question whether their time will be up or not ; you might con- 
tract with them for one year more. There will no doubt be some 
excuse for making them stay one year more, even if an increase had 
to be given them. 

I thank your honor for the young deer sent me by de Souther gh; 
it died on the way, so it seems that I am unlucky with animals on 
the sea, since I lost my calves also. 

I have done my best to get a servant for your honor. So has 
your father. First we had the sons of Geertgen Michiels at Amers- 

'■>'■'■ Probably the same as Jan Tiepkesz Scliellinger, the skipper of the Rensselaerswyck, 
k-hich sailed Sept. 25, 1636. See log of that vessel printed on p. 355-89 of this work. 


foort, who decided not to go ; afterwards Jehan de Wael, who sails 
for Pernambuco; and now finally another who, your father thinks, 
is too troublesome since he was very rebellious during the Easter 
holidays. We will postpone it till further advice. If your honoi 
could get a good English servant, those people are alert, respectful 
and obedient. 

In case of the Company ordering Hunthum to come to the Man- 
hataus, which I do not expect, present your affidavits to the coun- 
cil which can declare him incompetent and must make him retract 
his statements. 34 Your honor can readily justify this action on the 
ground that the Company has had no knowledge of these slanders 
and this abusive language and if he still continues his mischief, 
since the magpie can not cease its hopping, send him home by reso- 
lution of the council. Some will vigorously protest against it, 
others will laugh and say that he only gets his deserts. But there 
must be reasons and no greater reasons can be found than that the 
savages are his enemies, especially if the slaughter of the cattle 
happened because of him; also that he can not speak the language; 
further if he has obtained but few furs, about which he boasted 
that he would do so much ; and whatever else serves the purpose. 

Coming to yours of September 14, sent by way of New England, 
I will persuade our confraters to give your honor a good reward, 
in case we receive the indemnity of 275 beavers. If they pay in 
seawan, it must be exchanged for beavers and sent here by the next 
ship under a proper bill of lading. If your honor can trade any of 
them so as to obtain animals from Wulfert Gcrritss., do so, also 
for other animals. But half of this would belong to Mr Paauw 
and he would have to pay half. 

I still can not allow anything else than that there must be not 
two only but three farms on West Island, each of which would have 
more than 40 morgens of land. They must draw their hay from 
another island. But if Wulffcrt or his son came, I would rent to 
them 80 or 90 morgens on half shares, according to the contract 
with Hcndrick Conduit under No. D aforesaid, or on such terms 
as your honor can agree on with him subject to my approval. The 
farmers want a great deal of land, then they can take the best and 
let the rest lie fallow ; whereas 1 am looking for many people in 
order to increase my number. Think that Rensselaer has not even 
20 morgens of cultivated farm land, at least not much more; and 
what a fine farm that is. If a farmer therefore has 20 morgens of 

34 ende op sijnen vwnt sal moctcn cloppen. 


farm land near his house and pasture land and hay fields besides 
he can easily make his living. So that there could easily be six 
farms on the island. This must come gradually as more cattle and 
people come; which you must bear in mind in making the con- 
tract with Wulffert Gerritss*. Then act with caution. Only see 
that you buy his cattle on the most reasonable terms, for that is 
of the highest importance to me. I will send people enough here- 
after if only I have cattle. 

Your proposition to start a farm near Fort Orange is good, on 
the conditions as stated. But so long as Vogelaer is on the com- 
mission, there can be no dealings with the Company. Let my 
[officer] Jacob Planck talk it over some time with Hunthum and see 
what he thinks of it, whether he will take it upon himself; if not, 
whether he will favorably recommend it to the Company; and try 
him in this way. And if he refuses to consider it at all, make a 
note of it, since it would serve the interests of the Company and 
their fort would be better guarded and at less expense, as the people 
could do double work watching the fort at night and working by 
day and I would pay the Company or the Company could pay me 
part of the expenses. Do not fail to have Jacob Planck request . 
this of him in writing, that he may take action thereupon, and if he 
write to your honor and the council about it, keep cool, else they 
would lay it to your charge that you had urged it, and this must not 
be. For no matter how favorable it is to the Company, if the pa- 
troons get profit from it, it must be rejected. They would rather 
suffer loss than that the patroons should prosper. An exceedingly 
bad disposition. The horses of Wulfert Gerritss could be used on 
this farm and his son could live there. Marijn or Roelof with 
their wives could guard the house and cattle at night. 

If I have time I will write a short letter to Marttcn Gcrritscn, 
Gorier and Nootclman, also to Wulffert. If not, they must be sat- 
isfied with what I write to you. The wind is blowing strongly so 
that the lighter can not get off, else it would leave at once. 

This letter I send separately by Jacob Planck, and the docu- 
ments herein mentioned, from No. 1 to No. 20, in another packet, 
also separately, by the same Planck ; also my remonstrance (under 
No. 21) which I presented to the Assembly of the XIX, copied 
by your brother Hcndrick ; also No. 22, being a letter written by 
Domine Badius to the minister there, Domine Eucrhardus Bogar- 
dus; No. 23, a letter from your honor's father; No. 24, one from 
Thomas van Wely. As to whatever else is to be done in my affairs 


I urge your honor to seek therein my greatest advantage, in which 

1 have confidence in you; and whatever I may have forgotten, be * 
sure to supply it. I will do the same for your honor. I hope 
with the return of the ship d'Eendracht to receive particular infor- 
mation from your honor and the punctual reply to the contents of 
these. Wherewith closing, etc. 


Memorandum of the engagement of Hendrick Carstensz van 
Norden as farm laborer 35 

April 26, 1634 

1634, this day, the 26th of April, engaged as farm laborer to 
serve henrick Conduit or some one else on my farm for the period 
of four years, commencing with his arrival in that country and to 
do willingly and diligently all kinds of farm work or whatever may 
be assigned to him, on the same conditions as other farm laborers 
are bound to observe. 

Henrick Carstenssc van Nooden;' Q 20 years old, has done farm 
work. Shall receive 10 rix-dollars a year and as a present for his 
passage, both going and returning, two rix-dollars, which have been 
paid to him at once. In witness of the truth henrick Carstenssz 
has hereunder set his mark. Done as above. 

[signed] the mark X of henrick 

2 rixd. f5 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Coenraet Notelman 37 

April 27, 1634 

Coenraet Noottchnan, in New Netherland, 27 April 1634: 

I find myself with your favor of the 9th of May 1633 sent by 
den Walvis, that of the 21st of July by den Soutberch, and that 
of the 1 8th of March by dc goede hoope, to which I shall reply 
briefly, for two reasons. First, because the lighter will sail in a 
moment ; secondly because you are coming home, as another officer 

35 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.3ib. 

30 Should be Norden, in East Friesland, which city, like the neighboring Emden, 
became during the Spanish persecutions a refuge for many people from the northern 
provinces of the Netherlands. See p. 263, 311. 

* 7 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.75. 


goes thither. I am very glad to see that you are on good terms 
with my nephew W outer van Twiller, director there; hope that you 
will continue thus to the last as there have been many false tongues 
and pens which have defamed him by gross lies. The skipper of 
(/(■ GoedehooPe has not been to see me ; the money which you re- 
mitted, I paid to my brother in law, Johannes van Weelen, who 
handed it to your wife, but the fi65 I have thus far not been able 
to obtain as the directors of groeningen? 8 are very particular because 
you have sent no receipt. 1 have written several letters about it, 
also spoken of it to some directors, but they say that it establishes 
a bad precedent to pay any money on the mere statement of the 
commis. You should have kept an account thereof and sent it to 
me here, for not having this 1 can not claim anything. When you 
come home, you must bring with you an authentic account thereof 
or the declaration of somebody who knows what you have furnished 
for the f 165 ; Tyaetdt brongcrs makes such a statement, but they 
will not accept it on his authority. The tobacco, my brother in law 
has after very long delay been able to receive only under bond and 
he has sold the same and been obliged to pay out of it the amount 
which your account was short; this by way of information. As 
to the animals from the farm of Gerrit de Reus which you have 
used so long and instead of increasing you have worn out and de- 
creased, I order my officer, Jacob planck, to negotiate with you con- 
cerning them as is just; commend him to the director. First, you 
ought to return the full number which you received, and as to the 
increase which I ought to have had as from other farms, you may 
see what agreement you can make in compensation for the fioo 
which you pay the Company on the decision of the council in New 
Netherland; but with the sayings of Reumunde 1 have nothing to 
do. The animals belonged to Gerrit de rcux by purchase and he 
could sell which he wanted, as they ordered him home before the 
time. I shall protest to the council there as well as to the directors 
here against the damage which I suffer there, but that does not 
concern you. What concerns you and me, is that the animals 
which you have used belong to me and respecting this we must come 
to some agreement, but my loss because of their detention by the 
Company or by Crol, I shall certainly recover from the Company. 
This by way of information. I thank you for the report of my 
colony, by which you have done me a great kindness; I shall re- 
pay it with gratitude. It is a pity that there are not more animals 

88 Same as Groningen, or Stadt en Landen. 


where there is such beautiful land. That the 'directors have said 
this and that to reumunde is all talk and does not matter here. 
They could sell their animals but once, which they have done, and 
having sold them they have no further power over reux and bylvelt, 
who would no doubt have served out their years but that they or- 
dered them home and would not allow them to return. The Com- 
pany can take away their farms which they have leased for six years, 
but the animals which they sold they can not take away again from 
any one without his consent. 

I do not write thus to accuse you but to accuse the Company 
and in order that you may help me recover my loss from the Com- 
pany and that I may send the animals up the river at last. 

Protest of Kiliaen van Rensselaer to the West India Company 
on account of the detention of the animals of Gerrit Theusz 
de Reux and Pieter Bijlvelt 39 

April 27, 1634 


Notice served on the directors of the West India Company by 
Notary Justus van de Ven in the name of Kiliaen van Rens- 
selaer, April 27, 1634 

Mr Kiliaen van Rensselaer, as patroon of his colony named 
Rensselaerswyck lying on the North River of New Netherland, 
notifies the lords directors of the Chartered West India Company. 
Chamber of this city, that a certain contract was entered into be- 
tween their honors and various farmers according to the conditions 
signed by both sides on January 8, 1630, by which your honors 
sold and granted to each of the aforesaid contracting parties, being 
six in number, four horses, four cows, with their foals and calves, 
besides two heifers, six sheep, six hogs, also wagons, plows and 
like implements, on condition that they should pay therefor the sum 
of 600 guilders in six instalments; including also two horses of 
three years, two cows of two years, three sheep and three hogs, 
as soon as the people should have bred the same above the aforesaid 
number. Further, to each of the aforesaid farmers was leased and 
appointed a suitable farm, provided with house, hay barrack and 

1 ;, final of this document was not among the Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss when 

placed in the hands of the present editor. It is printed in Dutch in Oud Holland, 
1890, 8:72-73, as Appendix C to Mr de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaers- 


barn, with about 50 morgens of land, for the term of six years, 
beginning the first of May 1630, on such conditions and rent as are 
further mentioned in the aforesaid contract. 

Now thus it is, that Gerrit Mattheuss. de Rcux, as purchaser of 
a portion of the aforesaid animals and tenant of farm No. 2, and 
Pieter Pieter sz. Bijlevclt, likewise purchaser and tenant of farm 
No. 3, having paid their first instalment and the first year's rent, 
were shortly afterward, to their great injury and prejudice, sum- 
moned home by your honors and coming here were prevented from 
again returning thither in order to further improve the farms they 
had rented and which had been of great expense to them during 
the first year. Being deprived thereof and much alarmed because 
they could find no one who would take over the animals with the 
farms, they were obliged to abandon the farms and sell their 
animals to the complainant, who also bought the same from them 
for the sake of his above mentioned colony, undertaking to make 
the further payments and to deliver over the increase as he ob- 
tained it. 

Following such purchase the complainant ordered Wolffcrt Gev- 
vitsz, then his commis at the Manhatans to send all these animals 
at the first opportunity to his colony, which was hindered by 
Director Bastiacn Jansz Crol because he thought it unadvisable 
to deprive the farms of animals; these, however, were not in the 
least attached thereto, save only for the aforesaid time of six years, 
during which time the vendors would not have thought of selling 
them if they had not been called home and prevented from sailing 
thither again, or if they could have found buyers who. would have 
taken the same with the farms. Being defeated in all these plans, 
they were obliged to sell them to the complainant and as he is 
greatly injured by this delay and the number instead of increasing 
is daily diminishing (since they are used, not by the complainant's 
farmers whom he had thereto appointed in his colony, but br- 
others, and he must let his people run idle at his expense or be 
forced to discharge them with injury and loss, in addition to the 
charges which he had to pay for their transportation, about which 
he was forced to make public complaint in his remonstrance de- 
livered to the Assembly of the XIX), and as it is better to pro- 
vide for redress before the injury grows greater, therefore, — etc. 

[He summons them to cause the animals to be delivered and 
in ease of refusal will hold them responsible for his loss. 

The notice was handed to Mr Arnoult v. Liebergcn, director. 


The notary went the following day to receive the answer. The 
president, Mr Haringhoek, said that they had spoken that 
morning with the complainant and that they had given him pro- 
visional satisfaction; that he was to write a letter which the di- 
rectors would send with their letters and that the difference would 
be referred for final decision to the director of the Company in 
New Netherland. 

All this van Rensselaer confirmed to the notary.] 

N. DE R. 

Instructions to Jacob Albertsz Planck, schout 40 
April 27, 1634 

Instructions prepared and issued by Kiliaen van Rensselaer as 
patroon of his colony called Rensselaerswyck for Iacob Alberts:: 
planch, in the capacity of officer of the aforesaid colony, according 
to which he must faithfully govern himself, this 25th of April, in 

When he arrives on board ship he shall take good care that the 
goods sent with him according to invoice herewith enclosed under 
letter E be properly loaded and receive suitable places where they 
may be kept dry and in good condition, and in case the barrels 
are too large, so that they can not be stowed in the ship, he shai! 
use the bags which have been given him and put the malt therein. 

Also, that the men who sail in my service according to the memo- 
randum, may be provided with proper quarters. 

As soon as the ship with God's help gets ready to put out to sea. 
he shall prepare a list of the men who sail for my account and send 
the same to me witli notice whether the goods have come on 
board in good condition. 

He shall not neglect at every opportunity which offers on the 
way to advise me of what happens. 

( >n his arrival by God's mercy in New Netherland, he shall give 
my greetings to Director W outer van Twiller, hand him the letters 
and memoranda entrusted to him, and request him at the first 
opportunity to administer the proper oath of fidelity toward me, 
to him, Jacob Albertssz Planck, instead of to Rutger henrickssz van 
Soest, according to previous power of attorney. 41 

«V. R. B. MSS, I., -tlrr Hook, f.;ol>. Kxtr.u! in J'. R. B. MsS 36. 

41 ende byde eerste occasie hem vcrsocckcn volgcns myrie voorgaende procuratie in 
plaetsc van Rutger henricksss van Soest hem Jacob Albertssz Planck afftcnemen den 
behoorlycken lledt van getrouwicheyt tut mynetl behoeve. See note on p. 63. 


Which having been clone, he shall with the aforesaid director 
carefully consider and note what animals and tools there are to be 
moved up the river,, before his departure taking a note also of the 
condition of the farms of Noottelman and Byleveldt and diligently 
inquiring whether any of my men have entered any one else's 
service in order to take them again into my service in case I should 
need them and they prove suitable to me. 

He shall confer with Director ran Twitter as to how many 
farms I can for the present establish in my colony and what sort 
of people may be most suitable for that purpose and, as I have no 
time to extend these instructions sufficiently, the aforesaid van 
Twitter will please supplement these instructions from the previous 
instructions given him for Rutgert Hendricxssz ran Soest as well 
as by what he shall deem serviceable to me and by what I have 
written him in the letter, which planck must follow as if I had done 
it myself and written it with my own hand. 

If any of my men need any provisions or other necessaries 
aside from those which I send along, they shall make the same 
known to the aforesaid officer Jacob planck, who shall make a 
note thereof and request the same wholesale of the commisen of 
the Company at a reasonable price, as I in return shall furnish 
them from what I have in stock, giving and receiving proper re- 
ceipts on both sides, and of this Iacob planck shall make a proper 
distribution among my men and keep a correct account thereof, 
issuing nothing extravagantly but managing the whole carefully. 
At all events, it is my decided wish that none of my men shall 
privately get anything at my charge from the commisen of the 
Company, but everything by the order and management of the 
aforesaid Jacob planck. 

While at the Manliatans, he shall with the director seek to bring 
about that Wulffert Gerriisss or his son move up the river with 
some animals, on reasonable terms, being willing to give him the 
terms of Ilcndrick Conduit according to the accompanying contract 
under No. D. 

N. B. Further, to take care not to furnish to any one more than 
is due to him, but having them give me credit for the money which 
I have furnished and advanced them here, telling jaspar fcrlijn 
what my agreement is with Maryn Adriaenssz, of which agreement 
as well as of that with him, laspcr ferlyn, the originals are here- 
with enclosed under the letters K, L, M, together with the receipts 
of what I have paid here. 


As soon as possible, he shall proceed on his voyage up the river 
and it would be well if some animals went along too, also the 
goods which were sent with him from here and some suitable 

On his arrival there, with God's help, he shall settle on West 
Island, first trying to store his goods safely, then causing his house 
to be erected in the appointed place and further doing everything 
that the contract which he has entered into with me implies. 

At the first opportunity he shall choose three schepens from 
among the fittest of my colonists, and administer to them the 
proper oath, so that he can hold court if need be, 42 and in order 
that everything may proceed in an orderly manner, I give him 
three books to take along, which he must keep carefully and study 
diligently, to wit: Ars notariatus; Damhouzvcr int Criminecl; and 
further, praxcos Civilis, ofte maniere van Procederen, under Nos. 
O, R and S. 

He shall take care that the men work diligently, every one ac- 
cording to his contract, causing the carpenter to complete the houses 
and build the enclosures for the animals, and in particular he shall 
have the poisonous weeds destroyed. 

And in order that he may establish as many farms as possible 
in the aforesaid colony, attention shall be paid to the following. 

First, the animals which Commander Wouter van Tzviller may 
have bought for the aforesaid patroon, separately, before the de- 
livery of the contract made with Mr Paauzv, as well as his half of 
those which may be bought thereafter. 

Then, the three young horses, to wit, two mares and one stallion 
bought of Peter Minuit, which [stallion] Director van Twiller 
would like to have exchanged for an old mare, but this can not be 
done as the patroon can establish a farm with the said three horses, 
being willing to pay van Tzviller for their care as much as he shall 

Further, the animals which Wulifert Gcrritsscn or his son may 
bring up the river. 

Finally, as many animals as he shall see fit to send up the river 
from farms Nos. 2 and 3, of Gerrit dc Reux and, who 
bought the said animals and tools and in turn sold and delivered 
them to him, the patroon, absolutely, without restriction as to 

42 Bydc cerstc gelegentheyt sal liij cligcrot dryc Schcpcticn dc bequacmstc uijt myn 
1'olck dcsclve affnemende den bchoorlyckcn Eedt op dat hy des noots sijnde de Rccht- 
banck kan sfanncn. 


term of lease, except only that the patroon has agreed to pay the 
halance of the purchase money to the Company and to return the 
number of two horses and two cows when he has them to spare. 
It must he noted that in the contract which the farmers have made 
with the Company, a copy of which is herewith enclosed under No. 
V, two things are to be considered: first, the sale of horses, cows, 
wagons, plows, etc., for the sum of f6oo, to be paid in six years, 
together with two horses, two cows, etc., to be returned when they 
have them to spare, which sale is final and neither may nor can 
be retracted without consent on both sides; secondly, a lease of the 
farms with the houses thereon for the term of six years and no 
longer, on condition of payment of the sixth sheave, the delivery 
of one firkin of butter and the grain to the Company, etc., at the 
end of which period the animals remain in the possession of the 
purchasers and the farms revert to the Company and each is 
allowed to do with his own as he sees fit, without stipulation on the 
part of the Company that the animals must remain at the Man- 
hatans. But, as the Company has ordered Gerrit dc Reux and 
V icier Bylcvelt home before the expiration of their term and would 
not permit them to return thither, they are thereby released from 
the terms of the lease and still have a claim on the Company for 
the profits which they might have made on the farms during the 
remaining years and for the loss which they suffered by reason of 
being obliged to sell their animals and tools at a low and poor 
price to him, Rensselaer, nobody at the Manhatans being willing 
to accept them ; and although he, Rensselaer, bought the said 
animals with no other view and for no other purpose than to 
transport them to his colony, willingly agreeing to pay the Com- 
pany the dues which they could claim by virtue of the sale, t-hcy 
have nevertheless refused to let him have the same, which loss he 
expects to recover according to his remonstrance delivered to the 
Assembly of the XIX, as the number of the said animals has not 
only not increased and grown, but decreased and become less ; and 
in order that no further loss may result therefrom, Rensselaer re- 
quests once more that the animals and tools which still remain on 
the aforesaid two farms may be made free and placed at his dis- 
posal to be transported to his colony, otherwise he will hereafter 
seek to recover the loss which he may still incur and have to suffer 
in such manner as he shall see fit. 

43 These instructions broken off on account of lack of time shall 

43 Note in handwriting "f Kiliacn van Rensselaer. 


be completed in my name by Director Woutter vn Twitter. This 
27th of April 1634, at Amsterdam. Underneath was written: 
KVR. ^ 

List of papers given to Jacob Albertsz Planck 14 

{April 27, 1634] 

The following papers given to Officer Jacob Planck to take with 
him : 
A B C Three extracts, one of the 19th of December 1633, one 

of the 27th of March 1634 from the Assembly of the 

XIX, and one of the 24th of XTovember 1633 from the 

Chamber of Amsterdam 
D Contract made with Hcndrick Conduit, who has given it 

E Xames of the persons who will now sail, with the in- 

voice of the goods which I send by Jacob Planck to 

be sold in that country 
F Contract made with Lubbert Ghysbertsss Radernakcr 

van Blaricnni 
G H Two copies of the contracts made with Mr Michiel 

Paauw, XT . 8 and 9 above 
I Copy of the permit to Pieter Pietersss 45 to sell his 

K L M Original contracts with Marijn Ariaenscn and jaspar fer- 

lijn and receipt for certain moneys 
N Copy of the contract made with Cornells Teunisen van 

Breuckelen, carpenter and mason 
< ) A rough drawing of the colony of Rensselaerswyck 

1' Instructions given to Jacob planch to take with him 

O R S Three books: Ars No'tariatus, Damhouder, Maniere van 

T Abstract of payments made to my men here 

\ Copy of the contract with the fanners 

\Y Protest to the Company on account of the animals of 

reus and bylevelt, which the notary has gone out to 

serve 4 " 

" V. A'. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.74. 
B Pieter Pietersz Bijlvelt. 

49 The last four items jn (he handwriting <>f Kiliaen van Rensselaei 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to the director and council in New 

Netherland 47 

April 29, 1634 

To the director and council of the Chartered West India Com- 
pany in New Netherland 

This 29th of April 1634 

Honorable, prudent, very discreet gentlemen: Enclosed I send 
your honors a copy of the protest made in my name to the lords 
directors of the Chartered West India Company, Chamber of this 
city, demanding that they turn over to me the animals, wagons 
and other tools which are still on the respective farms of gerrit 
de reus and pieter Bilevelt, also that they repay me for the damage 
already suffered by reason of the detention and in case of refusal 
still to be suffered. 

But inasmuch as the said directors have entered into further 
consultation with me and agreed to send the said protest with this 
open letter to you under cover from themselves, I hereby very 
kindly request you to take this matter up without delay, duly con- 
sidering that neither de Reux nor pieter bijlevelt are cause of the 
removal of the animals before the stipulated time of six years, 
but the Company itself, which has summoned them home and pre- 
vented them from returning thither; for if they eject from farms 
belonging to the Company, they can not with reason refuse the 
said people the permission to take with them the animals and tools 
which belong to them and which, not being able to find any pur- 
chaser at the manhatans, they were obliged to sell to me for my 

I doubt not therefore but the director and council will under- 
stand this as I do, the more so as the Company will thereby not 
be inconvenienced in the least, as there are plenty of other animals 
at the Manhatans which the farmers according to their contracts 
are bound to deliver to the Company; however, if the aforesaid 
two farms shall be put in the same condition as the six farms were 
when first leased, I am willing to take one of them on the former 
terms. I hope that Officer dincklagen, who now sails thither, will 
lake the other for himself, as therein' much damage and trouble 
which must otherwise necessarily result will be avoided and no one, 
as far as the future is concerned, will be offended. And as to what 
is past, if Officer nottelman gives me animals equal in number and 

47 V. R. />'. Mss, Letter Book. f.;>b. 

298 new york State library 

quality to those he received on the farm of Rcux, I am willing to 
allow for the increase and growth by the yearly payment to the 
Company of fioo, subject to arbitration and decision by the di- 
rector and council as to who of us shall reimburse the other; and 
in case the same should not be decided with nottelman before his 
departure, I shall be obliged to seek redress from the Company, 
which has detained them through its director, Croll. But relying 
on your honor's discretion I hope that it will end in such way that 
nobody will be offended or curtailed in his rights, but in the oppo- 
site case this enclosed protest will serve me to maintain my good 

And as I have proposed several other things to the lords directors 
which they have likewise referred to your honors, I shall make 
brief mention thereof. 

First, as my mill in the colony, where the grain for the men of 
Fort Orange is ground, is of great consequence to the Company 
inasmuch as the Company has no other mill there and as the same 
is situated somewhat far from my house standing on the farm of 
dclactsburgh and could easily be damaged by the savages (to great 
inconvenience, especially in the winter season when the water is 
closed and one can not get down any more 48 ) I would request that 
two or three persons from the garrison of Fort Orange with their 
arms might in turn be ordered to protect and defend the said mill, 
in return for which I undertake to cause a suitable guardhouse to 
be built at my expense in which they can defend themselves, which 
in any event will also serve as a good watchhouse against any 
attack winch the savages may attempt. Secondly, to prevent as 
much as possible all unnecessary expenses, that five or six persons 
from the aforesaid garrison of Fort Orange may be permitted to 
work during the day on the farms which I intend to establish 
around the aforesaid fort and during the night be required to keep 
close watch, on condition that I pay their board and the Company 
the wages, or I the wages and the Company the board ; and in this 
way, one hand washing the other, great unity and love may be 
brought about between the men of the fort and those of my colony 
so that they may assist each other faithfully in time of need. 
Thirdly, that the commis at Fort Orange may expressly be charged 
by the director and council, according to article 25 of the Freedoms 
of the patroons, to take all my people, houses, animals and other 
things under the Company's protection and defense; as I on my 

"That is: the peopli can not get to New Amsterdam when the Hudson is frozen. 





c 1 


CM 5 
^ o 

"o r T . 



side, have ordered my officer to assist the Company or its people 
with life and limb in all dangers that occur. Lastly, that there may 
be granted to me as a loan or on proper security, one of the two 
brew kettles which are in that country and that the commisen of the 
Company and my officer may mutually accommodate one another 
at moderate prices with that which one has to spare and the other 
needs ; whereupon I shall be pleased to receive at the first oppor- 
tunity your favorable resolution so far as the service of the Com- 
pany will allow, and finally, pray God Almighty, etc. 

Order of Michiel Pauw to Kiliaen van Rensselaer for payment 

• of bill 4y 

April 30, 1634 

19 persons 1 child 
6 persons 3 children 

25 persons 4 children 
the children at half pay, 
there are 27 persons at 
10 st makes f 13 :io, 
amounts for my share 
to f3 : 1 5"'" 

I Endorsed] 1634 2 May 
rcijnier pauw 

Mr Kiliaen van renselapr will please 

pay my son Reynier paauw 

22 wheat bags at 18 stivers each f 19 16 
1 schepel colza f 2 10 

the share in a tun of beer, four cheeses 
and 16 loaves of bread, costing 13 
guilders 4 stivers — so much thereof 
as your honor in justice shall find 

I have 19 persons and one child 
Done 30 April 1634 

[signed] M Paauzv 

Received from the hands of Kiliaen vn 
Renselaer on account of his colony of 
Rensselaerswyck the sum of f26:i for 
the above account, this 2d of May 
[634 in Amsterdam 50 

[signed] Reynier paauzv 

. . . f 22 : 6 

49 V. R. B. Mss 8. 

50 Marginal note and form of receipt in handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Roeloffsz 51 

[May, 1634?} 

Pieter Roeloffsen, burgomaster at Sivol 

Worthy, wise, prudent, very discreet Sir : According to the 
advice of our confrater, Mr Michael Paauw, I send you herewith 
the papers to be handed to the advocates, Botgreve, Jtteusum 5 ' 2 and 
Tweenhuysen, requesting your honor to be pleased to do this at the 
first opportunity and to procure in the speediest manner the solution 
of the proposed questions, as the matter will be submitted to their 
High Mightinesses' committee on Tuesday after Pinkster, at the 
Hague, whereby you will do us a singular favor which we shall 
not neglect to return gratefully whenever there is opportunity. 
Please return the documents to me, addressing your honor's letter 
to me, the underwritten, residing, etc., in order that they may not 
be lost. Wherewith ending, and Vale. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 53 

May 2, 1634 

To Jacob planck, officer of Rensselaerswyck, at Tcxcll, on the ship 

2 May 1634, in Amsterdam 

Enclosed I send you an open letter to the director and council in 
New Netherland together with the protest 54 which ] thought the 
lords directors would have enclosed in their letter; but as they 
could not quite decide 1 send it herein under cover, to read over 
the contents and transmit it thus open in my name, to the director 
and council, requesting an answer to the points therein mentioned 
and, in case of refusal as to the animals, that the enclosed pro- 
test may have its course, lie fore you transmit the letter, copy the 
protest and the letter, and if the matter can in any way be equitably 
settled, prefer peace to trouble as 1 judge also that the directors will 
write likewise to the director and council to do what is right. If 
they had enclosed my writing [it would mean that] they had com- 
pletely granted my request; they have therefore made difficulty 
about enclosing it in their letters, and the work lias been impeded 

61 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, i.y6b. 
M Should probably be Ittersum. 

™ V.R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.76. This letter is in the handwriting of Kiliaen van 
" Protest to the West India Company, April 27, 1634, printed on p. 290-92. 


somewhat also because Mr Vogelaer 55 has resigned his commis- 
sionership 56 of New Netherland. Herewith, vale. 

N. B. That I have also kept here a copy of the protest with the 
report of the notary, placed with other papers of mine which I have 
kept here. Memorandum. 

Arbitration of accounts of Pieter Bijlvelt and Kiliaen van 

Rensselaer 57 

June 21, 1634 

After submission of the case at issue between Mrs bylevelts, 
plaintiff, and Mr Kiliaen van renselacr, she claiming the sum of 
80 guilders in payment for a cow and also 50 guilders as balance of 
a larger amount in the matter and transfer of a farm with its ap- 
purtenances on the Manhatas in New Netherland, the underwritten 
arbiters have rendered the decision that Mr renselacr shall pay 
Mrs Bylcvclt the sum of 90 guilders, once, and that therewith the 
open account shall be liquidated and settled once and for all. In 
witness whereof this has been signed, 21 July 58 1634 at Amsterdam, 
[signed] M Paauzv 

Hendrick Hoochcamcr 

I, the underwritten, hereby acknowledge having received from 
the hands of kiliaen van Rensselaer the above stated sum of 90 
guilders and thank him for the due payment of all that was still 
outstanding between him and my husband pietter piettersen bij- 
levelt. Done at Amsterdam this 25th of June 1634. 

[signed] gertruijt bijleuclts 
36 Rd at 50 st f9o 
[Endorsed] Papers of Pieter Bijleveldt concerning the cattle 

bought of him. 
1634 : 25 June 

P r : Bylcvclt . . . iep 

83 Marcus dc Vogelacr, director of the West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam 
DcLaet, Iaerlijck Verhacl, introd. 
00 Commhchap. 
" V. R. B. Mss 10. 
58 Probably an error for si June 1634. 


Examination of Bastiaen Jansz KroF' 
June 30, 1634 


Examination of Bastiaen Jansz Crol, former director of New 
Netherland, being- 39 years of age, conducted at the request of 
the patroons by Notary Justus van de Ven, at Amsterdam, the 
30th of June 1634 

1. In what capacity, and for how long he was in the service of 
the West India Company in New Netherland. 

He states that he set out as comforter of the sick and made a 
voyage and stay of yy 2 months in that country. He went out for 
the second time in the same capacity, and after he had been away 
about 15 months, he was appointed to the directorship at Fort 
Orange on the North River and held the same for three years. 
The third time he went out again as director of Fort Orange and 
to the best of his recollection served again for about two years. 
After which he was elected director general of New Netherland at 
Fort Amsterdam on the island Manhatcs, lying at the mouth of 
the aforesaid North River also named Mauritius, and served in this 
office 13 months. 

2. Whether, when residing at Fort Orange, he did not hear from 
the chiefs of the Maquaas that there had formerly traded with them 
a certain Hans Jons': Hontom, who had first for skipper Jacob 
Eelkens, whom he later employed as his supercargo. 


3. Whether a misunderstanding did not arise between himself 
and Hontom, who had taken prisoner one of the chiefs. 


4. Whether, although the ransom was paid by the chief's sub- 
jects, Hontom, in spite of his promise, did not emasculate the 
chief, hang the severed member on the stay and so killed the 
Sackima.* 50 


••This document was not in the Van Rensselaer Bowier collection when placed in the 
hands of the present editor. Tt is printed in Dutch in Oud Holland, 1890, 8:287-89. as 
Appendix II to Mr de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaerswyck under the 
title: IntcrroRatoir van Bastiaen Janss Crol, gewesen dircctcur in Nicuw-Nederland, 
oud 39 jaren, ten versocke dcr patronen, gehouden door den notaris Justus van de Ven, 
te Amsterdam, den 30 Juni 1634. 

80 Dutch for sachem, chief. 


5. Whether in 1633, while he, Crol, was still director of New 
Netherland, the above named Hans Hontom did not come in the 
capacity of director of Fort Orange and councilor in New Nether- 


6. Whether he did not see that a month after the arrival of 
Hontom, there had also arrived Jacques Eclkcns, coming with his 
flute 01 from London, and whether he did not at once go up the 
river to Fort Orange. 


7. Whether he was not asked by his successor, the new director 
van TwiUer, to go again to Fort Orange in the service of the W. I. 
Company, in order to prevent Eclkcns from trading there. 


8. Whether, when he came up there, Jacques Eelkens was not 
already there and trading in a tent he had erected behind Castle 
Island on the mill creek. 


9. Whether the sloop of Eclkcns was not lying directly in front 
of the wall of Fort Orange and trading there. 


10. Whether he [Crol] did not station himself with his boat in 
the Maqnaas-kil above the fort, in order to cut off the Maquaas 
from reaching Eclkcns. 


11. Whether on the following day, Hontom did not come to tell 
him that he might as well go away as he could manage the matter 


12. Whether Eclkcns did not go often to the fort and whether 
Hontom did not often cat in the tent. 


13. How long Eclkcns traded there. 
Four to five weeks. 

How many skins he obtained. 
About 400. 

14. Whether he, when he was at Fort Orange, was not present, 
when Saggodryochta, head chief of the Maquaas, came, and seeing 

,;l Flute; a long vessel or boat, with flat ribs or floor limbers, round behind and swelling 
in the middle. 


Ho 11 to in, at once packed up his skins and rising up, said, " That 
man is a scoundrel, I will not trade with him." 

15. Whether soon afterwards, the Company's yacht dc Bevcr 
was not burned by the savages near Fort Orange. 


16. Whether the tribe of the Macquaas, shortly before he left 
Fort Orange did not tell him, as he understood their language, 
that they would kill the said Hans Jorisscn Hontom the rirst time 
ihoy should find him alone, and whether he had not warned Hontom 
about this. 


What answer Hontom made thereto. 

" That the Macquaas might do their best," or something to that 

17. Whether, on the 20th July, 1633, as he, Crol, lay ready to 
sail for the fatherland, a Mahican savage, named Die hop, did not 
come bringing the tidings to the island Manhates, that all the cattle 
in the neighborhood of Fort Orange had been killed. 


18. Whether the director Pieter Minuict, the predecessor of Crol, 
had not ordered Cornells -ran Vorst to keep two of the four young- 
cows which were with calf. 


Where this happened. 

In the house of Cornells van Vorst at Pavonia, in the presence 
of Pieter Bijlcvelt and shortly before the departure of Miuuit. 

19. Whether Andries Hudden, coinmis of stores, did not also 
furnish a cow to van Vorst. 


20. Whether JVouter ■van Twiller, director, in March 1633, about 
10 months after the delivery, took away these cattle from Cornells 
van Vorst. 


For what reason? 

Me said lie had bought them from Minuict. 

2\, Whether van Twiller did not give van Vorst three other cows 
in their place. 

Yes. ; 

Witnesses, Egbert Jansn 

an' bastiaen Janss krol 

Johannes vA. Hulst 


Bill of Michiel Pauw to Kiliaen van Rensselaer for his share in 
expenses of patroonships in New Netherlands 2 

July 20, 1634 

The general account of the three patroonships in New 

Netherland, drawn up at the Hague, amounts to £563 it 

to be paid by each, J/j f 187 17 

Mr renselaer advanced f 68 

paid to M paauw f 102 18 

must still pay to the same f 16 19 

fi87 17 
20 July 1634, Amsterdam 

[signed] M Paauw 

Herein is not included what is due and shall become due the 

notary vandcr venne 
1634 the 25th of July, paid to the maid servant of Mr Michael 
paauw in the presence of daniel vandcr Schelden 

6 Rd at 50 st . . . f 15 
Small coin 63 f 1 19 

Total fi6 19 as above 

[signed] daniel vandcr Schelden 

1634:25 June 04 michiel pauw fi6 19 

82 V. R. B. Mss, 9. 
a moneto. 

111 Apparently a mistake for July. 



Account of the jurisdictions, management and condition of the 
territories named Rensselaerswyck 05 

July 20, 1634 


Account of the jurisdictions, management and condition of the 
territories named Rensselaerswyck, situated in New Nether- 
land on the river of the Prince Mauritius; communicated in 
writing upon express condition de non praejudicando. This 
20th of July 1634 

Comprising the whole district with all the lands formerly in- 
habited by and belonging to the free, rich and well known. nation 
named the Mahikans, who had a language of their own and in the 
year 1625 would not give up or sell any of the aforesaid lands 
even at the request of the Chartered West India Company. 

But since Daniel van Kricckcnbecck, former couimis at Fort 
Orange, involved and engaged these same Manhykans in needless 
wars with the warlike nation of the Maquaes, their former friends 
and neighbors, they lost in the beginning their general chief 
named Monnemin, and subsequently were so hard pressed from 
time to time, especially by the defeat they suffered in 1629, that 
they resolved in the years 1630 and 1631 to sell and transfer their 
said lands with all their rights, jurisdiction and authority to and 
for the behoof of Kiliaeh van Rensselaer, the present owner and 
lawful possessor of the before mentioned regions, according to the 
respective deeds of cession and transfer of date August 13, 1630, 
and May 163 1. 

First, the free lordship and jurisdiction named Sunckhagag, 
lying on the west side of the river, beginning from Beeren Island 
and extending up to Sniax Island, having along the shore of the 
river about 210 morgens of cleared land now ready to put animals 
on, for raising hay and cultivating with the plow, and extending 

08 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, i.j7-j<)b, entitled: NarCe van de gercchtichedcn, dircctic 
en 't wesen van de territoircn gen. Rcnssclacrswijck, gelegcn in Nicuw-Ncdcrlant op 
de reviere van d'vorst Mauritius gecommunicieert in scriptis ondcr c.rprcs bedinck de 
non praejudicando. Drscn so July T634. Printed in Hutch in Oud Holland, iSqn, 
8:260-65, as Appendix E to Mi de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 
This importanl memorandum was prepared l>y Kiliaen van Rensselaer for the use of a 
committee of the Chamber of Amsterdam, which was considering the purchase of the 
colonics as a means of settling the disputes which had arisen between the patroons and 
the Company regarding the interpretation to be given to the charter of Freedoms and 


two days' journey inland, bought from their chief Paapsickenekas 
with his accompanying councilors and co-owners, Keraptac, Nan- 
koutamhat and Sickcnoscn. ■ Which aforesaid and the other further 
to be named lordships are endowed with such prerogatives and 
privileges as the honorable Michael Panw has stated in his declara- 
tion which, for brevity's sake, it is needless to repeat here, reference 
being made to this declaration for them and such other prerogatives 
as may especially belong to these lordships. 

Secondly and thirdly, the free lordships and jurisdictions named 
Pctanock and Ncgagonsc, the first including all the territory to the 
south and north of the mill creek, comprising also the West Island, 
containing in all more than 240 morgens of cleared land and fertile 
soil, with three farms named as follows, Renselacrs-Burch, Wclys- 
Burch and Godijns-Biireh; that of Ncgagonse, including all the 
lands and two parcels up to Monnemin's Castle containing much 
over 350 morgens of cleared land as above, with the following 
farm called Blommaerts-Burch, everything along the west side of 
the river, and inland indefinitely; bought of the respective chiefs, 
councilors and owners Kottoiuack, Nawanemith, Abantrjciicc, 
Sagiskua, Kannamoock. 

Fourthly, the free lordship and jurisdiction named Scmczccck, 
lying on the east side of the river, bought from the aforesaid 
Nazvanemith, having belonged exclusively to him; containing a 
watermill and farm called de Laets-Burch with a crystal rock and 
several beautiful groves, to which must be added the lands which 
Paapsickennikas at present still possesses and which are ordered 
to be bought, the same containing together 400 morgens of cleared 
land. 68 

Fifthly, 07 the islands of Paapsickenekas with the mainland lying 
on the east shore, bought by Jacob Planck, the 23d of April 1637, 
from the following chiefs and owners, Casehot, OnJiaseme, Kam- 
kehock. Sickcwope, Nosenae and Ochkock, and payment made witb 
scawan, duffels, axes, knives and other merchandise. 

So that the territory of the Mahikans, who in their time were 
over 1600 strong, has all together over 1200 morgens of cleared 
land and far more than 16,000 morgens of mountain and valley, 
forest and marsh, with all kinds of game and fowl, the 1200 
cleared morgens being not only fat, clayey soil of itself but yearly 
enriched by the overflow of high water there when the ice breaks 

08 Cf. note on p. 167. 

87 This paragraph was inserted later. 


and jams. The same lies ordinarily from three to five feet above 
the water, according as the tide runs high or low (and yet it is 
fresh water) and ships of over 120 lasts can sail up there from the 

The lands described above having been bought, all possible dili- 
gence was applied to populate the same with Christians, to purchase 
animals and to send thither all kinds of tools and necessaries, 
namely, in the year 1630, in charge of the farm overseer Wolffaert 
Gcrrittscn, besides those who deserted him : ns 

rnlgcr hendricksen van So est 

brant pcclcn vandcr Nieckarck 

beerent Iansen van cscn[cnf] 

roeloff Iansen van mastcrlant 

annetgen Jans, his wife 

Sara and trintgen rodoffs, his daughters with another child 
born before in that country 69 

Clacs clacscn van vlccker 

lacob Goyuerttsen van Ditto 

Zeeger lansscn vandcr nieckarck 
Besides sending 12 ewes with lamb, orders were given to buy al! 
kinds of animals in the country there, so that the aforesaid persons 
had in the year 163 1 established two fine farms, one on West 
Island, named Rcnsselacrsburch, provided with a convenient dwell- 
ing, the sides and gable built up with brick, long and wide as re- 
quired; in addition two hay barracks, each of five poles fifty feet 
high ; also a barn and sheepcote and other necessaries. Eight 
morgens of land were plowed in the year 1632. On the 14th of 
April, 1633, there were to be found thereon : 

6 horses, including 2 mares with foal 

5 head of cattle, including 2 cows with calf 

6 hogs 
16 sheep 

and in the same year were raised 14 morgens of fine winter 

2 morgens ditto rye 
4 morgens of summer seed, oats, peas, etc. 

r * At this and other points of the document Mr de Roever has a footnote saying: 
" ITcre follows a part of the names of the persons already given in Appendix- D." For 
the sake of the completeness of the document and because the Appendix D hss been 
replaced by a different list of colonists, the names have here been restored t) their 
proper place. 

69 met noch een kint daertevoorn Int lant gebooren. 


The house was furnished with all kinds of farm implements and 
necessaries for the animals and for the comfort and support of the 
people and what further was needful. 

The above mentioned persons further established another farm 
in the lordship of Semelzeeck, named de Laetsburch, on the east side 
of the river; but as this house was burned by accident, they built 
again another brick house, 80 feet long, the threshing floor 25 feet 
wide and the beams 12 feet high, up to the ceiling; further, a hay 
barrack of 4 poles, 50 feet above the ground, with barn and sheep- 
cote. They were also provided with a sailing vessel, etc., as men- 
tioned above, and in the year 1632 cultivated 5 morgens of land, and 
in April 1633, the farm was found to contain: 
6 horses, including 2 yearlings 

4 head of cattle, including one ox and one bull 

5 h °gs 
22 sheep 

6 morgens winter wheat 
1 ditto rye 

3 ditto summer grain 
Again in the year 163 1, there were sent thither from here: 

lourcns lourenssen van coppenhaegen, millwright 

berent thonissen van heyligensont 

Maryn adriaensen vandcr Veere 

lysbct thy sen, his wife 

a son born before in that country 70 

Jasper ferlyu vandcr Gouzv 

Jan thyerts van franicker 

Cornells maessen van buermalsen 
Besides the above mentioned persons, all kinds of necessaries for 
man and beast were sent over, including eight heifer calves, of 
which seven arrived alive, also millstones, all kinds of ironwork 
and the like for the erection of a saw and grist-mill, tobacco plant- 
ing and farming purposes; whereof is still in existence the grist- 
mil] where grain is ground for Fort Orange and the country around. 
Item, another dwelling house stands outside of Fort Orange in 
which Marijn Adriaenss is living with his family. They have pre- 
pared an enclosed plot of two morgens in which to sow tobacco. 

In the year 1032, with the knowledge and consent of the Com- 
pany, were bought from Pieter Pieterss Bilevelt and paid for: 

3 horses 

9 head of cattle 

70 een Soon te Voorcn dacr Int Lant gebooren. 


3 bull calves and all his farming implements including wagons, 
plows, etc. 
Ditto, bought from Pieter Minuict aside from the animals be- . 
longing to his farm, which he sold to the director, W outer van 

3 horses 

8 head of cattle and several hogs 
Ditto, taken over from Gerrit Theusen de Reux, the animals 
belonging to his farm, namely : 

4 horses 

4 head of cattle 

2 young heifers 

4 sheep 

4 hogs 

with all the farm stock of wagons, plows, etc., needful for 
fanning, and in addition, of the increase of animals belong- 
ing to him, also purchased, 

i stallion colt 

i young ox 

2 heifers and 50 guilders consideration paid in exchange of 
a cow for a heifer. 
In addition to this, in the aforesaid year 1632, the following per- 
sons were sent over : 

Gerrit mathcussen de reux 

hendrick frederich van bunnick 

Cor ne lis thonissen van meerkerck 

Marcus meussen van Cuylenborch 
Also two or three laborers to be engaged there from those who 
have served out their time, in order to establish with the aforesaid 
animals and their increase three farms, namely, Weelys-Burch on 
the West Island, Godijas-Biireh near the mill creek, both in the lord- 
ship of Petanock, and Blommaerts-Burch near the fourth creek, in 
the lordship of Negagonse. All these three farms would have been 
established in the year 1633 but that, through a misunderstanding of 
Director Bastiaen Janssen Krol who raised the objection that he had 
no instructions from the lords [directors], they were detained at 
the Manhatans. However, as further advice has now come over, 
the said animals and implements will be sent to Rensselaerswyck, 
in order this present year with God's help to establish the three 
farms before named, which was prevented in the year 1633. 


With which firm confidence, the following have heen sent thither 
this year 1634: 

Lubbert Gysberttsen van blarcom, wheelwright 

Divertgen Cornells, his wife 

Gysbert, the us, and Ian, their three sons 

Cornells thonissen van brenckel, carpenter-mason 

hendrick karstenssen van Norden 

Abraham Iacobssen Planck 

and as the officer of Renselaers comes home, sent in his place 
laeob albert tsen planck, to fill the said place and to adminis- 
ter proper justice. 
All the above mentioned persons have heen supplied with their 
proper necessities, as clothing - , provisions and tools, firelocks and 
other needful weapons for themselves, and for the people in that 
country, so that this last outfitting-, with messenger hire and other 
expenses, will alone amount to nearly 3000 guilders. 

From the preceding account, it will be sufficiently perceived to 
what trouble and expense the said patroon has been, what efforts 
he has made, what perils his people and his animals have withstood, 
in what good condition the respective lordships of Rensselaerswyck 
now are, with prospects of annual improvements, and what a 
quantity of grain and animals could be raised on the 1200 morgens 
of cleared land, as good as here the Betuzve 71 or the Beans ter 12 may 
be, there being no doubt but that this present year he will seed 
enough land to produce over 40 lasts of grain, mostly wheat, whereto 
may Almighty God lend his gracious blessing. Amen. 

The said patroon therefore, considering all the prerogatives and 
benefits, only touched upon here in passing and in a general way, 
is most highly inclined to carry on the work he has begun and ex- 
pects the gracious blessing of the Lord upon it in case he is allowed 
quickly and peacefully to enjoy the granted Freedoms and Exemp- 
tions according to their right meaning and content. But if he 
should be hindered therein, he would rather negotiate about the 
undertaking with the Chartered West India Company than oppose 
himself to the Company, if it will agree to offer him such a sum of 
money as he has mentioned before the honorable committee; with 
this reservation, that in case the Company should give the undertak- 
ing up again, he should have the preference in accordance with [con- 
ditio ins I further to he expressed ; if not, that the original of this memo- 

71 See note on p. 6?. 
"'-' See note on p. 63. 


randum shall be handed back to him without keeping any copy 
thereof or making further publication. And in order that the honor- 
able committee may have still further enlightenment, he refers to 
the map and drawing of the aforesaid jurisdictions and regions 
heretofore delivered to the honorable director Albertus Coenradi 
Burcli and the duplicate thereof which remains with the said 

This memorandum was sent with a letter to the Hague to the 
honorable Johaii Ray, director of the West India Company, and 
member of the committee in charge of this matter, to be re- 
turned by his honor in case no action is taken thereon. And 
in testimony of the truth, signed by my own hand. Date as 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 73 

July 21, 1634 


JoJian de Laet, at Lcyden 

This day, 21 July 1634, in Amsterdam 
Sir: Enclosed I send your honor a letter to Mr Johan Raye, 
containing a memorandum concerning the state and condition of the 
colony of Rensselaerswyck, which I have thought good to send first 
to your honor in order that your honor may read it, and then at once 
without delay send it to the Hague, closing the letter which I have 
left open with your seal. 

The Company delays reply to our claim 73 " delivered to it at the 
Hague. It seems now to be inclined to' come to an agreement, to 
which the combined patroons have consented on condition of re- 
ceiving a reasonable price. I have asked 6000 pounds blemish for 
my colony and would not like to take much less since I have heard 
that our enterprise is in fine condition. Be so kind as not to neglect 
sending this letter to the 1 [ague early tomorrow, Saturday morning, 
as it requires haste and Mr Pauzv has already given in his state- 
ment here. And give me a line of acknowledgment thai your honor 
has received this letter, so that 1 may not he in anxiety. 

n V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.8o. Printed in Dutch in Oud Holland, 1890, 8:266, as 
Appendix F to Mr de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 
7:,:i Pretension and Claim, June 16, 1634, printed in Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 

1:86-88, and O'Callaghan, History of Nrw Netherland, 1: 160-63. 


I expected to have found your honor at the Hague the last time 
and would then have asked you for the third assessment which the 
other confraters have already paid, your fifth part amounting to 200 
guilders with 100 guilders more for other expenses, being in all 300 
guilders; it would have been much more if I had not received a 
goodly sum for the furs which were brought over on the last trip, 
so that this assessment is not higher. Please send this at once to 
me. I will immediately send your honor a receipt. 

I hope that all our shortage in Swanendael (which has too many 
rulers) will be made up by my colony. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jehan Raye 74 

July 21, 1634 

Mr lehan Raye, at the Hague 

This day, 21 July 1634 

Sir : Enclosed I send your honor the memorandum concerning the 
state and condition of my colony which your honor will please keep 
by you and not communicate further than to the gentlemen to whom 
these affairs are committed as I should not like to see that every man 
had knowledge thereof, for so many men. so many judgments, and 
through lack of understanding an affair is frequently badly spoken 
of and misinterpreted. Please do me the favor also to notify me 
by a line of the receipt of this. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 75 
May 24, 1635 

Jacop Planck, officer of Rensselaerswyck, per Jacob ysbrantsen, 
skipper of dc sevenstar 

In Amsterdam, this 24th of May 1635 

Although at this hour we are still in hope and fear as to whether 
the ship dc Eendracht in which you and my people sailed may be 
on its way hither or whether in coming or even in sailing thither it 
may have perished, each of which calls for its especial consideration 
and remark, and although as long as 1 am not assured of the one 
I have to fear the other, and as long as I receive no advice from you 
as to the situation of my colony I find little about which to write 

V. A'. />'. Mss, Letter Book, 1 6b 

('. A'. />'. M .,-.«, Letter Beak, t - N 1 . 


to you, I can nevertheless not refrain from notifying you by this 
speedily departing ship, which now sails so hurriedly, while at other 
times it has lain ready for six months, that the respective patroons 
of the colonies of Sivanendal and Pavonia have sold and transferred 
their colonies to the West India Company. As it may easily happen 
that they should try to intimate to you that I have sold my colony or 
am negotiating about it with the Company, this will serve to inform 
you that my colony is still intact and that I am still free and in the 
full possession of my freedoms and privileges and, with the advice 
of my confraters and by the gracious blessing of the Lord, also 
intend to carry on the said colony with as much zeal and reputation 
as ever before, and should not have failed to send people and other 
necessaries by this ship if I had been assured of the condition of my 
colony, which I still hope to learn in a few days on the arrival of 
the ship de Eendracht (for which the Company according to my 
judgment should wait a few days longer) ; it will then be necessary 
to send a large ship thither by which I hope to send you of every- 
thing and write more at length. Investigate some time what the 
colony's rights are, as the Company having bought the colony of 
Mr pauiv has been obliged to admit and accept the contracts which 
Mr pauw made with his people concerning the trade in peltries till 
the expiration and end of their terms. 

If then, Cornells van Voorst and his people, whose master sold 
his colony, is allowed to trade, how much more right have you whose 
patroon retains his freedoms and has held them continuously to the 
present, which does not lessen your business but increases it. Only 
have patience for a short period of years ; the Lord will bless our 
undertaking as we have a much better object than the Company in 
this matter, since we seek to populate the country and in course of 
time by many people to propagate the teaching of the Holy Gospel, 
while they on the contrary, employing only a few people, seek only 
the profits of the fur trade and largely deceive themselves, as these 
profits arc still accompanied by losses. Therefore, I trust that the 
omniscient God will bless our good intention in this matter as an 
example for others to follow us. Meanwhile, do your best in the 
fear of the Lord to rule the people in good order and discipline and 
to urge them to diligent work, which I trust you have done already 
and hope to hear at the first opportunity. Meanwhile, remain 
[commended;] to the faithful God, etc. 

I would write to others of my people also, but know not how it 
goes with them. "Please to greet them all for me and write me 


at every opportunity by way of Virginia or New England, or by 
whatever people or ships may come there, as we long very much 
[to hear from you], as does your wife, who has also written to you. 
This goes per Jacob ysbransen, who is to be skipper of a sloop and 
is well acquainted with you. Keep on good terms with him and 
with all honest people. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van T wilier 76 

May 24, 1635 


Wouter van Twiller, New Netherland 

This 24 May 1635, Amsterdam 
Per Jacob Usbrandtscn, by the ship dc Sevenster 

Sending you our hearty greetings, we hope that you are well, al- 
though we have not heard from you in a long time, and this must 
be written in haste since the skipper has been notified that he must 
sail early tomorrow morning; things must now be rushed through 
all at once, after they have dawdled at least six months with this 
ship. I wish that they had waited a few days more, now they have 
waited so long, for I hope that the ship dc Ecndracht may arrive 
in a few days, since I have heard from some Englishmen that over 
there, as here, it has been a very hard winter and therefore the 
skins could not arive before the latter part of March, so that the 
ship could not leave there before the middle of April and 14 clays 
from now will be just the right time for it to be here, unless it has 
been wrecked, which may God in his mercy forbid. It is the ship 
dc Ecndracht, which sailed from here in the beginning of May of 
last year, by which I sent Jacob Planck, as officer and commis of 
my colony named Rensselaerswyck, with his son ; and also a wheel- 
wright with wife and three children ; also a carpenter, who is a mason 
as well ; and also a farm hand, besides all kinds of stores of food 
and clothing, farm implements, etc., which equipment has cost me 
about 3000 guilders, so that its [loss] would be a great misfortune 
for me. besides the loss of my time, and practically the decline or 
ruin of my colony. But T hope that it has arrived there safely. 

I wrote by that ship full particulars about all that has happened 
here with reference to you, which the bearer of this, Jacob IJsbrandt- 

78 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.8ob-8i. Printed in Dutch in Olid Holland, 1890, 
8:290-92, as Appendix J to Mr de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 


sen, will also tell you. He has always defended you, as you can 
see from his declaration, which I sent by de Eendracht. Therefore 
favor him in return, where you can do it with propriety, since ht 
deserves it. 

If de Eendracht has been wrecked in coming- hither, many return- 
ing people must have gone down with her. We must trust to the 
Lord for the outcome. The directors are very much alarmed. 
They do not know what may be the state of affairs over there, since 
they have received no letters from you by way of Virginia or New 
England. Many complain bitterly, saying that you have chartered 
the sugar-bark to the English, which they heard from some English- 
men, and now they are the more displeased since you might for want 
of de Eendracht have sent over this bark to bring news. To sum 
up, the work here is quite unsettled. 

The Company has bought out the two colonies Swariendal and 
Pavonia, but my colony is still intact and I am in the full posses- 
sion of my freedoms. Neither am I negotiating with them ; if any 
one should so report, believe it not ; I am in full possession and am 
determined with my confraters to carry on the work with more 
courage than ever before, if the colony yet exists. I would indeed 
have sent people and necessaries now, but I do not know in the least 
how matters stand there. Many believe that everything in that 
country is entirely destroyed, people as well as cattle, though I still 
have better courage and a better opinion of the affair. Mr Pan:,' 
has sold his colony, as stated ; but the Company has been obliged to 
allow his people to trade in furs during their time, according to his 
understanding and agreement with them. How much more right 
to such trading, therefore, have my people, whose patroon still holds 
his full jurisdiction and freedoms. It seems to me the Company is 
taking a strange course in New Netherland affairs and that ere long 
they will be obliged to lease the fur trade to others who will manage 
it better ; or else, the whole will go wrong. They want to economize 
by having few people and they can not keep the land in that way. 

They send no commis with this ship, but late this evening engaged 
Gysbert op den Dijck as " assistant." Many would like to have had 
Dirck Cornells::: Duyster as commis, but others feared thai Hontom 
would then have to leave, and therefore they countermanded him 
this evening. I hope that he will yet be engaged, if de Eendracht 
brings good tidings, so that they may have to send no other 77 ship 
this year. 

' 7 I think that here " yet another " must be read. N. vu. R. 


I know nothing' more to write since I did so at length by de 
Eendracht. I recommend to yon the welfare of my colony in so far 
as the service of the Company will permit, which is unnecessary to 
specify, as yon know it better than myself. 

I wait with great patience for the arrival of de Eendracht, which 
I hope will make ns greatly rejoice with the news that all is well 
in the land. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Coenraet Notelman 7 * 

January 10, 1636 

Coenraat Notehiuin, at Tiel 

This day, 10 January 1636, in Amsterdam 
After wishing your honor and your wife a joyful and happy new 
year through Jesus Christ, our only and complete Savior, amen, 
these lines will serve as answer to yours of the third instant re- 
garding our difference concerning the animals of the farm of ger- 
rit de Reux. I notice your statement and the advice which my 
nephew Wouter J 'an Twillcr is supposed to have given. I will 
quietly pass it by rather than administer the rebuke which it de- 
serves 71 ' for neither he nor you have grasped the situation in the 
least, which I will hereby explain. As far as the affair of gerrit de 
Reux is concerned, this is not a question between you and me but be- 
tween me and the West India Company, who through their agents 
have prevented me from transporting my animals to my colony, not 
only those of gerrit de Reux but also those of pieter bylevelt, on the 
ground that they sold the animals to the former as well as to the 
latter on the 15th. of January [630, as stated in a special letter of 
>aine date to the director and council in New Netherland and this 
upon the conditions agreed to on the eighth of January of the same 
year with woiphert gerritsz and Claas Cornells-, in the name of all 
the farmers of the six farms. You fight therefore against your 
own shadow in alleging that in your country the first purchase ought 
to stand as it does in our country, 80 and consequently you pronounce 
your own sentence, since gerrit de Reux from the aforesaid 15th of 
January 1630 was the purchaser of the said animals and has not 

w J '. K. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.82 

'■ .vi7 liever met discretie het selue suppcrteeren als na merite deprehendeerej literally, 
will rather quietly suffer the same than attack it as it deserves. 

80 alleger»nde de voorCoop in u lani gelyck sij oock doet in ons lant beh<A>ri voorl tc 


pretended any after purchase. 81 Although he had paid the first 
term, I left him the animals as belonging to him, while in the con- 
tract made with me he also stipulated that I should return his ani- 
mals to him in my colony where he would settle. This affair is 
clear and I shall know how to get my indemnity for detention in 
this matter by the Company or their agents, but this does not con- 
cern your honor in the least, either for or against. That he wanted 
to hire himself out to you does not take away his right. It may 
also be that he does not understand his own rights or that the agents 
of the Company have not correctly communicated to him the con- 
tract of the farm and sale of the animals. As for me, I knew the 
same when later I contracted with him myself, and a year before 
that, when the Company wanted to take his farm and animals away 
from him, I caused them to be put in your honor's name, for my 
behoof as far as the animals were concerned, and for your own be- 
hoof as to the farm, according to the instruments thereof which 
your honor has. It is therefore wide of the truth to say that you 
promised to turn the animals over to me; on the contrary I caused 
the farm to be put in your name because I did not want it for my- 
self, and because I added in the instructions given your honor that 
you should cause the animals and things belonging thereto to be 
sent up the river for my account, what claim to ownership of the 
animals does this give you now and what reason have you for draw- 
ing me into the farm? As to your honor's saying that the animals 
and the farm can not be separated from each other, this can be done 
very well ; it has indeed been done with the farm of bylcvelt, as well 
as with that of gcrrit dc Reux, inasmuch as the company had power 
to eject them from the farms belonging to them but not to deprive 
them of the animals which it had sold to them and which did not 
belong to the Company but to the purchasers, as it was not stated 
in any article of the contract that the animals must remain with 
the farm but only the increase to the number stipulated if they 
should be provided therewith. In short, mon cousijn, the farm is 
yours because I did not want it, as it was of no use to me but was 
to your honor, to whom I gladly yielded it, but the animals are mine 
and my confraters. 

Your honor knew neither of the farm nor of the animals nor did 
you request them of the Company except on my order after I had 
told you that I wished to keep the animals for myself and had the 
instruments drawn accordingly. 1 pray your honor, loll me with 

B1 ende geene na Coop gefingcert heeft. 


whom did your honor contract about the farm or the animals, and 
who granted them to you ? I hope that your honor will not depart 
so far from the truth as to take to yourself for your own behoof 
what I caused to be put in for my behoof and more than agreed 
upon with you, of which [agreement] in case of denial I have suf- 
ficient proof ; and in case your honor understands it thus, to wit that 
the animals are ours, I shall gladly and in all equity, even to our 
damage, try to persuade my confraters to treat with you; if not, 
I can do nothing more, as I then told them and stated the case to 
them thus and later confirmed it in my letters and I do not wish to 
alter my word in the least as if I had misinformed them untruth- 
fully. Wherewith ending, Vale. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller** 2 

September 25, 1636 
Woutter Van Twillcr, director 

In the name of the Lord, this 25th of 

September 1636, in Amsterdam 

Mon Cousin: I find myself with your honor's favor of the 31st 
of August 1635, sent to me by the ship d'eendracht, from which I 
learned of your honor's good state of health; we are also, God be 
praised, still well. My wife is in childbed of a young son, 83 whom 
I have named after my uncle Claes van Rensselaer, deceased, so 
that now the names of the three brothers Rensselaer have been be- 
stowed, the youngest having become the oldest. May Almighty 
God let them grow up in virtue to the honor of His holy name. 
Amen. Your father, mother, brothers and sisters at Nieukerck 
were on Thursday last still feeling well also, but the situation at 
Nieukerck is very sad on account of the severe sickness of pestilence. 
Already 700 persons had died there and few houses are free. May 
the Lord preserve them further ; however, it does not stop yet but 
increases daily. Our brother in law Willem van Weelij and his 
wife annaten hoof both died of it. It rages here pretty badly too; 
more than 600 in one week. Many acquaintances have died already, 
too long to relate, but our and my mother's household are still well 
( rod be praised. The Lord grant what is pleasing to His holy will 
and for our salvation in life or in death. Amen. 

8 » V. R. B. Ms.*, Letter Book, f.86. 

83 Nicolaes, or Nicolaus van Rensselaer; in 1675 installed as minister of the Re- 
formed Hutch Church at Albany and the same year appointed as director of the colony 
of Rensselaerswyck in place of his deceased brother Jeremias. 


I should have heen pleased if your honor had in your last letter 
written at somewhat greater length and advised me more in detail 
regarding certain points mentioned in my previous letter. How- 
ever, taking into consideration that you lacked time as the ship was 
ready to sail, it could not be made longer. I hope that next time 
you will write more at length. Referring to my preceding letter, 
which will make this one shorter, I would write your honor at 
length about the very injurious remarks uttered by the former fiscal, 
dincklagen, against your person and especially against the minister, 
but as all the persons sailing on this ship have sufficient knowledge 
thereof I refer [you] to them, who will no doubt relate everything 
to you by word of mouth, especially pieter Cornells::., who knows 
all about it. My earnest request would be that your honor be 
pleased to do everything in your power to obtain from the maquaas 
as much of the indemnity for my animals as is possible and advis- 
able. It seems that they have in view to send another director and 
they might very well employ as such walbeeck, 8 * commander at 
Curacao; however, that matter is still unsettled. 85 The Company 
has much discussed certain points which I proposed to them con- 
cerning the throwing open of the fur trade, but thus far no deci- 
sion has been made; what will come of it, time will show. If they 
wish to keep it to themselves with few people, which is most profit- 
able to them, they can not defend the country, and with many people 
they suffer loss; and others will not care to populate the country 
unless they have the free trade. 

September 29 — While writing this, I receive your favors of the 
22d of March, the 12th and 15th of August 1636, sent by de Seuen 
Starra, which I shall answer hereafter. The Company complains 
very much that your honor writes so little, of which I also warned 
you in my last letter. I do not know the reason why you are so 
negligent about that ; they say that you do not even mention Da 11 id t 
pieteress and his ship which sailed thence with de Seue sterre. You 
surely ought to have done that, and further they say that they have 
little advice how everything is getting along there. If your honor 
hesitates to write to the full assembly, 80 at least do not neglect the 

"Johannes van Walbeeck; sailed from Holland May 4, 1634, in charge of an expedi- 
tion .sent by the Wesl India Company in seize the island of Curacao and took possession 
.,1 the island in August of that yea. . Before this expedition lie served the Company 
in the capacity of Politique Raedt, political councilor, in Brazil. He Laet, Taerlijck 
1 'erhael, p. 430-38, 484- 

85 raauw; literally, raw. 

w> Jndien VE schreupelues is aende voile vergaderinge te schrijven. 


gentleman who remains fairly favorable to your honor, for he can 
easily protect your affairs if he understands them, as the whole 
work devolves largely upon him, and do not be too headstrong 
in this matter nor depend too much on yourself. Is it not fair that 
the masters get some satisfaction from their servants? And if 
there are some who are rude and indiscreet, I do not think that the 
Company in their letters written to you and to the council have 
overstepped the bounds of propriety and decency, nor can one 
charge the whole body with the action of some impertinent mem- 
bers. This by way of information. 

I see that your honor would like to succeed to a share in my 
colony and to have me buy for your account the share of the heirs 
of Godijn. If I had known this a little earlier, I should no doubt 
have succeeded, as this share was publicly sold on the 21st of August 
in the Orphan Chamber here, 1/10 share to Jacob and hendrick trip 
[and the other 1/10 to me] for the account of a good friend stia whom 
I am not allowed to mention. If this friend should give it up, and 
he is thinking the matter over and has not yet given me his answer 
of yes or no, there would still be hope for your honor to obtain the 
same ; however I think that he will keep it, of which we will speak 
more fully at our meeting, if the Lord saves our lives. I request 
nevertheless that your honor make every effort to buy as many 
animals for my colony as you can get and to send some of your 
surplus thither too and to cause some separate farms to be estab- 
lished. I hope that we shall come to a good agreement, which 
will be more profitable for you than to stay at the manhatans, and 
as the time has gone by to advise you of everything at length as I 
have done to Jacob planck, [I must content myself] with sending 
you the enclosed documents from No. 1 to No. 13 and with asking 
you to assist my people as well as the people of this ship as much as 
is consistent with the service of the Company and your honor's in- 
structions. I should have liked to send a larger ship, provided the 
Company had helped me a little and sent people and goods by it also, 
but they declined to do so. I must have patience, the Lord can 
bless [my work] that meanwhile it may become greater. I see that 
the animals have in part been sent up the river; I hope that the 
rest will follow also. I have ordered Jacob planck to take up the 
suit again and given him instructions because I have suffered force 
and violence, as you read in the enclosed papers sent to Jacob planck. 

s,m Albert Coenraets Burgh; see p. 334. 


Notelman has been a harmful person to me and it becomes a 
great question now where the Company will get their payment and 
increase. As to the payment of the purchase money up to f6oo, I 
must supply this money, as Gerrit de Reux has made the first pay- 
ment. The increase I can not furnish for I have not used them, but 
notelman. According to the inventory 87 of the Company there 
has been no increase, as Notelman has delivered no more than he 
received and the contract with the farmers stipulates that they must 
deliver the increase if they have any. Notelman must also pay the 
rent for the three years, with which I never was concerned in the 
least. He has been looking for favors 88 here for 8 or 10 months and 
been a burden to me and is as far now as he was in the beginning. 
I think it advisable to keep a farm for me at the Manathans ; please 
look after that and make arrangement for it. 

In your preceding letter I find some obscure reasons of which 
we shall speak further at our meeting, God willing. Dirck Corssen, 
the supercargo, has orders to erect if necessary a shed at the Man- 
hatans to store our goods in. It can be put on the farm which I 
shall keep or even the barn may be used. He has orders to pay to 
your honor the Company's dues of everything in which he deals, 
in conformity with the 13th and 16th articles of the Freedoms (the 
15th article concerns the colony and not this ship and goods, in 
which we have a half interest too) ; and I do not in the least desire 
to have trouble with the Company but wish in everything to regu- 
late myself according to the Freedoms granted. My wife has 
received the cunning little animal ; 89 it is with her in the room and 
she thanks your honor very much for it. The raven sent by D'een- 
dracht has died, nevertheless I thank you for the favor. I see 
with what kind of people you have had to deal from time to time ; 
however, do right and the lie will not stick. This skipper says many 
bad things. In fine, it is a confused affair which can not be cleared 
up without your honor's presence. Do not neglect to advise me as 
to the actions and comportment of Jacob planck, wherewith I 
shall end, commending your honor to the protection of Almighty 
God ; may He let us come together in love. 

' M Mon Cousin. After finishing the above letter, the enclosed 
agreement was made with Noottclman by the mediation of the un- 

m acte; literally, authentic document; the word has a very general meaning. 

88 heeft hier liggen hengelen; literally, has been angling here. 

84 het aengename beestgen; literally, the pleasing little animal. 

80 This postscript is in the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 


derwritten arbiters, which you may therefore cause to be recorded, 
in order to charge me with no more than I am obliged to give. 
His defense has been based mainly on the resolution 01 of the Com- 
pany ; the Company may see then too where they get their due. 
Herewith goes a plain copy of the instrument, time does not allow 
to have it authenticated but it will appear from the letters and also 
from the books here. Please to insert this letter also among the 
papers of Jacob planck, after you have read it and made a copy of it. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 02 
October 3, 1636 

Jacob Planck, officer and coniiiiis in New Netherland 

This day, 3 October 1636 

These presents, going by Pieter comelisen van Munnekendam 
with the ship called Renssclaers Wyck, which has been equipped by 
me and my confraters largely for the service of my colony, will 
serve first to advise you of the receipt of your letters of October 
10, 1634, and July 3, 1635, from the colony of Rensselaerswyck, 
and of August 17 and 27 following from Fort Amsterdam, together 
with the account of goods sold to that time, of which I expected 
the continuation by the ship de Scvensterre, by which I received 
yours of the 24th of July 1636, written from the aforesaid colony. 
That letter, being very short and containing little information, doe? 
not include the said continuation of the preceding account, much 
less any account of the profit or loss of each farm in particular 
and of the colony as a whole, of the goods delivered to the Com- 
pany, or of the number of animals living and the increase in detail, 
but only in general that there has been a fine increase, which is cer- 
tainly pleasant; but if I am to keep the administration of the colony 
here and to send you people and goods, as I am doing herewith very 
liberally, I must have somewhat fuller and better information. To 
do this with order you must keep a regular diary of daily happen- 
ings and note everything that is remarkable and send me the same. 
You could renew this every six months and send me a copy thereof 
at every opportunity. If you do not like to have me forget you. 
you must on your side not forget to advise me of everything cor- 
rectly and at length. I find, it is true, a memorandum of animals 

01 actc. 

n V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.82b. 


which I had in October 1634, but no list of the increase which oc- 
curred about May 1634, nor of those in the year 1635 and now 
lately in 1636. 

You write, it is true, how many cows and calves you have taken 
with you lately from the Manathans, but not how many still remain 
there. You must take better care hereof and not be negligent; 
neither you nor I will lose thereby and you will notice at what ex- 
pense and with what zeal I follow this matter up and take it in 
hand. You have also done quite amiss herein that you have given 
Rutger hendricksen, Cornells Maesscn and others their final ac- 
counts against me which I had to pay too, while on the other hand 
you send me no information as to the goods which they or you have 
delivered in my name to the Company, from which I have received 
nothing either. 

Therefore do not do this again but follow therein this order — 
settle accounts first with the director [to see] how my account there 
stands and send me a copy thereof; and if such can not be done as 
it ought, at all events have my men who come over draw on the 
director and on the West India Company for the money which they 
send home, for I do not want to have the men draw on me and 
deliver their goods to the West India Company, from which I can 
not get a decision, much less money. Be careful about this, other- 
wise I shall be obliged to make other arrangements. Further, as 
the director has several times and lately once more seized all my 
grain and wheat for the use of the men of the Company, to whom 
I am not bound to deliver except at my pleasure, whereby I not 
only lose this advantage that I could have sold the same at a much 
higher price to the English, as the men of Cornells van voorst do, 
but also that, inasmuch as according to article 15 of the Freedoms 
I have the right to trade these which beyond question are products 
of the soil, I could have sold them for peltries, therefore, to remedy 
this matter, I shall request you to submit to the director and coun- 
cil (without prejudice to my general right to trade all sorts of 
merchandise for peltries, now awaiting decision by the high and 
mighty lords the States General, lawfully referred to them, after 
previous resolution and submission, by the Assembly of the XIX 
and the respective patroons, and in no wise decided' to the disad- 
vantage of the patroons but still pending with great likelihood of 
turning out in favor of the patroons, as their High Mightinesses 
would no doubt be very glad to see those regions populated) that 
the aforesaid director and council, in consideration of the fact 


that I have fed their men, allow me to obtain so many peltries by 
barter for other merchandise as the said grain, animals and other 
goods that I have delivered to them may amount to ; and in case 
they should refuse this at Fort Orange as well as at the Manathans, 
you will not let them have any grain or other products of the soil 
except for payment and prompt satisfaction by so many skins as 
the goods are worth, with a proper discharge and guaranty that 
the same will be sent to me without any hindrance or molestation 
by the Company, for their men have been fed in their need and 
their ships provided which otherwise could not have come across, 
so that their ships, men and peltries must have remained there to 
the extraordinary loss of the Company. Draw up this paper to the 
director and council as firmly as you can and follow therein as 
much as possible the words which are written above and send me a 
copy of it together with the reply given by the council thereto. 
These things being thus disposed of, I now come to the answering 
of yours aforesaid, as you will in the future also punctually read, 
observe and answer mine. 

1 see that the brandy wasted very much, have therefore sent 
none herewith, and that half the cheese spoiled; I hope that this 
will arrive in better condition, as it is colder and later in the year. 
I see what a great friend of the patroons Fiscal Dinxlaccken proves 
himself by stirring up his special and secret masters; yet they 
could not help him enough, however much they would have liked 
to do so, to enable him to obtain the salary claimed for the entire 
time that passed, as he received only salary for the length of time 
that he was in active service. Now he is busy complaining to the 
States General, as his party stays out [of power] so long, that the 
Company should pay him, 1 ' 3 but instead of [paying him] money I 
imagine that the Company will write something else to the States 
General about his impertinent proceedings. 

Herewith I send you in God's name goods for the account of my 
colony, amounting to f_|.ioo according to the enclosed bill and in- 
voice, which you will employ to the best advantage ; and as J 
bought them wholesale for cash [and the above amount does not 
include] any expenses of packing, boat and lighter freight, freight 
across the ocean, interest, risk, insurance, damage, etc. (not even 
your commission of one stiver on the guilder, which amounts to 
one stiver and a half with the 50^ added), you must sell such 
goods as can stand it somewhat higher than 50^ profit, but above 

l ' 3 alsoo syn party e soo langc wtblyft dattc Compc : hem sonde betaelen. 


60$ I do not want to tax my own people, who must earn it by 
their hard labor. As far as others are concerned I do not have to 
care, you may take as much as the market price and as you can get. 
Herewith go also 38 persons whom I have engaged for my colony 
under binding contracts for fear some of them should fail to con- 
form to the accompanying conditions and contracts as well as [to 
repay] the money which I have furnished them both as advances 
and for the passage, which you must all duly enter in conformity 
with the enclosed list amounting to ^27. You must distribute 
these people to the greatest service of the colony, each one doing 
that which he is best able to do, charging the accounts of the 
farmers with whom they are placed with the money to them [the 
new colonists] in hand paid as well as the passage money, especially 
the money for board on the voyage, at six stivers a day as long as 
the voyage shall last, for there is no reason why I should engage 
the people with difficulty and why they [the farmers] should reap 
the benefit of it. These two farmers who have been very helpful 
to me, namely Cornells Maesscn and Symon walichs, you will give 
a fair choice of the men who are coming, but in such way that they 
do not select all the best men, for others must have something too. 
Cornells thuenissen van brueckelen or broer Cornells you will con- 
firm in the possession of his farm on the terms of Gerrit de Reus 
provided he conducts himself according to the ordinances and laws 
of the colony and sees to it that I have what is mine and that he 
takes good care of the animals. Cornells Maesscn and Simon 
Walichs you will provide with as many animals as can be supplied 
from the increase of others. And in case they should wish to settle 
on Pacp Zlckcncs land, which I think has not yet been bought, make 
every effort to purchase the same or at least to cause the farms to 
be established there with the consent and will of the owners. And 
as it may well be that Lubbcrt gysbertsscn rademaecker has a farm 
also and as the animals are somewhat few in number, especially 
the cows, you must see to it that they accommodate one another and 
do not draw the lines too tight. It is true that the first are entitled 
to their full number, but they must also act so that when their time 
is up, they may again obtain a new lease. 

I see by the dispute which you have with Gerrit de Rcux that 
others will follow. I haw represented here to Cornells maesscn 
and Simon Walichs that I wanted to make no change in the con- 
tract with Gerrit de Rcnx, but although it was only neglect on my 
part that I did not fix the price of the grain as well as that of the 


animals, I will nevertheless carry out the contract as it stands with 
this understanding that, if they should undertake to fix the market 
of their grain too high for me, I will then insist hard also on the 
first article, prohibiting them from trading in furs in any manner, 
which they in no wise are allowed to do even for products of the 
soil. But if they act decently and deliver me their grain at a rea- 
sonable price that I may make something on it, you will in my name 
permit them also to purchase yearly for the products of each com- 
plete farm the number of 10 or 12 merchantable skins as their 
share, which is already a fair profit, and in God's name enter into 
an agreement with them respecting the matter and send it to me 
for my approval. I can not write to every one of my people, but you 
will read herefrom to each of them my intention as far as it concerns 
them in particular or in common, and where it does not prejudice 
me give each a copy of the part that relates to him. 

Pietcr Comelissen van Munnickendam with Claes Ianssen van 
Naerden and albert andriessen van fredrichs stadt have entered into 
a special agreement with me according to the contract sent here- 
with, 94 so that they will dwell apart with their men and goods ; 
nevertheless they must conduct themselves as subjects of the colony 
and submit themselves to the common laws. I have appointed Pie- 
tcr Comelissen as councilor and schepen to take his place beside you 
with order to appoint others according to the instructions taken 
with him, 95 the original of which is enclosed. The points men- 
tioned therein which concern you, you must observe a? i( hey had 
been put in your own instructions. 

Said pietter Comelissen with his men will in every way assist 
you in erecting houses for the farmers and for others for whom 
I am bound to do so under contract, at the least cost and as soon 
as it shall be possible for them. Meanwhile, you will have to make 
provisional arrangements as to where each shall live and where and 
how they shall be provided with food ; also keep a watchful 
eye that I lose through no one and what they can not gain at first, 
that they do that later, if it only goes forward and not backward. 
As far as the freemen are concerned, you will accommodate them 
as best you can and assist them to earn their bread with honor, and 
see that each one according to his thrift may prosper a little in order 
that others may not be discouraged but attracted thereby. 

'•" Sec p. 676-77. 

•• Ick hebbe Pietcr Comelissen gestelt als raet en schepen, omme naest vl sin plaetse 
te hebben, met ordre omme mcerder getal te qualificeren volgens Instructie hem 


You will also before all things promote piety and take care that 
means be found to send a minister over, as is stated at greater 
length in the instructions to Piter Cornelissen; meanwhile cause 
the people to assemble every Sunday to train them in the command- 
ments, the psalms, the reading of the Holy Scriptures and Christian 
authors, in modesty, love and decency. 

And as the equipment of this ship ran too high for me, I granted 
Gerrit de fore est a half interest in it (aside from the goods and 
the people of the colony) in conformity with the enclosed contract; 
you will therefore also keep a watchful eye on it and with Pieter 
Cornelissen represent my person to assist them with word and deed 
as more fully mentioned in the instructions to Piter Cornelissen 
herewith enclosed. You can infer from all that is said above that 
the prospect for you personnally is fine upon increase of these 
things, but this you must know that if your profit and honor grow, 
your care must increase also, for one can not go without the other. 
Therefore, read and reread all my papers carefully, put your mind 
and thoughts upon them and do not let it blow lightly past but show 
me results thereof, not only in deeds but also in letters and reports ; 
I shall then be armed against all evil tongues which might want to 
slander you for if you give me contentment and satisfaction, you 
need neither look to nor fear any one else. 

As the lease of the farmers at the Manhatans has expired, make 
every effort to get some animals and the children of Wolfacrtse 
Gerritsen or others in my colony, as the manathans is for the most 
part exhausted and my land still fresh, and while that land rests a 
little they can earn profit on my land and then again go to the mana- 
thans with the increase after [the farms there] have lain fallow for 
some years. 

I send herewith two large millstones to erect, either near the saw- 
mill or somewhere else, a grist-mill to grind the grain not only for 
my own people and the people of Fort Orange, but all the grain 
that I have, in order to sell it ground instead of unground to the 
Company for furs, or to the English for money or other goods. In 
this way a miller can be kept there in course of time and the savages 
will be glad to give seawan or other things for the grinding of their 
corn or at least a good part of their corn. 

The mother of Zeeger Janssen van der Nieckarck, who was 
drowned, asked the account of her son, whether anything was due 
to him or not. Let me know how that matter stands. 


As to henrick Kerstenssen, he must first fulfil his contract, as 
otherwise it establishes a bad precedent and I do not want the con- 
tracts made here undone ; but those who have not received wages 
enough and who behave well, I shall at the end of their time give a 
good present and improve in their condition, but that must be left 
to my choice or at least be done with my pleasure and knowledge. 
If Kerstcn behaves well you may give him each year a suit of 
clothes with a pair of stockings and shoes. 

Dirck Cornclissen duuster, coming from farnambuco, was 
drowned near the English coast, so that he will not make the voy- 
age again. It is not at all my intention that the farmers shall give 
the servants higher wages without my knowledge and consent. 
They may do that for themselves but not for me except with my will, 
knowledge and consent ; you will read this to them together. Give 
my greetings to the commis, marttcn Gcrrittscn, and show him on 
my part as much friendship as if I were present. Also to Jeronimus 
la Croix, whose father sends him a small cask with goods and whose 
letters Piter C omelissen has. Tell Gerrit de Reu.v that he must 
give me better satisfaction, for that it does not agree to write of 100 
muddes and to deliver but 25. If you have any suspicion, let each 
farmer deliver you for my half the tenth sheaf on the field un- 
thrashed and bring it where you want it and where you can have it 
thrashed yourself in order to be able thereafter to make the account 
present a somewhat better appearance. You write that the farmers 
treat you disrespectfully. If this happens again, send me proper 
attestations thereof and I will settle that all right, but you must 
not wrong them either or make improper demands, though you will 
execute strictly all that concerns my jurisdiction and that their con- 
tract implies, especially if they should want to give me less than my 
share, and then in addition have the power to promise the servants 
an increase in order to make them keep silence ; that will not do. I 
hope that they will behave better. 

The 63 whole and 18 half beavers I received of the Company 
under bond. I wish that you had sent by this ship the 150 which 
you have there ; the sum total when all is put together would then 
be so much larger and the Company not even consider whether [the 
former shipment took place] long ago or not. I do not want you 
to send me any peltries except with the knowledge of and after en- 
tering them with the director, and if there is any opportunity of 
sending by ships, even by my own ship, you will enter what you 
send in them and pay to the director the duty of the Company, to 


wit : one guilder per merchantable skin traded in New Netherland 
and five per cent for those from the coast of Virginia, New Eng- 
land or elsewhere, taking each time a receipt therefor from the 
director and sending it to me by the skipper with the invoice of the 
peltries. You have done very well in not sending them by Davidt 
pieterss, but you would have done better by sending them in de seuen 
starra with the knowledge as above. I have received your sam- 
ples ; the crystal is the best. Now that so many people come there, 
take at once a trip into the country to find out whether there are any 
minerals, especially, as I hear, that there is a rock of crystal 96 
above de laets Kiel where the mill stands. Inquire about this some 
time and write me whether there is a great quantity of it and send 
me of the purest, instead of a piece as large as a hazelnut, a couple 
of barrels as a sample. It is said to extend as far as two or three 
leagues upwards. Do not omit either to send me by my ship some 
muddes of grain, that we may have the taste and the view thereof 
here. I see that occasionally you have to spend a long time at the 
Manathans; I hope that this will improve. If Dirck corssen stays 
there, you could turn some duties over to him and I have no doubt 
but he will be glad to do his best. If you do yours also everything 
will go well, and see that I get something too for my great trouble 
and expense, which has ' lasted already so long. The indemnity 
from the Maquaas ought also some day to be collected without get- 
ting thereby into contention or war. It must be done in the name 
of the director below in order that the Maquaas may have less 
feeling against the people of Fort Orange and also against my 
people. If this ship (God willing) makes a good voyage, I hope 
from time to time diligently to continue [sending others] and to 
await the blessing of the Lord, toward which your zeal and fidelity 
can help much also. 

Notelman has defrauded me much with regard to the animals 
but I must have patience. He will have to pay the Company its 
dues for the three years that he has had them, both as to the lease 
and to the increase, and I for the remaining two years, as Gcrrit 
de Reux has paid the first year. And as I must shorten this, I com- 
mend you to the gracious protection of Almighty God that He may 
preserve you in health for a long time and give what is to His honor 
and to the salvation of our souls. Amen. 

M cristal berghe; literally, crystal hill or mountain. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wolfert Gerritsz 97 
October 4, 1636 
La us dco, this day, 4 October 1636, in Amsterdam 

Very obliging, friend, Wolff ert Gerritsz: 

In answer to yours of the 18th of August 1635, I will say that 
I had hoped that you would have come over yourself to dispose of 
your money in my care, of which I have paid 65 guilders to Wou- 
ter van Kermpt, according to the enclosed notarial receipt. I had 
hoped that some of your children would have gone with their ani- 
mals up to my colony, but understand that they have been prevented 
from so doing so by the director and council. However, as the six 
years of the lease are now up, each one may do with his animals 
as he pleases if he pay the agreed increase to the Company. There- 
fore, if you like to sell some of your animals to me or to send some 
of your children with your animals up the river, we will deal with 
each other in all fairness. The Manhatans are mostly exhausted 
and my land is still luxurious and fresh. Some young animals 
could be left at the manathans and the land rest a little and by the 
time the animals are grown up the land would have recovered it- 
self somewhat and have rested. But your honor must do as you 
think best and as is most profitable to you ; wherewith ending, I 
commend you with your wife and children to God's gracious pro- 
tection and remain with hearty greetings. 

List of papers and memoranda sent by Kiliaen van Rensselaer 
to Jacob Albertsz Planck 98 

October 4, 1636 

List of the papers and documents sent to Jacob plahck and en- 
closed with his letter, this 4th of October 1636, in Amsterdam. 

No. 1 Remonstrance to the West India Company and the 
resolutions passed concerning my ship called Rens- 
selacrs wijek. 

No. 2 Payments made to the people who are to go over on 
this ship, amounting to £927:10: — 

87 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.S 
98 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, Li 


No. 3 Instructions drawn up for pictcr Cornelisz van Munck- 
endam, also concerning the officer and com mis, 
Jacob plane k. 

No. 4 Roll of the people sailing for the colony with some 
memoranda for Pictcr Cornelisz. 

No. 5 Reasons which I have for transporting my animals 
to my colony. 

No. 6 Contract made with Gcrrit dc fore est concerning 
the ship called Rcnssclacrs wyck, with the invoice 
and hill of lading of the goods and estimate of the 
entire equipment. 

No. 7 Invoice and hill of lading of the goods sent for the 
account of the colony of Rensselaerswyck to Jacob 
planch — f4ioo — 

No. 8 Contract with pictcr Cornelisz wan Munckendam, 
Clacs Jansz van naerden, Albert Andriesz van f re- 
rick stadt, concerning the mill company. 

No. 9 Contract with several carpenters, mainly for the mill 
No. io Contract made with several farm laborers to be dis- 
tributed among the farms. 
No. ii Contract with Cornelis macscn van bnijrmalscn and 

Sijmon Walichs van zvijngaerden, farmers. 
No. 12 Contract made with several free colonists. 
No. 13 Contract with Cornelis Thomasscn van Rotterdam, 
smith ; Arent Steffenier, hog dealer ; with their men. 

Gcrrit Jansz Oldenburch, living at the Manathans, has written me 
several times about getting a farm in my colony or at the Mana- 
thans. If he is able and you can accommodate him, give him a farm 
provided you can get animals ; and if you can not, let him come 
over here and find some servants, after which he can sail thither 
again and by that time I hope that the animals will have multiplied, 
or if he prefers to wait for that there, it is all right too. Do not 
forget to keep him in mind as being recommended and tell him to 
write me further how he has fared. 

Cornelis van voorst may perhaps have some animals to spare 
which he can sell, or some one of his men may see to that. To 
establish farms ( there must be animals. [Try] also [to make 
arrangements \with] Wolphert Gerritsz or his children. Make 
every effort to obtain animals, I shall send people. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 09 

October 6, 1636 

To Mr Johan de laedtt, at Leyden 

In Amsterdam, this 6th of October 1636 

Yesterday, on Sunday, I received your favor of the 4th instant, 
in reply to which I shall briefly say that our ship, God be praised, 
has already arrived at the Texel. Yesterday, the supercargo went 
thither with the papers and they are now waiting only for a good 
wind, which may God grant us. 

There is good company at the Texel lying ready also, notwith- 
standing which we, the participants of the colony, have insured as 
follows, for which the policies are being made out: f400O on the 
goods of the colony going only, of which your honor's portion is 
f8oo; the remaining f200 x your honor must risk, and on our half 
of the ship and goods in proportion, the policies for which have 
been handed to Samuel hoffman in the presence of confrater Blom- 
maert, so that we shall not run so very much risk. I think that the 
insurance will be 6 r / B in going and 6i for the return voyage. 

The ship de Seuen starve has come at the right time, and by the 
good tidings which it brought of the condition of our colony has 
made the people going thither so happy that they go now with re- 
doubled courage. The news which I have is little but good. The 
director (although he was again accused of having delayed the ship, 
which is slander) hastened the sailing of this ship so much that the 
people could not get ready and I could scarcely obtain even a short 
letter from Jacob planck. 

The contents are: 

1 That consent has finally been given to send the animals, which 
have caused so much dispute, to the colony and that five milch cows 
and five calves had already been sent, which means a good deal to 
us. Thereupon I agreed with Not el man, Saturday, by decision oi 
the arbiters, that we shall pay him fi5o and the Company f6oo, 
provided we receive the full number of horses, cows and other ani- 

2 That the wheelwright, whom they needed so much, had come 
to the colony from the Manhatans. 

00 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.88. 

1 These " remaining f2oo " seem to refer to the balance of de Laet's share of fiooo 
in the total account of £5027:10 for supplies for the colony. Sec p. 335-36- 


3 That three farms were complete and their hams full of grain, 
each having- about 30 morgens seeded, mostly with wheat. 

4 That there were enough animals to stock two more farms as 
soon as our people arrive there. 

5 That they had had a fine increase of animals and needed nothing 
but people, who will now arrive to the number of 38, among whom 
are six women and several children, while some still expect to give 
birth on the way. 

6 That Jacob plane k ha 1 150 skins in stock which he intended to 
send by the first ship of the Company, half of which, I take it. 
belong to him, it being but a false rumor that he had sent a quantity 
of skins as contraband by Dauidt pietersz.- 

7 That all our grain of the year 1635 na d Deen delivered to the 
Company, but I have received no account of it. In short, we must 
thank the Lord and can wish nothing better. 

The Company obtained about 8000 skins, which is good for them 
also; however, there was little merchandise left. In advising your 
honor now as to selling a part of your honor's 1/5 share, I can say 
only what I have shown by my own example, namely that the share 
of Godijn was sold in two parts: 1/10 part to Jacob and hendrick 
Trip, who are married to the daughters, for fiooo cash in bank 
specie ; the other 1/10 part I bought also for f 1000 cash and offered 
to leave to Mr Co cnracts if he wants it, otherwise I intend to keep 
it myself, although aside from that I own 2/5 shares therein. He 
has not given me any answer as yet. I promised to let him read 
all the letters and instructions in order that he may be at ease and 
do the same with a good conscience. And in order that your honor 
may be at ease too, I send enclosed the instructions given to the 
crew of the ship. Please to look this over and annotate it if your 
honor has any objections and then with additions show it to Gerril 
de foreest so that he may sign it and send it back to me at the first 
opportunity without fail. Blommaert has already transferred to 
his brother in law adain bcsscls 1/10 part out of his 1/5; what 
your honor must now do or not do is for yourself to decide; if the 
person [to whom you think of selling] could be of service to us. 
I should be the better pleased. Before I could resolve to reduce 
my share, I should have to feel that it was necessary in order to 
have more backing, though we have enough pasture land to divide 
the one fifth shares into fiftieth shares as I think that by conveyance 
we have no less than 150 thousand morgens of land. However, 
I fear that if we expand too much we may become the counterpart 


of Sivauendacl, as the large number often causes confusion and, 
one pulling this way and another that way, hinder one another and 
are in one another's way, so that I should conclude the fewer in 
number the better ; but your honor must do as he pleases. When we 
got so many participants in Swanendal, then came our confusion. 
I hope that after this we shall not have to provide any more capi- 
tal and that we shall every year receive good returns, which wouf<1 
begin already if we only had the accounts of deliveries to the Com- 
pany. I keep your honor too long discoursing; when you come 
here you will be able to see [it all] more fully from the writings 
and papers which contain everything, especially the letter to Jacob 
planck ; the list of the papers is herewith enclosed. 

Enclosed is the account of the cost of the entire equipment amount- 
ing for your honor's portion to fiS50, and of the colony fiooo. 
Hereto must be added the insurance premium, so that it will be 
about fioo higher; on this your honor can count. Toward this 
your honor's draft furnishes fi200, as you still owed me f300 of 
old, so that there remain fi45o for your honor to pay. I request 
that you kindly send me this amount at the first opportunity, as [ 
have already advanced a good deal hereon and the people are still 
daily making frequent demands for money; but most important of 
all, as Gerrit de foreest has still more than f4000 to pay which they 
all try to collect from me, your honor will please let him know that 
he must make arrangements that I receive the said money this 
week, at least some of it and the rest next week. My own share is 
large and if in addition I have to provide so many thousands for 
him, I should be much embarrassed. He promised me to come back 
here at once or to send money, also to sign the instructions ; please 
have this matter urged on him and that he write me an answer to 
the enclosed. Your honor can have this general account copied for 
him ; he has the detailed account of f7840 -.4 :6 of the cargo, and he 
can have that copied for you in return. I ask you kindly to urge 
the matter strongly on him and in sending back the enclosed instruc- 
tions to let me have your honor's answer and opinion ; in this way 
I shall also be animated to take to heart with greater zeal and 
earnestness our common interest, which now for three months has 
given me no small trouble. I should not like to get into difficulty on 
account of other people's money. Trusting this matter to you, very 
dear and beloved Sir and friend, I shall end, commending your 
honor to the gracious protection of God; may He grant the same 
to your honor and to us all, etc Mr blommaert and Trip have paid 
their portions already. 




The equipment and the cargo 
The colony 

115476 15 6 
f 5027 10 

£20504 5 6 

The letter to foreest is open, your honor may read it and then 
seal it and have it handed to him. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 12 
October 6, 1636 

Laus deo, this day, the 6th of October 1636, in Amsterdam 
Monsieur de foreest: 

Yesterday forenoon our people left here for the ship, taking with 
them all necessary papers. The instructions, however, which have 
been signed by me only and must be signed by your people, I have 
sent to Mr de Lactt to have him look them over to see whether he 
has anything to add ; you can do the same and then send them back 
to me signed. 

I am also very anxiously waiting for the rest of the money 
which you still have to provide and which amounts as follows : 

The ship with the equipment amounts to 
The cargo, of which you have the account 
The food stores amount to 

Your half comes to 

The assignment and payment made by you 

when you were here last ^3 l 79 *4 

The duffels sent last f 221 1 

f57o6 3 o 

f7840 4 6 

fi93o 8 o 

f 15476 15 6 

f7738 8 





f4337 13 

In the above £15476:15:6 are included all the provisions which 
we have loaded in the ship, toward which there is coming to the 
participants from the passengers 6 stivers a day for three months' 1 

V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.8c>b. 
Sec p. 343- 


according to agreement, which will alone amount to more than a 
thousand guilders. We could not well settle it otherwise without 
getting into a great quarrel. It amounts to a little less than 5 
stivers, but they have agreed to pay us 6 stivers on the arrival of the 
ship when we receive advice as to how long the passengers have 
enjoyed board. 

Mr de Lact has the detailed account of the ship and the provisions 
of which he will no doubt have a copy made for you so that each 
one may have the whole in full. 

I am surprised that I do not hear from you about the above 
f4337:i3 which must still be paid, as the people come bothering me 
daily so that I am ashamed and can not put them off any longer. 
You must settle this at once and do not neglect to send me word by 
the first boat how the matter stands, as you promised me to make 
arrangements for paying me at the first opportunity, and herewith 
I commend you to God Almighty. 

You know what trouble I have had ; I ought not in addition to 
suffer the trouble of having the people coming to dun me so. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 4 
October 8, 1636 
Gcracrdt De forecst, at Leyden 

This day, the 8th of October 1636 
Day before yesterday I wrote to you under cover to Mr de Laett, 
complaining that I received from you neither news nor money and 
that the people came importuning me daily. This will happen now 
still oftener as I hope that our ship sailed today in good company ; 
it was most desirable that it should make such speedy progress ; 
may Almighty God watch over it. However, now the ship is at sea, 
one can not delay the people any longer. There is also more risk 
involved for you than you think, inasmuch as of your half share 
nothing has been insured; and if contrary to our hope an accident 
should occur, your partners might dispute and question the affair, 
since I have not been able to discover that you have anything but 
their mere consent and even that disputable. If one will share only 
in the cargo and another only in the ship, you must without delay 
advise me how the matter stands in order that no confusion may 
arise therefrom ; and if there is the least hitch, give me orders to 

* V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.90. 


take an insurance of four or five thousand guilders on your half; 
and aside from that, if [your payment for your share] does not 
come promptly, I shall he obliged to borrow the money upon bot- 
tomry but that would be a double loss. Do not neglect to advise 
me at once ; the matter is risky and demands haste as the danger is 
largely within the first two to four days ; after that the danger is 
not so great. It should not happen that you send not a word of 
advice for so long a time, so that I have not only the trouble and 
my own large interest, but must in addition be importuned on ac- 
count of your partners. Do not sleep on this but please satisfy 
me and answer at once. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 5 

October 15, 1636 

This day, the 15th ditto 

Your honor's letter with the bill of exchange for 480 Carolus 
guilders on van dcr pon I have received and turned over in pay- 
ment. I doubt not but you have already received the receipt but 
of the rest which you wrote me would follow on Saturday I have 
heard nothing. On the strength of it, I have named this afternoon 
as pay day, so that I shall be embarrassed ; I have taken 1000 guilders 
of my money out of the bank and shall see how far that will go. 
Meanwhile, do not neglect to urge your partners not to get me 
into difficulty. I shall name next Saturday as another pay day, when 
they ought to furnish me with the money. According to your ad- 
vice, I have taken 700 pounds Flemish insurance for the voyage at 
6$. If they wish to insure the return voyage also they have still 
time enough to think it over. These 252 guilders insurance pre- 
mium, they must send me also. Let those who have the money 
do so, as the premium must be paid cash or the insurance agents 
begin to trouble. I hope that our ship has already passed the 
Channel and that God Almighty will grant us a happy voyage. 

5 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.90. 



Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Johannes de Laet 6 

October 29, 1636 

Joan de laett, at Leyden 

This day, the 29th of October 1636 

Your honor's favor of the 21st instant with the drafts and cur- 
rency, amounting together to the sum of 1450 guilders, I have re- 
ceived and entered on your account. We shall settle all accounts 
at the first opportunity when Geraerd de foreest shall have sent his 
balance, which still amounts to about f400, as all the debts up to that 
amount have been paid. He writes me that he will furnish the 
money promptly, and I doubt not but that he will do as he says ; 
nevertheless, I write him today a short note of reminder which 
your honor can second by word of mouth when you see him. It is 
today three weeks since our small ship sailed. If it has kept the 
wind which we have had here thus far, I hope that with God's 
help it is already more than half way. For your honor's account 
insurance has been taken as follows : 

f4000 f 800 for your honor's 2/10 in 
the goods sent to the 
colony, for the out voy- 
age only, at 6$, amounts 

{2666^/3 f 533 J/3 f° r y° ur honor's 2/10 
in one half of the ship 
at 6i going 

returning: 6i 

f 48 

f 32 

f320Q fi640 7 for your honor's 2 /£ 


one half of the cargo at 
6 r / D going 


f 388 


f 3 8 8 

Total ii973 T A 


fn8 8 

f;o 8 

Last Saturday afternoon his Excellency Count Maurits^ sailed 
with four ships: Zutpheu, fcrnambucq, tliuus van Nassauw, Adam 

6 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.9ob. 

7 Should be f640. 
s Should be 2/10. 

» Johan Maurits, count of Nassau-Siegen; appointed governor of Brazil, August 23, 1636. 


en eve; De hecr van Coin and D° Resselerius were obliged to re- 
main and even yesterday had not gone out, so that I do not know 
whether they are out or not, I think they are in ; it is awkward that 
the wind has changed. 

Day before yesterday we came together once more to discuss 
the increase of capital and in the name of the participants made 
three propositions to give them satisfaction. 

i Concerning those who have increased their investment and who 
will still further increase it. 

2 Concerning those who may not increase it. 

3 Concerning all the participants whether they have increased 
the same or not. 

On the first head, that all those who increase shall draw yearly 
8$ dividend on the increase, being 2 r /, on the whole, and that 
each participant to whom the said 2i shall not be paid, may for his 
security levy on the goods of the Company, as those may do who 
have advanced money on interest to the Company. 

On the second head, that circulars be sent to all the participants 
to induce them to make the said increase with such reasons and 
motives as the situation of affairs of the state and of the Company 
may permit ; thereafter that those who fail to respond be called 
upon by further and public notice and finally be specially summoned 
to do so on pain, in case of refusal, of being prosecuted for con- 
tumacy and of having others admitted in their place. 

However, as the terms for the subscribers are so very favorable 
it is taken for granted that no one will fail to take advantage of 

On the third head, that a certain amount of capital shall be re- 
served for the trade to Guinea and the coast of Africa, to Pernam- 
buco and Brazil, to the West Indies and New Netherland, to trade 
therewith for the profit of the participants, which profits should 
be distributed yearly as far as they go and thereto added the duties 
recently imposed by the Assembly of the XIX on the private 

This capital has been fixed at 100,000 guilders. For each ninth 
part 10 merchandise to be bought here for cash, without including 
therein the ships or expenses of equipment, which arc to be de- 
frayed out of the capital which the Company will derive from the 

"'The capital simk of the Company was divided into nine parts, of which the 
Chamber <>f Amsterdam managed four parts, thai <>f Zeeland tw<> parts, and those of 
the Mase, the Noordcr-Quartier ami Stad en Landen, each one part. 


returns, in such a way that purchases shall be made from the first 
of January on and continue to be made, applying the returns as 
above, to the amount of the aforesaid sum. 

The agents 11 in charge of these goods shall be bound to make 
oath and render accounts to the auditors of the directors and chief 
participants in order to divide the profits thereon yearly as afore- 
said, after deduction of the expenses of equipment, and if any 
goods are lost the same to be made good out of the prizes taken 
by the Company (others think that they should be deducted from 
the profits) ; and in this way, with God's blessing, a sure dividend 
might be declared each year, so that the shares of the West India 
Company would be worth little less than those of the East India 

These articles to be drawn up with the formality thereto re- 
quired, to wit : with the knowledge of the respective chambers, the 
chief participants and the Assembly of the XIX and the approval 
of their High Mightinesses. 

This is as far as my memory serves me for I kept no copy 
thereof, but Mr Cotnraets made a note of it. Whether the pro- 
posal will be agreeable to the directors, we shall hear in the course 
of time. I believe that Monday a report thereon was made in the 
Chamber of Amsterdam. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 12 

October 29, 1636 

Ditto, 29 October 
Geraerd de Fore est: 

I have received the remittance of 11542 :I7:8 18 and anxiously 
await the rest as everything but that is paid. In addition you must 
not fail to remit me separately 252 guilders for the 700 pounds 
Flemish which have been insured at 6 r /c, in order that I can pay 
the underwriters cash, as otherwise they are apt to make trouble ; 
of this I can not omit advising you. 

11 Commiessen. 

12 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.91. 

u The third figure of this amount in the Letter Booh is illegible; according to 
p. 344 it is a 4, but adding the sums there given and subtracting them from f773&'-7'-7> 
the remainder is f 1089:18:3, instead of fi 109:18:5, so that the third figure ought per- 
haps to be a 2. As eight duiten make one stiver, the final figure 8 would seem to be 
wrong also. To make the subtraction on p. 344 right it should be a 6. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 14 

November io, 1636 

Gerard de forecst. The 10th of November. Written again for 
the balance of the account and for the insurance premium of £252, 
[for] which a moment ago a [bill] was presented by the under- 
writers, but he 15 has received no money as yet. Answer at once; 
another time I should be unwilling to take the trouble 10 upon me. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 17 

November 28, 1636 

Gerard de forecst, at Ley den 

In Amsterdam, this 28th of November 1636 

I was out of town for a few days and on coming home find 
yours of the 13th instant, in which you state that you would send 
me the premium money by Santwech or Tortarolis, of which thus 
far I have heard nothing ; I hope that it was not wrongly delivered ; 
you can tell them this in order to straighten out this matter. Also 
as to the rest of the account which is still large and makes me feel 
very much ashamed ; I have great fear that there will be difficulty, 
as you wrote that it would follow the week after your letter and it 
has not come yet. Please exert further diligence and advise me 
how the matter stands, for I can not put the people off any longer 
and I should resent it if I were obliged to borrow the money. 

Touching the West India Company, they thought first of sending 
thither again de Seucn starre which came thence, but then dis- 
covered that it was too small and resolved to send den harinck 
thither via Curacao; however, this will probably not be before 
spring. I think that they will not debate the throwing open of 
the country till then; it would be well if this subject were kept 
alive so that in the next meeting of the XIX, which is to be held 
in 14 days, a resolution might be passed thereon and if the chief 
participants of Leyden should commission Mr de laet to propose 
that something be done about it. 

P. S. If no money comes about the beginning of next week, I 
must seek other remedy for I can not delay the work any longer. 

u j/, ft. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.91. Memorandum in handwriting of Kiliaen van 
16 Possibly Joost van Sandwech; see next letter. 
18 rugie ; literally, quarrel. 
« V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, 1.91b. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest ls 
December 5, 1636 
Gerard de fore est, at Ley den 

In Amsterdam, this 5th of December 1636 

I have just received yours of the 4th instant and am surprised 
that the wife of heudrick de foreest lu has not communicated to you 
the letters which she received from her husband, as she left here 
Tuesday before the day of prayer. I have received but one letter, 
signed by all three 11 ' 11 of them, which contains less information than 
her letters will probably have. It is all right that one should write 
in the name of all three but in addition each should write separately 
a short letter to me and also to you, which they have not done, and 
as I have not time to copy the letter I send you the original en- 
closed; please read it, communicate it to Mr de Laat and others, 
copy it and then send it back to me at once. It is a great favor 
of the Lord our God that he has preserved our people, our ship 
and goods so graciously in such perils and such long continued 
storm, for which He must be lauded and praised forever. They 
complain about the food, but have not much cause for it as the 
passengers were victualled for three months and eight of my men 
were left on land so that the provisions could last that much longer. 
The 12 men of the crew are victualled for 12 months, which is 
equal to 48 men for three months, so that one with the other they 
have provisions for six months on board, as in New Netherland 
they can supply what is wanting for the crew. They write also 
for money to buy food, which I would send if it would not take 
too long before they get it ; moreover I have no correspondent in 
England. I hope that with this wind they will again continue 
their voyage in God's name and that the Lord may give a good 
result, that they do a good business. The insurance money must 
not be delayed or the underwriters will make trouble in case of 
loss. The other money must not be delayed any longer either ; I 
do not know how I shall draw on jan du foreest 20 for the f8oo. I 

18 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.oib. 

19 Hendrick de Forest was the son of Gerard de Forest's elder brother, Jesse de 

19a Dirck Corssen Stam, supercargo, Jan Tiepkesz Schellinger, skipper, and Hendrick 
de Forest, mate, of the Rensselacrswyck, which sailed from Amsterdam Sept. 25, 1636. 

30 J. W. De Forest, The de Forests of Avesnes, mentions Jean de Forest, son of 
Jesse de Forest; Jean de Forest, son of Jesse's elder brother, Melchior de Forest; Jean 
de Forest, supposed brother of Jesse de Forest; and Jean du Forest of Tourcoing, all 
likely to have been living in 1636. 


shall inquire what I can do, but the rest must follow. Today I 
paid out so much that I have not ten guilders in the house, for- 
I have no excuse whatever for putting the people off any longer. I 
see that nearly all the trouble comes down upon me, which does 
not distress me as much as that, in addition to the large portion 
which I risk myself, I must also take care of [the payments of] 
others or be dunned for them, which I am not used to. Please to 
arrange for the liquidation [of the account] and in addition I 
ought to have some cash on hand to spend in emergencies like the 
present one. Vale. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Foreest 21 

December iS, 1636 

Gerard de foreest, at Leyden 

This day, the 18th of December 1636 

Yesterday I received a letter from S r Joost van Sandtiveck with 
a remittance of ^456:16:4 some days after sight, which has been 
accepted. He says that the same is for the balance of what he, 
Tortarolis and others must provide and asks me to advise him 
whether that balances the account, which I can not well do as I 
have not kept any account with any one individually; you will 
therefore greet him heartily in my name and help him out in Ills 

First, he says that of the f 1456 116:4, ^ 2I o must 
go toward the insurance at 5$ of f420o; the rate is 
6% and the amount should be f252 ; subtracted from 
the fi456:i6:4, there remains for the equipment 
and cargo fi204 16 4 

he has also remitted f J 54 2 l 7 & 22 

received from Ian du pont f 480 o o 

received from you in cash f 563 15 

for goods furnished, in 15 lots f 2 &57 

The equipment and the cargo according to the 
account sent, though a few lots had been omitted, 
amount to ^5476:15:6; your half is $773% 7 7 

So that there is a balance due to me of fnoo, 18 5 

21 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.92 

--'This amount should probably be £1522:17:6. See p. 341. 

v 3 U r* ^ 

eft) r\ - r 

* ; 
: ) 





.5 ^ 

(X! >, <-3 

c h 



Hereof you have ordered me to draw f8oo on 
Jehan du foreest, which I have not been able to do, 
so that he must send it to me in coin or by other 
remittance, of which you will please notify him f 800 

Remains still f 309 18 5 

Why these f30C):i8:5 fail to come I do not know; you must in- 
form me and S r Santwech about them as he writes that he will 
remit me his balance at once. 

Dirck Corssen Stam, Jan Tiepkesz Schellinger and Hendrick de 
Forest to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 23 

January 8, 1637 

Laus deo. At Jlrercom, 2 * the 8th of January 1637 

Honorable, wise, prudent, very discreet sir, Mr giel Jan van rcns- 
Sir : We hereby let you know that we have written to your honor 
and that we have received no reply. We sail at this ebb of the 
tide ; there is a N.E. wind with a foresail breeze. May the good 
Lord grant us luck and a safe voyage. Cornells toomanssen the 
smith has been stabbed to death here by his comrade hans van 
scuehuijsen and hans van seuchuijscn has been taken inland, to wit, 
to exsetter, where he must await his verdict. The matter has given 
us a great deal of trouble, but thank God we are all of us still hale 
and hearty and agree well with one another. We know not much 
to write as we have given an account of all that has happened in our 
previous letters, so that we can not write your honor more at present, 
for there is no news here except that a large number of vessels are 
arriving on account of the heavy storm, which rages all the time. 
Wishing your honor and your honor's family a happy New Year, 
we commend your honor to the protection of the Lord. Amen. 
In great haste, your honor's servants 

[signed] dirck Corsscnstain 

To giel Jacn van rcnssclacr 

Jan tic pk ess 
H De forest 

23 V. R. B. Mss 12. 

w Ilfracombe, on the north coast of Devon. England. 


Jan Tiepkesz Schellinger to his wife, Trijn Janse Bruigh 25 

January 9, 1637 

Praise God above all. From ijlle fakom 26 the channel of 
brusto, 27 1637, the 9th of January 

Worthy, well and dearly beloved wife Trin ijans: 

I let you know that all of us and all my people are still hale and 
hearty, for which the Almighty God be praised and thanked; I 
hope that it may be the same with you, my dear and much beloved 
wife, and also with our children and all our good friends ; were 
it otherwise, it would grieve my heart to hear it. I let you know 
further that we intend to put to sea tomorrow, the 10th, if it pleases 
Almighty God, for we have only now, that is today, obtained an 
east wind and have therefore been obliged to remain here long and 
at great expense for the ship and the people, for which we are 
sorry. We have lain here over seven weeks, but God Almighty 
grant us a safe voyage; I hope that we shall make good the loss. 
My dear wife, you must know that this is the third letter which 
I have written and I have longed much for your reply to my first 
letter, which I have not received for unknown reasons. I beg you 
further, my dearest, that you will take good care of my dear 
children and keep and direct them in all good ways and so that 
they may obey you in every respect ; and if you write, have my 
son gcrrit yansen write to me too that I may see his writing; tell 
him that I wish it. God grant that they may grow up in His 
favor and obtain the salvation of their souls and do you, my dear 
wife, submit yourself to God and serve Him in his Church and 
instruct your children therein, if you please, upon which I set my 
heart; and beware of and avoid what may harm your soul and keep 
yourself from evil if it is possible as I trust in you, my dear, and 
that you will, be an example to your children for good. No more 
of this for the present however; may the Almighty God graciously 
keep you and all of us and grant us a safe voyage. Greet all my 

* V. R. B. Mss 13. 

2 " Ilfracombe, on the north coast of Devon, England. 

27 Bristol. 


good friends and especially my clear children with a friendly kiss. 
Amen, Amen. 

[signed] Jan Ticpkcss dat ick vermachP* 

To deliver 
to the worthy and virtuous 

vrouzve trin ijans brnigh 
outside the riggeliers poocrt at 
the ossemacrckt in the niewetuin 
at Amsterdam 1637. 
Praise the boat. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Gerard de Forest 28 

April 2, 163/ 

Gerard de forecst, at Leyden 

This 2d of April 1637, in Amsterdam 
Although I hope that by this time our people, ship and goods 
have already arrived in New Netherland, I have no word from 
any of the head people as to the precise day when they expected 
to put out to sea, only one letter from a young relative of mine 211 
stating that they would put to sea at the first opportunity, in com- 
pany with two well mounted English vessels. What the cause of 
this failure is, I can not tell but must patiently await their return, 
with God's blessing, to the fatherland. 

As there is still more than 1100 guilders due to me on your 
account, this will serve also to urge you to let me have the said 
money at the first opportunity. According to your wish, I have 
suspended payments for some time ; also I have heard nothing 
of the f8oo of Jehan du foreest, and as I am very much in need of 
money on account of a large quantity of pearls which I have 
bought and on which I can get a rebate as I am allowed to dis- 
count my own note at eight per cent, you will please make arrange- 
ments and, in order that I may know how to regulate myself, 
will advise me at once what I can count on. Further, as I have 
taken considerable insurance on my half of the returns and as 
our people, on account of the great demand which there must be 

'■"* Jan Tiepkesz, that I may be able. 

M V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.92. 

-° Maurits Jansz van Broeckhuysen; see p. 408. 


in that country from lack of other ships, may come hither again 
immediately and run great danger from the Dunkirkers since they 
come alone, I should advise you, as I hope that business will be 
good and well able to bear the insurance, to insure for a few 
hundred pounds Flemish, upon which also I shall await your 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Joost van Sandwech 30 

June 2j, 16 37 

Joost Van Sandwech, at Leyden 

In Amsterdam, this 27th of June 1637 

I hope that S r gerrit de foreest has come home from Dclff and 
agreed and made further arrangements with you as to the payment 
of the balance and of the new insurance, as I have contracted with 
him and everything is done in his name and I might get into 
trouble with him if I undertook anything without his orders. You 
will therefore please have him give me orders himself or substitute 
you by notarial instrument to correspond with me in his stead and 
promise to hold good and binding whatever you shall resolve upon 
with me, both with regard to his own participation and that of 
his partners, as to whom I never received proper information to 
what extent and for how much each one participates under him, 
since many changes were made therein. 

I shall therefore await further orders and for the present take 
no other insurance on his half than the 1000 guilders, of which 
I spoke to you, which I have not been able to do yet on account 
of the bad tidings which come daily from the sea, yes, I have not 
even completed the insurance which I meant to take on my half 
and for the colony. I ask kindly that S r gcrrct de foreest take 
care that I get the balance of my money before good or bad tidings 
of the small boat arrive, otherwise we shall get into great dispute 
about it. It is not a question of promising the interest nor of the 
trouble which I have had therewith, but of the participation and 
the participants themselves. Therefore, I ask you once more in 
all friendship to let me know the names of the participants and 
above all that I may receive the money before good or bad tidings 
come. It is inconvenient for me to be in this uncertainty as to 
why this money fails to come wherein I unwittingly may run some 

V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.Qab. 


risk myself. If he cedes it 31 to you instead of to Jan du foreest 
I am satisfied, but it must be paid before any tidings of the ship 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Joost van Sandwech 32 

August 20, 1 6 j / 

Joost Van Sandwech, at Leyden 

This 20th of August 1637, in Amsterdam 
Some time ago I wrote you for the money which is still due to 
me stating that I was in great need of having it by the last of 
July, now past, to make payments to the West India Company, and 
a few days later Cortakelis' M came here to whom also I mentioned 
it; but to my surprise I have received neither money nor answer. 
Please therefore not to fail to send me this amount, for I am 
ashamed to have kept the aforesaid Company waiting so long and 
besides I must pay eight per cent interest thereon. I hope that our 
ship will arrive very soon, as it has been reported to me that about 
four months ago she was spoken at Capo Charles in Virginia and 
in passing had called out that they hoped to follow soon and had 
sold most of their goods and sold them well, but that they must 
first call on the English at the north and also stop in New Nether- 
land, in order, as I presume, to collect the balance. 34 The wife of 
Hcndrick du foreest, who went from here to Leyden, will no doubt 
have communicated this to you. Let there be no failure about send- 
ing or remitting the money. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Joost van Sandwech 35 

September 14, 1637 

Joost Van Sandwech, at Leyden 

In Amsterdam, this 14th of September 1637 
I receive this moment your letter and see that you have pro- 
tested to Jehan du foreest and Touchain de herijon, who replied 
that they had made their payments, which thus far has not been 
done. I am astonished at their impertinence in keeping me waiting 

31 The balance of his interest? 

32 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.93. 
M Tortarolist See p. 344. 

84 de rcstantc tc inncn; literally, to collect the remainder. 

85 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.93. The first three lines, including the words " pay- 
ments," are in the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 


almost a year with idle consolations. It is true that last week a 
young man was here saying that he had the money and then that 
he would let me have it in a day or two, which days are now long 
past. I do not know what their intention is ; there is a suspicion 
of bad faith in wanting to be participants without furnishing any 
money and to regulate themselves according to the results of the 
business. Therefore, as the ship is about to arrive, to avoid all 
question, please let me have the balance of the portion of Gerrit 
du forcest according to your letter, in order that the others coming 
in between may not put me again on slippery ice. I must there- 
fore live between hope and fear and can with justice say: Nescio 
quo me vertam. Do not neglect to answer me by way of haerlem 
or at the first opportunity and to send me the money in order that 
I may for once, now it comes to a pinch, be at ease. Trusting to 
your promptness I commend you. 

Tomorrow by the first boat, I expect the effect of your letter; 
it must not be delayed any longer. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnickendam 30 

September 21, 163J 

Piettcr Cornelisen van Munnickcdam, in New Netherland, in the 
colony of Rensselaerswyck 

This 2 1 st of September 1637, in Amsterdam 

Sent by den harinck 
Notwithstanding I have received no letter from you, as my small 
vessel which I expect every hour has not yet arrived, I can not 
refrain from telling you, on the report which I have from Jacob 
ivolfcrscn, who met your son in law 37 at the Maiihatans and told 
me that upon your arrival at the Maiihatans you had immediately 
bought a small yacht or a sloop and at once sailed up the river 
therewith, that you have done very well herein and that I must 
praise your diligence in this matter in which you will please con-" 
tinue. Further, I understand also that you had goods enough at 
the creek or at the falls where the mill was to stand and that you 
had made every effort to get the mill ready for operation (from 
which the profits must come). 

80 F. R. B. Msx, Letter Book, {.93b. 

:,T Syinon Jansz Henypot; see p. 406, 4:3, 417. 


I have no doubt that no matter how much lumber you saw, it 
will be sold readily to my people, at the Manhatans, and also to 
the English, both to the south and to the north, who will no doubt 
come to fetch it at your place. And you must pay especial atten- 
tion to this now that your partner Claes Jansen van Naerden, 
who goes by this ship, is to be with you, that together and with 
God's help you find means to build for the chiefs and others of 
the savages houses and huts which they can shut with doors and win- 
dows, to which end you must keep on good terms with the smith, 
that he may furnish nails, hinges, bolts and other necessaries on 
condition of receiving a suitable profit therefrom. The accident 
to my smith 38 and his helper is very inconvenient for me; however, 
I hear that another has come from the Manhatans. 

I am negotiating here with two good smiths, but the time is 
now somewhat short as the ships have already left for the Texei 
and I fear that I shall not succeed this time. I recommend to 
you above all to observe the fear of Go;l, to live in peace with 
one another, to promote the profit and service of your master and 
of yourself; about the blessings of the Lord there will then be no 
doubt. I long very much for your letter ; omit not to write me 
full particulars on all occasions and greet Albert andriesen and the 
others of our people of the mill company from me, recommending 
to them also the fear of the Lord and diligence, wherewith, etc. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 39 
September 21, 1637 


Wouter van Ttviller, in New Netherland, at Fort Amsterdam 

This 2 1st September 1637, in Amsterdam ■ 

Sent by de Harinck 

As I am daily, yes almost hourly, expecting the arrival of my 

small ship, I have postponed this [letter] till now, because I have 

no letter from you and, when the said ship went out, I advised you 

so fully that now I have no more material. I only have from yon 

** Cornells Thomasz, killed in a quarrel by his helper Hans van Sevenhuysen at 
Ilfracombe, in Devonshire, England, Dec. 8, 1636; see p. 345. 365- The smith from the 
Manhatans was Burger Jorisz. 

89 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.03b-94b. Printed in Dutch in Oud Holland, 1890, 
8:293-95, as Appendix K to Mr de Roever's articles on the colony of Rensselaerswyck. 


the recommendation of the widow of Roclof Jansen, 4 ? written to 
me hastily and with few words, and yonr oral greetings by Jacob 
Wolphertsen, and am glad to know that you are well. I released 
the said widow from her debt long ago. My reason for so doing. 
1 will tell you orally when we meet (God willing) in good health. 
I am expecting your return by one of these two ships which the 
Company is sending thither with a new director. I do not knew 
what to advise you. whether to cross by the first which returns 
at once, or by the second, which it appears will stay longer. If 
the first to come is defendable and large enough, 1 would advise 
you to come by that ; the sooner the better, so that you may clear 
yourself at last from the unbearable slanders with which the fiscal 41 
and his wife have besmirched and defamed your person through 
the whole land, before great and small, religious and secular people. 
The wife, who was here not long ago, or perhaps is still here, 
continues to do so, trying especially to involve the minister also, 
who is slandered so before the consistory that it is most important 
for him to come over; and let him not be persuaded to stay there 
before he has vindicated and justified himself. Yes; no one was 
overlooked, either great or small, especially of those who belonged 
to the council or had had anything to do with the administration, 
so it seems that the country there is lull of rascally and godless 
people and it is highly needful that every one who has any regard 
for his honor should come and defend himself in order to thrust 
such a load of blame from his shoulders. 

And as to your honor, many are so misled and deceived thai 
they think that your honor will not dare return but will stay in 
that country, although I, wherever I go, maintain the contrary. 

It seems that the Company intends to take up the affairs of 
Xew Netherland now with all diligence, since by the increase of 
the Company's capital by ' $ they have now obtained money which 
they really lacked before. A.S I am informed, they have planned 
some freedoms but are delaying to issue them until they have re- 
ceived news of the condition and opportunities of the country. 
which, as 1 guess, will happen on the advice of this now departing 
director 4111 and, as I also guess, on the advice of the returning di- 
rector and other councilors, so that you had better be on good 
terms with this director who now goes thither, in order to make a 
success of New Netherland, for if one thinks one way ami another 

4 "Annetie Jans, who in 1638 married the Rev. Everardus Bogardus. 
41 Lubbcrt van Dincklagc. N. de R. 
"« Willeiu Kieft. 


thinks the other way, disorder will he the result. I advise your 
honor to receive and to install this director in office with all 
courtesy, keeping on good terms as far as it is in any way possible. 
And as I met him here several times, I have likewise very urgently 
recommended him to keep up friendly relations, which he on his 
part has promised me that he will not fail to do. I have also 
strongly commended my people and colony to his care, which, he 
has likewise promised to give, so far as his oath and commission 
will allow (and herein I agree with him). I hope also that matters 
will improve in the future, since very discreet commissioners for 
the affairs of New Netherland have come into office by these last 
changes. But since they transact their business in secret, I write 
this only on supposition. 

As to your animals, if you want to keep them, it is well. If not, 
let me have the preference over others. And if you have no par- 
ticular use for them, you could transport them to my colony until 
your honor has made other plans. I believe they will be as safe 
and well taken care of there as at any other place until further 

And since 1 do not know in what way I could at this time lengthen 
this letter, I commend you, etc. 

Herein enclosed is also a letter from your father, also one to 
Cornells van Ticnhoven, to be handed to him. 

Be pleased to order Jacob Planck not to fail to keep me fully 
informed of everything and to send over accounts and memoranda 
of everything. I am informed that your honor has taken some 
blacksmith's coal from my ship for the use of the Company. 
Please give back the same in kind, as the Company is now sending 
over other coal and I could not get any for love or money. I spoke 
to the director here about it and he promised me that he would 
attend to it. And further I commend to you in general the wel- 
fare of my people and colony so long as you remain there. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 42 

September 21, 1637 

Jacob Albertsz Planck, in New Netherland in the colony of Rens- 

This day, 21 September 1637, in Amsterdam 
Though I have no letter from you, being in daily expectation 
of the same by my small boat, this will serve to enclose [the list 

« V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.94b. 


of] the persons who now go thither in the ships of the Company, 
namely four persons in the Company's ship de Harinck and four 
persons in the ship chartered by the Company, also the account of 
what I have advanced to them in money in addition to the expenses 
of the passage, also the contracts they have entered into with me, 
all of them enclosed. I would have sent more people but at first 
the Company would not give me any certainty ; when they had 
chartered the other ship they were willing to transport them but 
it was then too late. 

I send herewith no goods to you, not knowing what I should 
send, as I have no advice at all though I expect it every hour; but 
it will come too late for this time. I recommend to you to help 
administer everything to my best interest and to send me all the 
information you can gather, especially as to what has been sold, 
what remains still unsold and what it is most necessary to send. 
I have become well acquainted with the new director 43 who goes 
over now ; he will doubtless help you wherever he can promote your 
interest consistent with his oath and commission. Keep on good 
terms with him and offer him out of the common goods a few 
pretty things or necessaries ; he can repay us for them in such 
services as he may be able to render without detriment to the 
Company. You will assist the farmers in every way provided they 
on their side do not fail to deliver the just half of the grain which 
I am entitled to. Herewith go also two smiths who are able 
workers and also locksmiths. 438 You must see that they find room 
somewhere. As long as they have a shop they can easily make 
shift as to the rest. When they have nothing else to do they could 
make a quantity of nails, in stock, to sell at the Manhatans or to 
the English ; also, if P r . Cornelissen could build for the savages 
small houses and huts with closed doors and windows, let them 
then make the necessary nails, hinges, hooks, bolts and other hard- 
ware, wherewith, etc. 

«Willem Kieft. 

,3a Cf. statement in letter of same date to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnickendam, on 
p. 351. The account books among the Rcnsselacrszvyck Mss do not show that any smiths 
came over in 1637. 



Log of the ship Rensselaerswyck on its voyage from Amsterdam 
to New Netherland and return 44 

September 25, 1636 — November 7, 163/ 

Journal for ijan ticpks Schellinger 45 
1636, the 2d of October 
1636 Journal 

In the year of Our Lord 1636, the 25th of Sep- 
tember, the boat called Rinselacrs Wijck sailed in 
God's name from amsterdam to tessel 46 at about 
two o'clock in the afternoon. God preserve Rin- 
selacrs Wick ! 

Thursday 47 
Th. 25 

Sun. 28 
Tu. 30 

Wed. 1 

Wed. 8 

Sailed from Amsterdam and anchored before 
duickerdam 4s with a south wind and heavy weather. 

Afternoon again set sail with a southwest wind 
and sailed to opposite pampos 49 and anchored there. 

Again set sail with a south wind and came near 
the south buoy of the vlacck 50 and anchored there. 

The boat arrived at tessel and anchored in nine 
fathoms near the east end ; the wind S.W. 

The wind easterly followed by calm. Here lay 
some French traders, one Straits trader 01 and two 
faemebocks 51 * traders, poor fleets, and the Straits 
trader intended to go to Ireland ; we arranged to 
sail together as far as plcijmuijen 52 and so put to 
sea in God's name, about four o'clock in the after- 
noon, about 22 vessels strong, without convoy. 

44 V. R. B. Mss. 11, entitled: Joerenael vooer ijan tiepks Schellinger. In same hand- 
writing as letter of Jan Tiepkesz to his wife, Jan. 9, 1637 (see p. 346-47), the signature 
to which is the same as that of Jan Tiepkesz under letter of Jan. 8, 1637, to Kiliaen 
van Rensselaer (see p. 345). 

45 In N. Y. Col. Mss, 4:357, under date of Jan. 23, 1648, the name of this skipper 
is given as Jan Tepjes van Schcllingen; in Court Minutes, 1652-56, p. 123, in the 
Albany County clerk's office, under date of Apr. 1654, as Jan Tjebkews Schellinger. 
De Vries, Korte Historiacl, p. 136, under date of Jan. 17, 1635, mentions the arrival 
in the West Indies of a skipper Schellinger, from Medcnblick. 

46 The Texel. 

47 Should be: September 

48 Durgerdam, a small village a short distance from Amsterdam and on the north 
side of the IJ. 

40 Pampus, the bay of the Zuiderzee into which the IJ flows. 

60 Het Vlaak, a shoal in the Zuiderzee, southeast of the island of Wieringen. 

61 Stracts vacrdcr ; refers to a ship trading along the shores of the Mediterranean. 

41 • Pernambuco. 
" Plymouth! 


Th. 9 In the morning the wind was still S.E. ; the course 

as before S.W. with a stiff breeze. At noon we saw 
the Flemish coast and at the same time we saw two 
sails, one off the Flemish coast sailing northward, 
the other off the English coast sailing^ southward, 
but they did not approach us and remained unknown. 
In the evening toward sunset duinkercken 53 lay about 
five leagues 54 S.E. from us and a W.S.W. course was 
followed. The wind was then about east; it became 
calmer in the evening though we kept a steady 
breeze. As far as we could see there lay some 12 to 
15 ships in the scheertie. 55 That day we distributed 
rations, one to each man. During the night there 
was a strong wind from the east. Done once more. 

Fr. 10 In the morning the wind as before with a steady 

breeze, beencsier 56 lay then N. N. W. four leagues 
away from us. The course W. by S. and in the 
evening beuesier lay eight leagues from us E. N. E. 
The course W. S. W. 1/2 west and encountered a 
stiff, steady wind as before and in the second quarter 
of the night we saw a fleet coming in our direction, 
but did not speak them. Done. 

Sat. 11 In the morning the wind as before with rough 

weather. We saw the island of ocranaij f 1 it lay S. 
by E. about six leagues from us. There the Ire- 
land trader left the fleet. She had 20 guns and as 
she was going toward the sorlings 58 and had prom- 
ised us if convenient to convoy us around the sor- 
tings or past them, we followed her and proceeded 
westward, as that was the most convenient course for 
continuing our voyage. We left the fleet and about 
noon we saw a sail come from the coast and as we 
were but two we prepared as well as we could for 
action. When we were ready we waited for her 
with furled sails and when she was nearly within 

<"> Dunkirk. 

M In this log, the term " league " stands for the Dutch sea mile, which is equal to 
1/20 of a degree and corresponds to 3 nautical miles, or .1.453 statute miles. 

16 Scheurtje; the channel between the Flemish coast and the sand bank called the 
Vuijlbaert, near Dunkirk. 

68 Bcacliy Head, in Sussex, England; on Seutter's map of the English Channel in 
Atlas Novus, vol. 1, plate 48, the name of this promontory is given as Cap Beachy or 

67 Alderney (French, Auregny). 

68 Scilly Islands. 


range of our guns she turned away before the wind. 
It was a large flute with a poop. There was another 
ship behind us winch we could barely see. She 
waited for it but when it came near she let it pass. 
What kind of ships they were we do not know. 
goutstaert 59 lay about west from us and we continued 
our course. Done. 
Sun. 12 In the morning we did not see land; the wind as 

before and at noon the Ireland trader left us and 
sailed N. W. and we W. by S., our latitude was then 
49-43 min. We estimated that we were then 18 
leagues E. N. E. 1/3 E. from leesert. m Done. 

Course Leagues Latitude Wind Weather 

Mon. 13 W. by S. 32 49-19 E- by S. Stiff topsail 

During the night a ship passed us going in the op- 
posite direction. Done the past day till noon. 

Tu. 14 W. by S. 32 49-0 E. S. E. Stiff topsail 

In the morning we were near a Frenchman, whom 
we chased while following our course. It was a 
ship that came from the bank of tcrucef. G1 In the 
afternoon another one passed us to windward with- 
out speaking. We then set our course toward the 
W. S. W. with a stiff topsail breeze. Done. 

Wed. 15 S. W. by W. 30 47-40 S. E. Stiff topsail 

In the evening it began to drizzle. Done. 

Th. 16 By dead reckoning; we took no latitude. Dark 


W. S. W. 16 47-15 S. E. with rough 

weather. Done. 

Fr. 17 By dead reckoning; we took no latitude. Dark 


W. S. W. 18 47-4 E. gentle breeze 


Sat. 18 As above. Upon taking the latitude we found the 

latitude, the distance and the course during the last 
three days, that is from the 16th to the 18th, changed 
as follows 

S. W. by W. 58 45-21 S. E. Various breezes 

w Si art Point, Devonshire. 

c " The Lizard. 

01 Terre Neuve; that is Newfoundland. 


Sun. 19. S. W. by W. 20 44-40 E. Topsail 


Mon. 20 S. W. by W. 45 42-56 Fitful rougb weather 
and toward evening we had sailed eight leagues W. 
S. W. with very rough weather from the N. N. W. ; 
during the evening it became quite calm, which 
lasted till daylight; then the wind changed to the 
south. Done. 

Tu. 21 In the morning the wind changed to the W. and it 

blew so hard that the topsails had to be taken in. 
The wind veered to the N. W. We had then sailed 
about three leagues to the N. W. and about 
nine o'clock it blew so hard that we had to take in ail 
our sails and could not carry a single sail. An hour 
later there blew a violent gale from the N. W. and 
we then drifted east with a very rough sea. The 
waves rose to such an awful hight that the waves 
and the sky seemed one. The wind turned again to 
the W. and so it lasted the entire night. Done as 
far as the night is concerned. 

Wed. 22 In the morning it still blew so hard that we could 

not carry any sails, but the sea was calmer. The 
wind came from the S. W. and during the night in 
the second watch it grew less ; we set our main- 
sail but toward dawn it had to be taken in again on 
account of the strong wind, thunder and lightning. 
It blew hard, the wind as above, we drifted east. 
Done till morning. 

Th. 23 The wind about W. and we drifted east with rough 

weather. We drifted from about nine o'clock on 
the 21st to noon of the 23d, by reckoning 23 leagues 
N. E. by E. No latitude had been taken for the 
past three days up to noon. 

Fr. 24 Drifted east by north to leagues. The wind about 

W. N. W. with severe storm and during the past 
day drifted without sail. 

Sat. 25 Drifted E. N. E. 12 leagues, with very rough 

weather ; our mizzen blew away. The wind about 
west during the past day. 

Sun. 26 Drifted east by south 15 leagues. The wind about 

west with rough weather and in the evening we bent 
on our new mizzen. The day gone. 


Mon. 2j Drifted E. by S. eight leagues; the wind from the 

N.W. with a stiff mainsail breeze till morning. We 
then ran south with our two courses but could not 
sail closer than S.E. by S. The wind veered toward 
the W. and we sailed till evening with the courses, 
keeping our course S.S.E. seven leagues. The wind 
then rose again from the S.W. so that both the 
courses had to be taken in. It blew a terrible gale 
and w£ drifted then S.E. by E. The day gone. 

Tu. 28 A gale still blew from the west and we still drifted 

S.E. by E. Drifted by reckoning 12 leagues. That 
night the beak of our ship was knocked to pieces. 
The day gone. 

Wed. 29 The wind as before but the weather fully as good. 

We set onr mainsail but it was not long before it had 
to be taken in again. The wind veered to the S.W. 
by W. with rough weather so that we were obliged 
to let ourselves drift. This day we made the first 
good observation of latitude since the 20th and found 
that we were at 41 degrees, 51 minutes. The day 

Th. 30 In the morning the weather was fairly good, the 

wind about W.S.W. and toward daybreak we set 
both our courses and steered S. by E. but the sea 
became rough so that we could only hold to a S.E. 
course. That noon we again took a fairly good ob- 
servation of latitude and found it 41 degrees, 41 
minutes, and ran that day by drifting and sailing, 
keeping an E.S.E. course, 14 leagues. We took 
our sails in again on account of the strong wind, also 
because we could make no headway by sailing on ac- 
count of the rough sea. Awaited the right wind. 
The day gone. 

Fr. 31 Drifted by reckoning 10 leagues E.S.E. The 

wind about S.W. with rough weather and high seas 
and an overcast sky so that we could not take the 
latitude, but by dead reckoning it was 41 degrees, 26 
min. ; and from that noon till the morning of the first 
of November we drifted eight leagues S.E. by E. 
The wind about west, very high seas. The latitude 
by dead reckoning 41 deg. 10 min. The day gone. 



Sat. 1 in the morning we veered toward the west and 

drifted north. The wind S.W. with rough weather 
and high seas. The past half day and entire night. 

Sun. 2 Drifted 16 leagues N.E. by E. ; the wind about 

west, the latitude by dead reckoning 41 degrees, 50 
min. with very high seas. That day the overhang 
above our rudder was knocked in by severe storm. 
This day a child was born on the ship, and named 
and baptized in England stocrm f 2 the mother is 
annetie baernts. The day gone. 

Mon. 3 In the morning the weather was fairly good, the 

wind about W.S.W. We set our courses and pro- 
ceeded in a northerly direction. During that day we 
made 12 leagues, drifting and sailing and keeping a 
N.E. by N. course. Latitude by dead reckoning 42 
degrees, 18 min., and that evening the sails had to 
be taken in again on account of a strong wind from 
the west. The day gone. 

Tu. 4 Our latitude was 42 deg. and 22 min. and we had 

drifted by reckoning N.E. by E. six leagues. The 
wind about west and toward evening the wind turned 
to the south with terribly high seas but the wind 
moderated. The day gone. 

Wed. 5 Drifted by dead reckoning N. by E. nine leagues, 

our latitude was by reckoning 43 deg., the wind 
about west. This day it has been about S.W. with 
fairly good weather. The day gone. 

Th. 6 In the morning the wind and weather were as 

above. Seeing little hope of getting better wind and 
weather soon — though God knows — having lain to 
already 17 days because of severe gales and having 
few provisions for 52 or 53 souls, the number on 
board to keep dry, 03 we could oppose it no longer, 
in the first place, on account of the sick people whose 
number increased daily because of their hardships 
and, in the second place, because we feared that it 
might last a long time yet. As we had already 

02 Storm Albertsz (van der Zee), son of Alberl Andriesz Bradt and Annetie Barents 
van Rolmers. See footnote, p. 676. 
''-"■ hrt getal opt schip om drooch tc houden. 

r/h fie l « 

^< 5 

> (Li 

> (U 




passed Cacp finnestaer, 6 * to wit, to the north of it, 
in great peril and were drifting into the bay, I knew 
nothing better to do than to hold a council with the 
supercargo, the mate and other advisers, to decide 
what had best be done in the matter. We concluded in 
the said council to put the helm hard up and to steer 
in God's name toward the Channel and try to get into 
faelmuiden 65 or pleijmuiden, 66 which was done and 
at noon we found the latitude to be 43 deg., 9 min., 
wind and weather as above. With two courses we 
proceeded toward the N.N.E. The day gone. 

Course Leagues Latitude 

Fr. 7 N.E. by N. sailed 23 44 deg., 23 min. 

The wind about west. Last night we drifted for six 
hours without sail on account of the terrible wind 
and the high seas. During the day watch it was a 
little better and we set our courses. The day gone. 

Sat. 8 N.N.E. 31 leagues the latitude 46 deg., 19 min. 

The wind about west with a stiff topsail breeze, 
though most of the time we sailed with two courses. 
This afternoon we sailed with two topsails and dur- 
ing the night again with two courses and in the fore- 
noon with one topsail over the ocean. The day gone. 

Sun. 9 N.N.E. 31 leagues the latitude 48 deg., 17 min. 

The wind about west. The past night we sailed 
with one course and the day before with a topsail 
and this above mentioned day with two topsails and 
the spritsail. 67 We sailed then N.E. Toward even- 
ing the wind changed to south and southeast and we 
set our course E.N.E. and during the day watch 
the wind changed to the E.N.E. varying in strength 
with calm and gentle breezes. The day gone. 

C. 1. d. m. 

Mon. 10 N. E. 18 49-11 with varying winds but toward 

evening the wind became west changing to a stiff 
breeze and during the night it blew so hard that we 
ran before the wind with a foresail. Toward even- 
ing it was somewhat better. The day gone. 

64 Cape Finisterre, Spain. 

''■■■ Falmouth, England. 

60 Plymouth, England. 

91 blint; same as blimlc, a sail set under tlie bowsprit, not now used. 



Tu. II 

Wed. 12 
85 i 

Th. 13 
near the 
so r lings 

Fr. 14 
near the 
7 steen 

at Caep 


E. 20 49-10 by dead reckoning, the sky was 
overcast and weather uncertain. The wind was 
about S. W. and during the night we took the lati- 
tude by the stars; were at 49-35 min. The day 

E. 16 49-0 The wind about west and the 
weather rough, in the evening we sounded and found 
bottom at 85 fathoms. We then sailed N.E. till the 
first watch was over. We judged that we were near 
heij sant; 08 we sounded again and found the same 
depth, good Channel ground. We thought that we 
were in but it began to blow very hard and in the 
morning there was such a gale that our sails had to 
be taken in. Till morning. 

In the morning the wind was south with very 
rough weather, we did not yet see land. We set our 
mainsail with great difficulty but took in our foresail 
and then sailed E.S.E. During the night in the 
second watch we saw land south of us. It was very 
bad weather ; we could not see for the rain, thunder 
and lightning. We ran before the wind and ac- 
cording to our reckoning it must be the sorlins, Gj as 
we later found it to be; we then sailed N. W. with 
one lower sail. Toward daybreak the weather be- 
came a little better and in the day watch we turned 
toward the land to reconnoiter. The wind changed 
to the S.S.E. Till morning. 

In the morning the wind was as above so that we 
could not make the land we had seen during the night. 
We noticed however the scciccn steen 70 , which in- 
dicated sufficiently where we were. They were to 
starboard about a league off. The wind began to 
get stronger again. We looked for a good roadstead 
and thought it advisable to run behind Caep Coern- 
wal so as to get into the small bay or haven which is 
there. When we got around the cape the wind 
changed to the east and N.E. and north and finally 
to the N.W. with terribly rough weather so that we 

M He d'Ouessant, or Usbant Island, department <>f Finist&re, Prance. 

'■■> Scilly Islands. 

70 Seven Stones; a group of rocks 18 miles W. by S. from Land's End. 


could hardly carry half a mainsail. We got aground 
near die cape and at twilight our foresail blew away, 
for we were obliged to carry all the sail we could, 
and our main sheet broke and we let ourselves be 
driven to the north with one sail, but in the second 
watch the mainsail had to be taken in too, for it was 
no longer possible to carry any sail, as one thing or 
another would break and we were driven E.N.E. 
Till morning. 
Sat. 15 In the morning the land lay close under our lee 

and we drifted toward it. We concluded to set our 
by londeif 1 foresail and, as we could not keep away from the 
shore, to run in near the land during the day, think- 
ing that we might make a port there called bedes- 
haeuen 12 or else straton.™ When we came near the 
shore we were too far down. We were driven by 
the strong current so that with our foresail only we 
were carried along the shore trying to find some 
place where the ship and people would be safe. As it 
became late in the day, we decided that we could do 
no better than to run to an anchorage or land which 
we saw and which according to the description of 
the book must be a harbor, and concluded, if possible, 
to run in, or else to beach the ship, on account of 
the strong current and the severe W.N.W. storm 
and the fact that we were in a bay. Commending 
ourselves to God, we ran toward it with reefed fore- 
sail and when we came close to the shore, as the 
weather seemed to calm down and clear up a little, 
for it had been very dark before, we saw Londeij 
and hastily turned so as to sail on the wind, tacked 
and carried all the sail we could. We again raised 
our main topmast, which had not been up in eight 
or ten days, and set both the topsails. It seemed as 
if we would capsize or all our sails blow away. 74 We 
headed for a point above the cape called haertlan- 
puint 75 and during the night we came with God's 

" Lund; Island; 10% miles N.W. by N. from Hartland Point. 

nPadstow Haven; this and most of the places that follow are points in Cornwall 
n<l Devonshire on or near the Bristol Channel. 
78 Stratton. 

74 Ilct seheen of he I onderslc bocucn sonde oftc al van bocucn nccr dat daer op stont. 

75 Hartland Point. 


help to anchor under the lee of londcij, in 20 fath- 
oms, with a W.N.W. wind. Till morning. 

Sun. 16 In the morning the wind was as above. We 

in ijllc facom weighed anchor and set sail for a harbor called ijlle 
vacom™ about four leagues from the island. On 
our way we saw a ship without mast drift by, and 
coming near the harbor a pilot came on board and 
brought us in. We found two Dutch ships lying 
there. One came from Spain with salt, and the other 
came from the West Indies ; they also were driven 
from their course by the storm. The ship which 
came from Spain was in Ireland, or near Caep 
Cldcre? 7 among the cliffs and thought from its 
course and reckoning that it was among the sorlings 
and happened to get here ; neither did the other 
which was among the sorlings, know where it was 
and it came here also toward evening. Till morn- 

Mon. 17 The wind as above with rain and strong wind 

storm so that we could not do anything to repair the 
ship but only supply the people with some fresh pro- 
visions. Some families went on land. 

Tn. 18 As above, dirck koersen 78 went to pleijmuitsP 

Wed. 19 As above. 

Th. 20 As above. 

Fr. 21 Wind was east with rough weather. 

Sat. 22 The wind west with bad weather. 

Sun. 23 As above. 

Mon. 24 I went to batstaepel, 80 where two English vessels 

lay, to arrange to sail in company with them. 

Tu. 25 Wind and weather as above. 

Wed. 26 As above. 

Th. 27 As above. 

Fr. 28 As above. 

Sat. 29 dirck kuirsen came back from pleimuiden. 

Sun. 30 As above. 

70 Ilfracombc; the distance from Lundy Island is about 23 miles. 

77 Cape Clear. 

"Dirck Corssen St am, supercargo of the vessel. 

78 Plymouth. 
Ku Bai nstable, 



Mon. 1 Abatement of weather and wind. 

Tu. 2. The wind was S.E. with a stiff gale and dark 


Wed. 3 The two ships from Holland set sail from here 

with two Newfoundland traders. Wind east. 

Th. 4 The storm blew from the east. 

Fr. 5 As above. 

Sat. 6 As above. 

Sun. 7 As above. 81 

Mon. 8 The wind as above ; in the evening when some of 

our passengers had gone on land to sit and drink in 
the tavern, where we were sitting with an English 
merchant to sell our goods, there were two there, 
of whom one struck to the ground the other, named 
Cornells toemess srnit; 82, the offender was his helper 
hans 83 and * * * 84 

Tu. 9 It was a day of prayer here for the whole neigh- 

borhood on account of the severe sickness which God 
is sending them. The wounded man died this morn- 
ing and was buried in the afternoon. 

Wed. 10 As above, and we began to get our hold ready. 

Th. 11 As above. 

Fr. 12 As above. 

Sat. 13 As above. 

Sun. 14 As above. 

Mon. 15 As above. 

Tu. 16 As above. 

Wed. 17 As above; and as matters relating to the accident 

had not yet been cleared up, they took the rudder 
from our ship and brought it on land, on account of 
the crime. 

The weather was changeable but not of the best. 
As above. 
As above. 
As above. 

81 The entries for Dec. 1—7 are here repeated, the only variations, spelling excepted, 
being that between the words " and " and " wind " of the first entry are inserted the 
words " change of " and that in the entry for Dec. 3 the words " from Holland " arc 

82 Cornelis Thomasz, the smith. 
M Hans van Sevenhuysen; see p. 345. 

84 Sentence not finished in the original. 








. 21 


Mon. 22 The body was dug up again and the wound viewed 

by the criminal and the coroner or sellout. 

Tu. 23 They carried the offender away in the name of the 

king and let us fetch our rudder from land again 
and go free. 

Wed. 24 A severe storm blew from the W.S.W. 

Th. 25 The weather was fair and the wind as above. 

Fr. 26 As above. 

Sat. 27 dirck Cocrscn came from batstaepcl and said that 

a Dutch ship had come to appel doocr 85 and that 
another lying under the lee of londeij had been 
anchored there for five days. They came from 
roscl SG and had set sail with us. Some other ships 
had been with them in this bay but he did not. know 
what had become of them on account of the bad 
weather. Wind as above. 

Sun. 28 As above. 

Mon. 29 As above. 

Tu. 30 As above. 

Wed. 31 As above. 

End of the year 1636. By God's mercy in ijlle 

Beginning of the year of our Lord 1637 

Th. 1 As above. In God's name in the New Year. 

Fr. 2 Change of wind and weather. 

Sat. 3 Wind about north. 

Sun. 4 As above. 

Mon. 5 As above. 

Tu. 6 As above. 

Wed. 7 As above. 

Th. 8 As above. 

Fr. 9 At three o'clock before daybreak we set sail in 

out of God's name and in the morning we were at the N.W. 

Me fakom point of Londeij. The wind S.E. with steady 
weather. We sailed then W.S.W. by W. 

Sat. 10 At noon Cacp Cocmwal lay south of us; we were 

about 10 leagues from land. Calms and fitful 

fir> Appledore, in Devonshire, 

86 La Rochcllc 



Sun. 11 

Mon. 12 

Tu. 13 

in the 

Wed. 14 

Sat. 17 

breezes. We went over to the Irish coast. That 
day and night and toward daybreak, the wind turned 
to the S.S.E. with a stiff mainsail breeze. We sailed 
then S.W. and about an hour later the wind changed 
to the west and at once blew so hard that we could 
carry only one lower sail. We sailed south. 

About noon we could not carry any sail on account 
of the wind. We still sailed south and drifted E. 
by S. toward the coast. During the night we had 
a severe storm. 

In the morning we did not see land, which sur- 
prised us, for the whole day we had not realized that 
the current was carrying us farther from shore than 
we reckoned. Toward evening with great difficulty 
we lowered our main topmast on account of the 
severe storm and steered toward the north, sailing 
N.N.E. because the night was at hand. It was dark 
weather toward evening and this lasted all night. 

In ttie morning we cast the lead and struck good 
Channel ground at about 65 fathoms. We assumed 
then that we were south of the soerlings 87 and set 
our course S.W. by W. At noon our latitude was 
49 degrees, o min., by dead reckoning S. by W. of 
the soerlings. Till noon. 

Course leagues deg. min. 

S.W. by W. 12 48-37 The wind fitful with 

beautiful weather. In the first watch the wind 
changed to the N.W. blowing a topsail breeze and 
The day gone. 

12 47-35 The wind N.W. with 

The day gone. 

26 46-0 with varying winds 

but mostly from the west with beautiful weather. 
This day we bent our new mainsail with both the top- 
sails and sailed S.S.E. with lower sails set. The day 

W. by N. y 2 N. 6 T / 2 46-8 by dead reckoning; 
the wind about south with a stiff gale and during the 
night the wind changed to the S.E. We sailed then 
SAW with steady weather. The day gone. 

we sailed S.W. 

Th. 15 


steady weather 

Fr. 16 

S.W by S. 

87 Scilly Islands. 

3 68 


Sun. 1 8 

Mon. 19 
Tu. 20 

Wed. 21 

Th. 22 

Fr. 23 

Sat. 24 

near the 


near poerte 


W.S.W. n l / 2 45-51 by dead reckoning; the 
wind fitful with calms but mostly S.E. with drizzling 
rain till midnight. The wind then changed to the 
N.E. The day gone. 

S.S.W. 26 44-16 by observation ; the wind 
about east, steady breeze with gray sky. The day 

S. by W. 40 41-14 by observation; the wind as 
before, stiff topsail gale, continuous clear weather. 
The day gone. 

S. by W. 33 39-0 by observation ; the wind as 
above, steady breeze. The day gone. 

S. by W. 20 37-15 by observation; the wind 
about north with steady breeze and clear weather. 
This day we made two more gun carriages and 
mounted a gun, so that we now had four on deck. 
We could for the present not put any more on deck. 
The day gone. 

S. by W. 28 35-49 by observation ; the wind 
about north, steady topsail gale. The day gone. 

In the morning we saw a sail to starboard under 
our lee. The wind was N.E. and we sailed south. 
He made sail toward us. We kept our course and 
cleared away the chests and cows so that we obtained 
a clear deck, which took us till shortly after noon. 
When we were ready we waited for him with furled 
sails and when he came near us we hailed him. He 
answered that he came from rooscl ss and was look- 
ing for good booty. We said that we were also look- 
ing for a good prize, fie remained near us for about 
an hour and then headed for the west when each of 
us fired a salute. He had four iron and two metal 
cannon on board. This morning we saw poerte 
santc Si) which lay S.W. from us. We had fine 
weather and at noon our latitude was 33-16 and in 
the evening we got near the west side of poerte santc 
and ran then S.W. by S. till the second watch, with 
a gentle breeze. We then took in the foresail'"' 
and waited for the day. The day gone. 

KS T.a Rochelle. 

M Porto Santo, an island of the Madeira group. 

00 Doen haclden wij onse rock op de mast. 


3 6 9 

Sun. 25 

a child 

Mon. 26 

Til 27 

Wed. 28 

Th. 29 

Fr. 30 

a child 

Sat. 31 
of the 

Sun. 1 

In the morning about an hour after sunrise we 
were between pocrte sante and madccrc. 01 About 
two o'clock in the afternoon we got a steady breeze 
from the W.S.W. and ran south and in the evening 
the S.W. point of madccrc lay 12 leagues N.N.W. 
from us. Our latitude by dead reckoning was then 
31 deg. 40 min. From there we sailed W.S.W. with 
rough weather and lower sails. The wind about 
north with high seas. This night about three o'clock 
a child 92 was born; the father is montamj 98 and the 
mother racgel?* The day gone. 

Course leagues lat. condition of the weather 

W.S.W. 30 30-55 by observation. The wind 
about north with rough weather and high seas. The 
day gone. 

W.S.W. 45 29-38 by observation. The wind 
about N.E. with rough weather and high seas. Car- 
ried two lower sails and had clear weather. The day 

W.S.W. 45 28-35 by observation. The wind 
about N. E. with continuous rough weather and high 
seas. Carried the foresail and one topsail. The day 

W\S.W. 43 27-29 by observation ; the wind 
about north, steady breeze most of the time. The day 

S.W. by W. 36 26-12 by observation ; the wind 
about north, mostly stiff topsail gale. About two 
o'clock in the night a boy 95 was born ; the name of 
the mother is Caetclin. The day gone. 

W.S.W. 47 24-57 D y observation ; the wind 
about northeast, mostly stiff topsail breeze with clear 
weather. Took the azimuth of the sun ; variation of 
the compass o deg. 14 min. N.W. The day gone. 

W.S.W. 46 23-44 N.E. stiff topsail breeze, 
generally with fine weather. The day gone. 

01 Madeira. 

02 Marie. See Riker, Harlem; its origin and early annals, p. 140. 

03 Johannes La Montagne. 

04 Rachel. 

95 Hendrick Cornelisz Macsen, son of Cornelis Maesen, and Catelijntie Martens. See 
footnote p. 181. 


Mon. 2 W.S.W. 43 22-38 N.E. stiff topsail breeze, 

clear weather. We were five minutes south of the 
tropic. The day gone. 

Tu. 3 W.S.W. 38 21-40 N. steady gale, mostly 

clear weather. From here on the course was changed 
and we sailed west. We were south of the tropic 
26 leagues or t deg. 46 min. during the past day. 

variation of compass 

W. by S. 36 21-13 5~° N.W. variation. The 
wind north, steady breeze, with clear weather. The 
day gone. 

W. ]/ 2 S. 28 21-4 gentle topsail breeze, wind 
north. This night a flying fish flew on board our 
ship. The day gone. 

W. 18 21-1 6-0 N.W. variation. The wind 
north with gentle breezes. The day gone. 

W. 30 20-58 N. stiff topsail gale and high 
seas for the past day. 

W. y 2 N. 40 21-10 N. with rough weather, 
with lower sails the past day. 

W. l / 2 N. 35 21-17 N. rough weather with 
lower sails the past day. 

W. 42 21-15 N- hard topsail gale the past 

W. y 2 N. 38 21-30 by dead reckoning; N. 
with stiff topsail gale. This noon we changed our 
course and then sailed N.W. by W. The wind as 
before with lower sails and in the afternoon there 
was a severe storm with thunder, lightning and rain 
so that we took in all our sails, but toward the end 
of the second watch it became somewhat better. We 
set both our lower sails, the foretopsail and mizzen- 
sail and then sailed about N.W. The wind N.N.E. 
The day gone. 
Th. 12 N.W. 16 22-6 N.N.E. Fair weather the past 

Fr. 13 N.W. 20 23-1 N.E. Changeable weather the 

past day. 

Wed. 4 

Th. 5 

Fr. 6 

Sat. 7 

Sun. 8 

Mon. 9 

Tu. 10 

Wed. 11 


lat. by long, by lat. by 
Course leag. reck'g reck'g obs'n 

deg. min. deg. min. deg. min. deg. min. 

Sat. 14 N.W. y 2 N. 37 0-0 34-1 8 96 24-57 °-54 

variation of the compass. The wind about N.N.E., 
topsail breeze. During the day we sailed yj leagues ; 
the latitude 24-57 J a steady topsail breeze. We took 
the sun's azimuth at its setting and found the varia- 
tion of the needle to be o deg. 54 min. N.W. The 
weather was fine and we then sailed fully N.W. 
by N. 

C. leag. lat. reck. long. lat. obs. 

Sun. 15 N.N.W. 26 26-31 35-2 26-33 °-° N.N.E. 

Steady breeze. We had then sailed 26 leagues 
N.N.W. and our latitude was 26-33 > longitude 35-2 ; 
the wind N.N.E. with fine weather and in the even- 
ing it became calm. The day gone. 

C. leag. lat. reck. long. lat. obs. deg. min. 

Mon. 16 N.W by N. 20 27-40 35-50 27-41 6-40 

We had sailed N.W. by N. 20 leagues and our lati- 
tude was 27-41; the longitude was 35-50; and on 
taking the sun's azimuth at its setting we found the 
variation to be 6 deg. 40 min. N.E. ; the wind about 
N.N.E. The day gone. 

Tu. 17 N.W. by N. 26 29-7 36-55 0-0 0-0 

The wind southerly, high swells from the N.W. with 
fine weather at noon, the wind fitful and changed 
soon to the west, weather unsettled. We had much 
rain, thunder and lightning and in the afternoon we 
took off our bonnets, 97 veered about and went about 

Wed. 18 W. by S. 5 29-0 37-15 0-0 0-0 

Variable weather but fair. We sailed N. W. with 
[occasional] calms. The day gone. 

Th. 19 S.W. by S. 3 29-50 37-6 28-48 0-0 

The wind fitful but we drifted quietly, mostly S.W. ; 
latitude and longitude as above. The day gone. 

Fr. 20 W.N.W 16 29-12 38-13 29-12 0-0 

N.N.E. Stiff topsail breeze. Course, leagues, lati- 
tude and longitude as above. Toward daybreak 
there was a very strong wind. The day gone. 

•• Early navigators used various prime meridians. From the entries for Sept. 7 and 
8, 1637, it appears that this skipper employed the meridian first adopted by Mercator, 
that of the island Corvo of the western Azores, 31 7' W. of Greenwich. 

w Bonnet; a supplementary piece of canvas laced to the foot of a sail in light winds; 
formerly it was sometimes laced to the top of the sail. 

Tu. 24 
left the 


Sat. 21 N.N.W. >2 W. 25 30-40 39-2 30-41 0-0 

N.E. with rough weather. Course, leagues, latitude 
and longitude as above. The day gone. 

Sun. 22 N.N.W. Yz W. 36 32-48 40-22 32-48 0-0 

S.S.E. Steady breeze. Course, leagues, latitude and 
longitude as above, but in the afternoon and the 
early part of the night we had a stiff breeze from 
the east; we changed our course and went north. 
The day gone. 

Mon. 23 N. 9 33-23 40-22 33-23 3-0 S. with calms. 

Course, leagues, latitude and longitude as above. 
Variation of the needle 3 deg. o min. N.W. With 
clear weather, the clay gone. 

C. leag. lat. reck. long. lat. obs. wind 

N. by W. 35 35-43 41-13 o^D W.S.W. 
Rough weather. Course, leagues, latitude and longi- 
tude as above. We had dark weather with much rain. 
About noon there was a waterspout behind our ship 
which drew the water like smoke to such a terrible 
hight that we were afraid of it ; we took in all our 
sails but it was soon over and passed behind us at 
close range without hurting us. The day gone. 

C. leag. lat. reck. long. lat. ofcs. 

Wed. 25 N.W. by N. 22 36-55 42-13 36-56 E.N.E. 

Stiff breeze, we had during the day much change of 
wind and terrible thunder, lightning and rain, 
ground at Toward evening there was a gentle breeze and after 
50 fathoms supper we cast the lead and found at 50 fathoms 
small black stones and also small red ones, some as 
large as shot, together with grayish sand, at this 
latitude and longitude about 10 miles from land. 
We went then N.N.W. the wind N.E. with a gentle 
breeze and when the first watch was over we sounded 
again and struck sand at 18 fathoms. Course and 
wind as before. At four bells in the second watch 
we found sand at 12 fathoms, the depth having be- 
come steadily less up to this point. Course and 
wind as above. We then took in our topsail and 
turned to the S.E., the wind being E.N.E. We sailed 
for four glasses [two hours] or till we had 17 fath- 
oms ; then we turned and sailed north and set our 
topsails to a gentle breeze. 


C. leag. lat. reck. long. lat. obs. N. W. var. 

Th. 26 N.W. by N. 10 37-29 42-39 37-29 13-20 

The wind fitful with calms. In the forenoon we 
found most of the time 20, 19 or 18, but also 17 and 
15 fathoms, but not long after we saw land, the depth 
ranging from 15 to 20 fathoms.- We did not know 
where we were for it was foggy weather. We sup- 
posed that there might be a bank, as the southern 
colonies of the English were quite near and as we 
had had in the afternoon the above course, leagues, 
latitude, longitude and variation. We were about 
three miles from land and found 14 fathoms of 
water, with foggy weather, so that we could not tell 
much about the land. At about three o'clock in the 
afternoon siuits Island JS lay about three leagues W. 
N.W. from us. Seen from there the island looks as 
follows : the upper part is hard to recognize, the 
north point is indented, and it seems as if a small 
fiat island lay at the south point. 

C. leag. lat. rec. long. lat. obs. var. 

Sat. 28 N. by E. 20 39-43 43-35 39-43 0-0 

the wind S.W., a gentle breeze and the course sailed, 
leagues, latitude and longitude as above. During 
the past night we had a steady breeze from the S.W. 
with rain, thunder and lightning. We were about 
N.N.E. of Caep hinlooep." 

C. leag. lat. reck. long. lat. obs. W. var. 

Sat. 17 N. by E. 20 39-43 43-35 39-43 0-0 

The wind W.N.W., gentle breeze, course, leagues, 
latitude and longitude as above. During the night 
we had showers, as if we were near land. By reck- 
oning we were six leagues from land. We found 22 
fathoms of water and ran close to northward. We 
sounded often and found sometimes 22, but also 20, 
18, 17, 15, and then again 22 fathoms and we saw 
many whales. We then sailed mostly N.W. The 
whole night long with calms and that night we saw 
many fires burning - . 

08 Smith Island; cast of Cape Charles, t lie northeastern end of the island is about 
75 49' W. and 37° 11' N. 
*• Cape Henlopen. 



Sun. i 

godins puint 

Mon. 2 

Tu. 3 

Wed. 4 

Th. 5 
Fr. 6 
Sat. 7 

Sun. 8 

Mon. 9 
Tu. io 
Wed. ii 

In the morning we were about two leagues from 
land and in 16 fathoms, S.W. from the north point 
of the bacrnde gat™* bloemcrts puint 1 being north of 
us. We saw many whales, some io or 20 swimming 
for at least two hours about our ship ; we supposed 
that they were taking their course from the south 
to the north. At about six o'clock in the evening 
at sunset we came to anchor behind godins puint 2 in 
five fathoms, good anchorage. God be praised for 
his mercy. 

In the morning the wind was N.W. with rough 
weather so that we could not make the hoefden. 3 
Our boat landed at godins puint for the purpose of 
shooting geese and stayed over night there. It was 
bitterly cold. 

At noon the weather was somewhat better as far as 
the wind was concerned though it was N.W. and very 
cold. Our boat returned and we could not do any- 
thing else. 

The wind as above with a gentle breeze. We 
weighed our anchor and arrived at four o'clock in 
the afternoon at the manatans, where we found an 
English vessel. God be praised for our safe voyage 
thus far. As we learned here that the river was 
still closed up above we remained here. 

As above, the wind west. 

The wind east. 

We began to clear our hold and brought our 
empty water casks on land. 

Two of the children born on our ship were baptized 
here. The wind N.W. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. South. 

•"■ Rarnegat Inlet. 

1 Blommaert's Point; Norton's Point, at the west end of Coney Island -was called 
Blommaert's Point and is referred to as such in the present log, under date of Aug. 
8th, p. 383. At the time of the present entry the ship was so far south of Norton's 
Point that it could not have been visible and it is possible that some point on the New 
Jersey coast had the same name. 

2 Godyn's Point; now Sandy Hook. 

3 The headlands at either side of the Narrows; called also Hamelshoofden. 


Th. 12 As above. 

Fr. 13 The wind north with storm. 

Sat. 14 The wind south with snow. 

Sun. 15 In the evening Chics raemaecker came out into the 

a ship bay and also near not en Island 4 and during the night 

came dirck Cuirsen 5 sailed up the river. The wind south. 

Mon. 16 Claes came on board. This day we fetched some 

goods from land. The wind south with fair weather. 

Tu. 17 In the afternoon the wind was about west with 

rough weather. 

Wed. 18 As above. 

Th. 19 As above, with rain. 

Fr. 20 As above. 

Sat. 21 I brought most of the merchandise on land into 

a house and left the mate in charge, with orders to 
sell it. With the consent of the director, we got 
ready to sail up the river with the ship. 

Sun. 22 The widow of Cornells smits 7 was married here at 

the manatans to aerent steffeniers. 

Mon. 23 The wind about north. 

Tu. 24 The weather calm, Peter Cornells 9, went up the 

river in a yacht. 

Wed. 25 The wind N.E., rain and rough weather. 

Th. 26 We sailed up the river in the ship with calm 

weather and in the evening came to anchor near 

Fr. 27 In the morning we set sail again with calm weather 

and very light northerly breeze and at about nine 
o'clock at night we anchored on account of the dark- 
ness. W T e had sailed about eight leagues. 

Sat. 28 In the morning we set sail and came to the hoege 

hint. 10 The tide went out and the wind was con- 
trary so that we anchored there about four o'clock 
in the afternoon. 

4 Nut Island, now Governor's Island. 

s Dirck Corssen Stam, supercargo of the vessel. 

Ilendrick de Forest. 

7 Cornelis Thomasz, the smith; cf. entry of Dec. 8, 1636. 

8 Pieter Cornelisz van Monnickendam. 

9 Sapokanican, or Sappokanican, later Greenwich village and now that part of New 
York City between 14th and Houston sts. on the Hudson River. 

10 The Highlands. 



Sun. 29 

Mon. 30 
Tu. 31 


Th. s 

Fr. 3 

Sat. 4 
Sun. 5 
Mon. 6 

Tu. 7 

Wed. 8 
Th. 9 

Fr. 10 
Sat. 11 
Sun. 12 
Mon. 13 
Tu. 14 
Wed. 15 
Th. 16 
Fr. 17 
Sat. 18 
Sun. 19 
Mon. 20 

In the morning- dirck Cocrsen came down in the 
yacht and boarded our ship again ; the yacht sailed on 
with a north wind. 

The wind as above with rough weather. 

In the morning the wind was about S.W. with 
fair weather. We sot under sail and came to the 
csoepes. 11 
north and blew hard. 

In the evening the wind changed to the 

As above. 

In the morning the wind turned to the south and 
we set sail and came to anchor about a mile above 
Catskil. The wind was then about east. 

In the morning the wind was about south with a 
drizzling rain. We set sail and in the evening came 
to anchor about half a mile below bcrcn Island, 12 on 
account of calms and contrary wind. 

As above. 

As above. 

In the evening the wind changed to the south. 
We set sail but were becalmed. Getting a fair breeze 
during the night we sailed on. 

About three o'clock in the morning we came to 
anchor before foert oeranien, 15 the end of our voy- 
age upward. 

The wind north. 

We delivered some goods to ijacckop planch. 
The wind as above. 

Cleaned our deck. 

The wind as above. 

As above. Easter. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. Delivered some goods. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. 

We delivered the smith's coal. 

]1 Now Kingston. 
'- Barren Island. 
13 Fort Orange. 


Tu. 21 As above. 

Wed. 22 As above. 

Th. 23 As above. 

Fr. 24 As above. 

Sat. 25 As above. 

Sun. 26 A yacht came here from the manatans. 

Mon. 2y As above. 

Tu. 28 As above. 

Wed. 29 The yacht went from here to the manatans with 


Th. 30 As above. 

Fr. 1 The wind about south. 

Sat. 2 As above. 

Sun. 3 As above. 

Mon. 4 As above. 

Tu. 5 Easterly wind with rain. 

Wed. 6 As above. 

Th. 7 As above. 

Fr. 8 As above. 

Sat. 9 As above. 

Sun. 10 Very cold weather with rain. 

Mon. 11 Northerly wind with much sun. 

Tu. 12 As above. 

Wed. 13 In the night the wind became south. 

Th. 14 As above. 

Fr. 15 We went with our goods to the great falls, four 

leagues above fort ocranicn. 

Sat. 16 Fine weather. The wind about south. 

Sun. 17 As above. 

Mon. 18 As above. 

Tu. 19 maerten gerrits went to the manatans. This day 

we unloaded our millstones and got ready to set 

sail. The wind south. 

Wed. 20 The wind as above. We lay ready to sail and 

waited for the wind. This day a yacht came from 

the manatans and the yacht sinte maertin with cattle. 

Th. 21 The wind as above. 

Fr. 22 The wind as above. 

Sat. 23 The wind as above. 

Sun. 24 The wind as above. 


Mon. 25 The wind as above. 

Tu. 26 The wind as above. 

Wed. 27 The wind as above. 

Th. 28 The wind as above. 

Fr. 29 The wind as above. 

Sat. 30 The wind as above. 

Sun. 31 In the morning the wind N.W. We set sail and 

ran past smacks Island and anchored there. 

Mon. 1 In the morning the wind was about north. We 

set sail and came near nocten hoeck. 1A 

Tu. 2 The wind was S.W. and south ; a light breeze. 

We then drifted down with the tide and by flood time 
came to anchor about a league below nocten hocck. 
maerten gerrits, who was going up the river, came 
on board there. 

Wed. 3 In the morning it was still calm and we drifted 

along with the ebb tide but later there was a light 
breeze so that we came to anchor two leagues north 
of madeleens Island. 15 We got some ballast there 
and turned over some smith's coal to the yacht 
sinte maertin. 

Th. 4 It was calm and we drifted along with the ebb 

tide and came before the grooetc ecsocpes. 16 There 
we got a steady breeze and sailed down into the 
lange rack 17 where it became calm and the flood re- 

Fr. 5 In the morning it was still calm and we drifted 

with the ebb tide but at noon we got a fine breeze and 
came to anchor near pollccpcls Island, ls for the wind 
was south. 

Sat. 6 Stiff breeze. The wind as before. 

Sun. 7 As above. 

Mon. 8 As above. 

14 Nutten Hook; opposite Coxsackie. 

15 Magdalen Island; about two miles south of Saugerties. 

10 Great Esopus; now Rondout Creek, which empties into the Hudson River at 

17 The long reach, which extends from Crum Elbow Point, about four miles north of 
rVuglikeepsie but on the west side of the river, to Polopel's Island. 

18 Literally, Pot-ladle Island; now called Polopel's Island, opposite Cornwall-on-thc- 



Tu. 9 

Wed. 10 

Th. ii 

Fr. 12 
before the 

Sat. 13 

Sun. 14 
Mon. 15 
Tu. 16 
Wed. 17 
Th. 18 
Fr. 19 
Sat. 20 
from the 

Sun. 21 

Mon. 22 

baernde gat 

As above with fair weather and in the afternoon 
we set sail and by tacking went down as far as the 
hoogc lant, where we came to anchor during a calm 
and the flood. 

The wind as above. We tacked past the hoege lant 
and in the evening came to anchor between haeuer 
stroo 10 and the verdrietigen hoeck. 20 

In the morning the wind as above with a steady 
breeze and we kept on tacking till off the kill at the 
north end of the manatans. 

It was calm and we drifted with the ebb tide be- 
fore the manatans about eight o'clock in the morn- 

A southerly wind and we thought it advisable to go 
at the first opportunity to the southern English set- 

The wind as above. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. 

The wind about north. 

The wind as above and we set sail to go south 
and when we came into the bay the wind changed to 
the S.E., with dark weather and a gale. We could 
not see ; we then turned about and ran again between 
the hoefden 21 and anchored there. 

At noon the wind was about N.E. We set sail 
and in the evening came to anchor below godins 
puint 22 in seven fathoms. 

In the morning the wind as above. We set sail 
and ran out into the open and in the evening at sunset 
we were N.W. from baernde gat 23 about two leagues 
from land. The wind as above, a light breeze. Dur- 
ing the night there was a steady breeze from the 
same direction. We then sailed S.S.W. till midnight 
when we changed to S.W. by W. 

19 Haverstraw. 

20 Verdrietige Hook; between Haverstraw and Nyack. The name means Dismal or 
Tedious Point. 

21 The headlands at either side of the Narrows. 

22 Now Sandy Hook. 
n Barnegat Inlet. 


Tu. 23 In the morning we did not see land and kept the 

same course. The wind as ahove and light breeze. 
We reckoned that we were about S.W. by W. of 
Caep maeij. 24 We found various depths during the 
night, probably due to banks which lie there as the 
charts show. At noon we saw land and in the even- 
ing on account of the light breeze we approached the 
Caep coast and landed about four leagues south of Caep 

hinlooep hinlooep. 25 We turned about and sailed mostly S.E 

The whole night the wind was S.W. but toward day- 
break south. 

Wed. 24 We turned toward shore and sailed west, the wind 

about S.S.W., and in the afternoon we arrived at 
about eight leagues south of Caep hinlooep. At a 
distance of about four leagues the land seemed 
broken, but this is caused by the lowness of the land 
and the high trees which are found there, by which 
it can be easily recognized. We turned away from 
shore and came to anchor in 10 fathoms as we could 
not make any headway. 

Th. 25 In the morning the wind was northerly and there 

was a light breeze. We set sail and in the afternoon 
the wind became S.S.W. We then sailed west till 
we came near the shore, where we again found flat 
land and high trees but especially dense woods. We 
again turned from shore and the wind suddenly 
changed to the W.N.W. There was a steady breeze 
and we sailed then S.W. by S. and at sunset the 
wind changed again to the south with [occasional] 
calm. We anchored in 10 fathoms, fully a league 
from shore. 

Fr. 26 In the morning the wind was as above and there 

was a light breeze. About noon the wind turned to 
the S.E. and there was a steady breeze. We sailed 
S.W. and came near the island caled verses Island, 2 '"' 
where there is a channel between the island and the 
mainland. We turned from shore and came to 
anchor in six fathoms, for the wind was S.W. with 
[occasional] calms and the current was against us. 

24 Cape May. 
- : ' Cape Ilenlopcn. 

20 Should probably be Verkens, or Varkens, Island, of which the present name, Hog 
Island, is a literal translation. The island is about 20 miles north of Cape Charles. 



Sat. 2J In the morning the wind was as above with calms. 

We set sail and arrived before the inlet of matse 
pongc 27 which lies at the west end of the aforesaid 
island, near a large sand bank to port and the island 
to starboard. The inlet- 8 north of the island is 
probably the nearest to matseponge. We tacked 
along- past the sand bank. 

Sun. 28 In the morning on account of contrary winds we 

came again to the point whence we sailed the pre- 
vious evening. We then headed again for the sea 
the wind being about S.W. and toward evening we 
anchored in seven fathoms. 

Mon. 29 In the morning at sunrise the wind changed to the 

below north. We set sail and about noon we came to 

sin its anchor below smits Island, 20 on the west side. God 

Island be praised for his mercy thus far. The same day our 

mate went on land to further the work. 

Tu. 30 We moored the ship to the shore by a cable, in 4^2 


Wed. 1 As above. 

Th. 2 As above. 

Fr. 3 As above. 

Sat. 4 Strong north wind. 

Sun. 5 As above. Good weather. 

Mon. () As above. 

Tu. 7 As above. 

Wed. X As above. 

Th. i) As above. 

Fr. 10 As above. 

Sat. II We were ready to sail. North wind. 

Sun. 12 In the afternoon we sailed in company with an 

from funis English yacht. The wind N.W. and during the night 
Island we drifted in a calm. 

27 Great Machipongo Inlet. 

28 Little Machipongo Inlet. 

-'"Smith Island; east of Cape Charles, funis Island, mentioned below, is doubtless a 
aistake for smits Island. 


Mon. 13 At noon there was a steady breeze from the N.W. 

and toward evening the wind was about east. In the 
evening we came to anchor in five fathoms, sin its 
Island lay W.S.W. from us and matsepongc some- 
what north of N.N.E. During the night the wind 
became south with [occasional] calms. We set sail 
and ran east. 
Tu. 14 In the morning matseponge lay north from us. 

We then sailed N.E. with a light breeze from the 
south and in the afternoon there was a stiff breeze. 
Wind and course as above and at sunset the wind 
changed to the west and there was thunder, lightning 
and rain. We took in our sails and the whole night 
sailed N.E. with a foresail. 
Wed. 15 In the morning the wind was as above and there 

was a stiff breeze. We set sail and went north and at 
about nine o'clock in the forenoon we arrived before 
the grooeten eiierhaeuen 30 and in the evening between 
baernde gat and the sadel. 31 That night we let our- 
selves drift till daybreak and then set sail. Wind and 
weather as above. 
Th. 16 In the morning rinselaers hoeck 32 lay about two 

leagues north of us. The wind about west, we 
tacked into the bay and at about four o'clock in the 
afternoon arrived before the manatans. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. The carpenters came on board. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. 

As above. 

The carpenters finished their work. 

About two o'clock in the morning my mate hcin- 
drick dc freest died. 33 

In the afternoon he and a child were buried. 

We were ready to go to the watering place. 

80 Great Egg Harbor, a short distance below Atlantic City. 

"The Saddle. 

83 Rensselaers Hook; now Navesink Highlands. 

13 Hendrick de Forest; cf. Riker, Harlem; its origin and early annals, p. 143. 








1. 20 




1. 22 










i. 27 




Wed. 29 We sailed to the watering place. 

Th. 30 Our casks were filled with water. 

Fr. 31 We cut firewood. 


Sat. 1 Cut firewood as above. 

Sun. 2 Hard wind and rain. 

Mon. 3 As above. 

Tu. 4 We got our water and wood on board and in the 

evening set sail toward the manatans. 
Wed. 5 We arrived at the manatans in the afternoon. 

Th. 6 As above. 

Fr. 7 We sailed from the manatans to the rooe hoeck. 34 

Sat. 8 The wind S.W. and a light breeze. We sailed to 

a place below bloemerts puint. 35 
Sun. 9 The wind about south and we stayed there. 

Mon. 10 We arrived below godins puint. 3G The wind as 

Tu. 11 As above. 

Wed. 12 As above. 

Th. 13 As above. A gale. 

Fr. 14 We sailed in the morning with a N.W. wind and 

from godins puint put out to sea and sailed S.E. by 

E. in the name of God. May He preserve rinselaers 


C. leag. lat. reck long. lat. obs. 

Sat. 15 S.E. by E. Yz E. 29 39-16 323-17 39-16 0-0 

The wind N.W., light breeze. N.W. 

Sun. 16 37 S by W. 12 38-29 323-7 0-0 7-33 

- variation of the compass. The wind S.E., wind for 
courses and topsails till morning when the wind 
changed to the south. 

Mon. 17 S. by E. l / 2 E. 15 37-32 323-27 0-0 

rough weather, wind for lower sails only. 

Tu. 18 E. by S. y 2 S. 15 37-15 324-35 

The wind S.W., rough weather, thunder and light- 

** Red Hook; a point on the Brooklyn shore about half a mile south of Governor's 

55 Mommaert's Point; see p. 374. 

18 Godijn's Point; now Sandy Hook. 

• ,7 The abbreviations of course, leagues, etc., occur above nearly all the entries up to 
and including Sept. 25th, hut it is not thought worth while to repeat them in this 


Wed. 19 E. by S. y, S. 21 36-54 326-12 0-0 0-0 

The wind S.W., stiff topsail breeze. Last night we 
had changeable weather. First we carried two 
courses but now the topsails. We changed our 
course and ran S.E. by E. y 2 E. 

Th. 20 E. by S. 18 36-19 327-39 0-0 0-0 

The wind north, stiff topsail breeze. Last night we 
had much rain and variable wind, mostly S.W. 


Fr. 21 E. by S. y 2 S.29 37-46 329-54 0-0 5-4 

The wind N.E., topsail breeze, S. by W. from the 

baermacdes, 3S fine weather and we sailed east. 
Sat. 22 E. by N. yj E.16 35~54 331-n o-oo-[o] 

The wind north, light breeze and fair weather. 
Sun. 23 E. by N. 8 36-0 331-49 35-18 0-0 

The wind N.W. with [occasional] calms and fair 

Mon. 24 E. by N. ]/ 2 E. 23 35-31 331-39 35-28 0-0 

The wind N.W., various breezes and fair weather. 
Tti. 25 E. 5 35-28 333-59 0-0 

fitful winds and calms. 
Wed. 26 E. by N. 23 0-0 335-49 35-45 

The wind S., unsteady. 
Th. 27 E. by N. 18 35-59 337-15 0-0 

The wind S. W., raw weather, low sails. 39 
Fr. 28 E. by N. 36 36-27 340-9 0-0 

The wind S.W., raw weather keeping all hands busy, 

low sails. 
Sat. 29 E. by N. 30 36-50 342-35 0-0 

The wind S.W., weather keeping all bands busy. 
Sun. 30 E. x / 2 N. 38 0-0 345-6 37-0 

The wind S.W. topsail breeze, fair weather. 
Mon. 31 N.E. ]/ 2 N. 23 37-49 346-37 0-0 

The wind S.W., light topsail breeze. We leave the 

Gulf Stream. 

Tu. t E. by N. y 2 N. 22 0-0 348-19 38-16 

The wind S., light topsail breeze, fair weather. 
Wed. 2 E. by N. 28 0-0 350-26 38-37 

The wind S.. fitful weather. 

3S Bermudas. 

,,J lacge seilen; possibly means that lower sails only were set. 


Th. 3 E.N.E. 23 0-0 352-8 39-10 

The wind S., raw, changeable weather. 
Fr. 4 E. y 2 N. 25 0-0 353-49 39- 2 3 

The wind S., topsail breeze. 
Sat. 5 E. 31 39-23 356-29 0-0 

The wind S., raw, changeable weather. 
Sun. 6 E. by N. ^ N. 12 39-34 356-56 0-0 

The wind S., light breeze and at noon we saw a sail to 

our lee and toward evening it came near us. It was 
with tibbout Capt. tibbout from iiissingen. i0 That night we both 

drifted in a calm. 
Mon. 7 E. / 2 N. 12 0-0 357-54 39-39 . 

parted The wind S.W., light breeze and at sunset the north 

from him point of Coerua il lay two leagues S.E. from us. 

Light breeze. 
Tu. 8 At noon the north point of Coerua lay about 16 

leagues W. from us; latitude 40 deg. 10 min., longi- 
tude 1 deg. 4 min. Calms. 
Wed. 9 N.E. Yi E. 12 40-41 1-5 1 0-0 

The wind S.S.E., light breeze. 
Th. 10 N.N.W. 5 41-0 1-42 0-0 

The wind east, a gale with one sail. 
Fr. 11 N.W. 4 41-11 1-31 0-0 

The wind east, stiff topsail [breeze]. 
Sat. 12 N.E. by N. 11 41-47 2 ~3 4 2 ~44 

The wind S.E., light breeze. 
Sun. 13 N.E. 9 0-0 2-28 43-9 

The wind S.E., calm. 
Mon. 14 E.N.E. 19 0-0 4-0 43-38 

The wind W.S.W., light breeze, fair weather. 
Tu. 15 E.N.E. 26 0-0 6-7 44-19 

The wind W.S.W., light breeze. 
Wed. 16 E.N.E. 30 0-0 8-35 45-2 

The wind W.S.W., light topsail breeze. 
Th. 17 E.N.E. 27 45-43 10-55 0-0 0-0 

The wind W.S.W., gale. 
Fr. 18 E. by N. 5 45-48 n-33 0-0 0-0 

The wind north with calms. 
Sat. 19 E. 22 0-0 1 3-1 45-49 0-0 

The wind north and a light topsail breeze. In the 

40 Vlissingen, on the island of Walcheren, Netherlands. 
u Corvo, one of the Azores; see note on p. 371. 




two sails evening we saw two sails to windward astern. They 

were sailing E.N.E. and we were then steering N.E., 
but it was not long before we changed to E.N.E. 
also and at sunset they were two leagues from us. 

Sun. 20 E. y 2 N. ' 2.7 o-[o] 15-34 45-49 0-0 

The wind north, stiff topsail breeze. This morning 
we saw no sails. 

Mon. 21 In the morning we saw a sail about a half league 

astern of us. He turned and ran W. by N. Seeing 
this we set all our sails and followed him. The wind 
was north and the breeze light so that we could 
make no progress on our voyage. We thought that 
it might be a Portuguese, 
lat. at E. by S. 5 45-56 16- 1 0-0 o-[o] 

noon The wind north with calms. We followed him hard 

and in the night at the end of the first watch we 
came near him and asked him where he came from 
and he replied that he was from roscl 42 and came 
from teereiiooue. 43 We told him to take in his sails 
to stay with us, which he did. 
Tu. 22 In the morning we understood him thoroughly but 

it was not to our liking. We lowered our boat, went 
on board of him and took some fish. We cleaned 
the bottom of our ship somewhat for it was perfectly 
at noon W.S.W. 5 0-0 15-36 45-49 0-0 

The wind or breeze east but at noon there was a 
steady breeze as above. We took leave of the other 
ship and both went north and at sunset he was about 
two leagues away from us. The wind as above. 

Wed. 23 N. 25 47-29 15-36 0-0 0-0 

The wind east, topsail breeze. 

Th. 24 N. by E. 35 48-46 18-29 0-0 

The wind S.E., stiff topsail breeze. At noon we saw 
a sail to windward about a league away; he also 
stood toward the Channel. 
Fr. 25 E. by N. ^2 0-0 20-37 48-54 o-[o] 

The wind south, raw weather and at noon we cast 
bottom the lead and struck bottom at 90 fathoms. 

*■ la Rochelle. 

43 Terre Neuve; that is, Newfoundland. 


Sat. 26 In the morning we sounded again and found then 

at 80 fathoms fine grayish sand. From that point 
we sailed east. We saw two ships which entered the 
Channel also. At noon we had sailed 36 leagues E. 
by N. and the latitude by reckoning was 49 deg. 20 
min. The wind was west but changed to north. 
We then sounded again and found white sand at 75 
fathoms. We then set our course toward the E.N.E. 
and thought that we were in the Channel near heij 
sant, Ai about 14 leagues away from it ; it began to blow 
hard. That whole night we sailed with the two 
lower sails. 

Sun. 27 In the morning the wind and course was as above. 

We saw three ships coming toward us ; they were 
going S.W. but we did not speak them ; and we saw 
also a fleet which followed them. In the afternoon 
there came another fleet in which were many Scotch 
ships and vessels from Lubeck and Hamburg, which 
we spoke. Bottom here at 60 fathoms. By our 
reckoning we were nine leagues N. by E. from 
lecscrt. 45 The wind north and turned to the west. 

Mon. 28 In the morning it was very calm. We were sur- 

rounded by a fleet and about nine o'clock there was 
a fine breeze from the west. We then sailed N.E. 
and lecsert lay N.E. by N. from us. During the 
night it blew hard and it was very dark. We laid 
to with one lower sail. 

Tu. 29 in the morning we made sail again, but at one 

o'clock in the afternoon we saw leesert lying S.W. 
from us, at a distance of about two leagues and the 
wind changed to N.W. so that we could not make 
faelmuiden** and set course for plcijmuidcu. 47 We 
arrived there in the evening and found no Dutch 
ships there. 

Wed. 30 

The wind south. 


Th. 1 

As above. 

Fr. 2 

As above. 

44 lie d'Ouessant, 

or Ushant Island, department of Finistere, France. 

45 The Lizard. 

" Falmouth. 

47 Plymouth. 


Sat. 3 As above. 

Sun. 4 As above. 

Mon. 5 The wind east, we cleaned. 

Tu. 6 The wind as above. 

Wed. 7 As above. 

Th. 8 As above. 

Fr. 9 As above. 

Sat. 10 As above. 

Sun. 11 As above. 

Mon. 12 As above. 

Tu. 13 A fleet of about 140 sail came here. The wind 

as above. 

Wed. 14 The wind as above. We sailed toward the fleet. 

Th. 15 The wind south. 

Fr. 16 As above. 

Sat. 17 The wind west. We set sail with the fleet and 

toward evening it became calm so that the hindmost 
ship could not get out and we all anchored in the 
roadstead. At night came a breeze so that a ship 
drifted across our bow. We lost our anchor and 
cable, weighed and sailed again behind draecken 
Island. 48 

Sun. 18 In the morning the wind was S.E. and it blew 

hard so that we all entered the harbor again and in 
the afternoon the ship haerlem came in. 

Mon. 19 The ship de sout bergh put in here also. 

Tu. 20 The wind as above. 

Wed. 21 As above with storm. 

Th. 22 As above. 

Fr. 23 The wind northerly, good weather. 

Sat. 24 N.E. good weather. 

Sun. 25 S.E. with storm. 

Mon. 26 As above. 

Tu. 27 As above. 

Wed. 28 As above. 

Th. 29 As above. 

Fr. 30 The wind N.W., sailed out into the roadstead. 

Sat. 31 The wind about west. We sailed with a topsail 

breeze. In the evening we were N. by E. of 
tuirbaeij. 49 

48 St Nicholas or Drake's Island, in Plymouth Sound. 
*■ Tor Bay, on the east coast of Devonshire. 



Sun. 1 In the morning we were about opposite poertiant.^' 

The wind as above, stiff topsail breeze and in the 
afternoon we saw wicht. 51 It blew hard from the 
west and we ran before the wind with the foresail. 
At about midnight we saw beuesier 32 with very 
rough weather from the W.N.W. and the N.W. Wo 
then sailed E. by N. and later N.E. 

Mon. 2 In the morning we were off the French coast, 

south of the oude man, 53 with storm from the 
N.N.W. We turned again toward the west. This 
morning four Dunkirkers came among the fleet but 
did no harm. 

Tu. 3 The wind as above with stiff weather, for lower 

sails only. 

Wed. 4 From morning till noon it was calm and in the 

afternoon the wind became west, and at night we 
sailed between the hoefden. 54 

Th. 5 In the morning the wind was as above with a 

topsail breeze and about noon a stiff topsail breeze. 

Fr. 6 About nine o'clock we came into tessel. 

Sat. 7 About nine o'clock in the morning we arrived in 

God's name before amsterdam. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Peter Minuit 50 

December 25, 1637 

Pietter Minuijtt, commander under the crown of Sweden, on the 
ship dc calmer sleutel 56 lying at the Texel 

This 25th of December 1637 
Heer Commandcur: This sudden change of weather and win 1 
quite upsets me so that I must write today in haste and in an 1111 
becoming fashion. Yesterday evening I had the goods specified in 
the enclosed invoice put on board the lighter of your honor's skip- 

50 Portland. 
" Isle of Wight. 
62 Beachy Head. 
5:; The Old Man. 
" The Headlands. 

1 . 7?. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.osb. This letter is in the handwriting of Kilacn van 

56 The Key of Kalmar. 


per while the wind was still west, not thinking that this sudden 
change would come. It froze during the night and this morning 
the wind has become northerly with storm and high water and may 
very easily shift to northeast and so be exceedingly awkward for 
me, as none of my people who were to sail with you for my colony 
are at hand ; if the wind becomes easterly, I am therefore con- 
strained to recommend you in the most friendly and urgent manner 
not only to stow away and transport my goods dry in your honor's 
ship, but also at your convenience to deliver thern at the Manhatans 
to my nephew W outer van Twitter, or in his absence to some one 
else with recommendation from me to the director there, named 
Willem Kijcft, to have the same taken at the first opportunity to 
my colony of Rensselaerswyck and delivered to Jacop planck, my 
officer and comniis. If I have time, I shall write to the said 
director, as well as to my nephew JVoutter van TwiUer, Jacop 
planck and others; if not, your honor must in this case do for me 
the best you can ; in return you must command me wherever I can 
do you a service or kindness. I have paid to Jan hendrixsz, the 
skipper of your honor's ship, on account of board, transportation 
of my people and one half of the lighter freight, 70 Dncatons at 
fS '-3 e ach, amounting to f22o:io, which your honor can credit on 
the account of my people. I hope that the weather will stay a while 
as it is, so that some may get on board, especially my cousin arcnt 
van Corlcr, whom I recommend most strongly to your honor as he 
is still young and quite inexperienced; if not, your honor will no 
doubt be able to use yourself the provisions which your honor's 
skipper bought for these people, and, if not, deliver what remains 
at the Manhatans together with my other goods. The box No. M, 
in which are the six firelocks, is not included in the manifest; 57 you 
will be able to defend this [by counting] them among the necessary 
arms of your honor's or my people. Having no more time to 
spare at present, I pray that God Almighty may grant your honor 
a happy and successful voyage to the glory of His holy name and 
to the discomfiture of our common enemy. I had heartily hoped 
that your honor would have come once more yourself, which could 
still take place if the wind and the weather allow. Before your 
departure please advise me of the receipt of this letter and the 

N. B. Loaded in the lighter of jacop janscn, lighterman, to be 
taken to the Texcl to the ship dc Calmer Sleutel, commander picttcr 

67 Convoij brijeff. 



Miniiijt and skipper jehan hcndrixsz v de zvacttcr ; this 24th of 
December 1637, in Amsterdam. 

With manifest of the following items marked as in the margin. 
ABC being three wooden boxes, contents according to 
^ D E F G H being five packing boxes 58 
> W/ N. B. I one ditto chest also included in the manifest which 
could not be got ready and will be sent herewith or 
later according to the time available 
K L two barrels of salt (smaltonnen) 
M a long box with firelocks ; herewith, ordered by hendrick 

Trip, a keg with 50 lb of fine gunpowder 
N a large wicker hamper with wooden utensils 
O being five winnowing baskets tied together ; a small barrel 
with grapevines for the Commander Miniiijt 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 59 

December 25, 163J 

Jacop planck, in the colony of Rensselaerswyck 

In Amsterdam, 25 December 1637 
This in haste, serving only to transmit the enclosed invoice of 
the goods which I am sending you through the kindness of Com- 
mander Pietter Miniiijt, who has made accommodation for them in 
his ships. If I have time I shall write you more at length; mean- 
while take proper care of my affairs and enter these goods on my 
account. Do therewith the best you can and do not forget to send 
me at the very first opportunity the account of the goods sent to 
you by my small ship, charging the expenses of the people who 
came over with it according to the contracts sent you. Do not 
delay any longer either the accounts of the farms and my account 
with the Company and what further may be necessary. I must cut 
this short because it is Christmas and the wind now northerly may 
soon shift to the east. Yesterday evening and this morning the 
goods were loaded in the lighter to be taken to the Texel. I have 
not time to write more. 

58 cargasoen kisien. 

50 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.95l>. This letter is in the handwriting of Kiliaen van 


P. S. If weather and wind allow, I shall write you about 
everything at length. 1 am very much displeased about the things 
which dirrick Corsscn has clone in my colony contrary to my in- 
structions. This must not happen again or I should have to take 
entirely different measures. The longest of the six firelocks that 
are in the box you will deliver to jchan lebattij, carpenter, who 
ordered it of me, charging the same to his account. The gun itself 
cost f 14, to which must be added the 50$ advance. I have engaged 
six persons to go over this time, but not one is at hand. Among 
others there goes to serve you as assistant, my cousin Arent van 
Corlcr, who can copy everything and write me of all more at length 
than has been done thus far, for I long particularly to have in- 
formation about everything. Do not neglect to keep a daily journal 
of everything that happens in the colony. When my cousin comes 
he will copy it all and relieve you. Enclosed are two letters to 
ghijsbcrt op den dijck which I have left open. You can copy them 
and at the same time inquire about the slate hill, 60 also take notice 
of other things which it contains. Then seal them and have them 
delivered to him unless you go to see him yourself. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 61 

December 26, 1637 

Willem Kijeft, commander in New Netherland 

This 26th of December 1637 
Heer Commandcnr: This sudden east wind come up in the 
midst of our Christmas holidays hinders me on the one hand in 
my devotions and on the other hand makes me commit the im- 
pertinence of not writing properly to your honor as the lighter 
must now go at once. 

[space in original] 

as to my regret a few days after your honor's departure from the 
Texel, my small vessel arrived here from New Netherland, which 
had arrived already on the 29th of September at plcymuijcifi 2 am! 
could have been here. However, luck would not have it that, ac- 

"" Schalijcn bcrch; see also p. 397. 

61 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.9sb. 

62 Plymouth, England. 


cording to my Freedoms, I should send the goods needed by me ii. 
your honor's ships for nothing and I have now been obliged to 
pay duty. 03 But now this opportunity offers itself that Commander 
pieter minnewiet, at present in the service of the crown of Sweden 
and sailing from Gortenborch, 6 * has on account of storm been 
obliged to seek shelter at the Texel, and by reason of old acquain- 
tance does me the kindness to take on board what in haste and 
half in disorder I have been able to bring together in the way of 
necessaries for my people and to forward the same at his convenience 
to the Manhatans to my nephew ivolter van twiller, in order not 
to trouble your honor too much. However, as he may perhaps 
have left before the arrival of this letter, at all events will have 
turned over his command to your honor, I take the liberty of 
recommending these in haste to your honor also, that the said 
necessaries may be sent at the first and best opportunity from the 
manhatans to my colony. On account of lack of time I send en- 
closed the copy [of the invoice] in brief, but if your honor should 
wish to examine the same more fully your will find in the letter to 
my officer and cominis, Jacob planck, the full and itemized invoice 
and will find that there is actually nothing in it but what is needed 
for my people; wherewith, as I have not a minute of time left, on 
account of the short days, I will end, commending your honor to 
the gracious protection of the Most High. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 65 

December 26, 1637 

Woutter van Twiller, commander in New Netherland 

This 26th of December 1637 
Mon Cousin: This sudden east wind not only prevents my de- 
votions during these holidays, for tomorrow is Communion day, 
but does not give me sufficient time to read your honor's letter, 
much less to reply to the same properly, wherefore I postpone that 
to our next meeting, God willing. I had the misfortune that the 
ships of the Company had left before my small vessel arrived and 
not being satisfied with the management of supercargo (dirrick 

03 Convoy, see p. 95. 

64 Goteborg. 

« V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.96. 


Cor sen and) 66 the skipper I do not think it advisable to send our 
vessel out (again) 66 before your honor's arrival. However, as 
Iacob plane writes me for various necessaries for my people and 
the ships of the Company with the new director have left, I have 
this unexpected opportunity that pieter minnewiet, who is now in 
the service of the crown of Sweden and presumably will show a 
commission there for the regions about [Virginia?], 67 in which 
enterprise however I do not share in the least, by reason of old 
acquaintance does me the kindness to carry over a few boxes and 
small chests with necessaries for my people, of which I have not time 
to advise you or to send you the invoice. I have sent it in brief 
to the new commander willem kyeft and in detail enclosed 
in the letter to Jacob plaiick. If you care to open that you will find it 
therein and among the items you will find nothing but necessaries 
for my people. I do not have time either to write more fully 
to Iacob planck; please see to it. that these goods be sent to him 
in my colony. I had engaged six persons to go over too, among 
them our cousin Arent van Corlcr, a young man of good principles 
over whom your father is now appointed guardian, but as he went 
home once more to prepare himself, he will probably come too late, 
as the lighter must go at once. Of these six only one goes here- 
with, named Iacob adriaens. 1 : van zvttrecht, m engaged as farm serv- 
ant or tobacco planter or whatever else he is fit for. He has also 
some knowledge of vegetable gardening. I have sent along a small 
barrel with grapevines and other things to be taken to my colony. 
Please send along from the maenatans some apples, pears and other 
fruits, also a few grapevine shoots that have come from here, to 
plant them and see whether they will grow or take hold. I have 
put in his barrel also some of mine; it seems to me it will be best 
that he should go and live with albert andricsscn if his tobacco 
has succeeded well, wherewith ending. Vale. 

88 These words enclosed in parentheses are inserted in the margin of the Letter Book 
in the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

07 soo comt my deese onverwachte occasie voor, dot pieter minnewiet hm In dienste 
van de Croon sweeden, die apparcntelyck Commissie aldacr sal vertoonen, ontrent naer 
de quartieren In varilide. See letters to Willem Kieft and to Ulrich Lupoltt, May y 
and May 8, 1638, p. 403, 405. 

08 See p. 395, 397, 398. 



Q s 




Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Peter Minuit 09 

December 29, 1637 
Pietter Minuytt 

This 29th of December 1637 

Heer Commandeur: The bearer of this letter, my cousin arcnt 
van Corler, sailing to my colony as assistant, is recommended to 
you to accommodate him as much as your honor's situation will 
allow. I trust that your honor will not fail herein but show me 
friendship. I should also be much pleased, inasmuch as he is still 
young and inexperienced, if you had a little instruction given to 
him in the processes of ship's bookkeeping as well as in the keeping 
of land accounts, as his master Jacob Planck, with whom he will be, 
is not too expert in these matters himself. He takes with him a 
mate's chest marked on the inside No. 1, in which there are some 
Hainault and grass scythes and other hardware which I could not 
put into the lighter which sailed on Saturday and therefore did not 
reach your honor till yesterday. This small chest you will please 
add to the other items mentioned in my last letter, and under super- 
vision or in the keeping of my aforesaid cousin have brought to 
the manatans by the best means you can find. With him go the 
following young men engaged for my colony, to wit : 

Arent van Corler, assistant, 18 years old 
Elbert albert sen, 18 years old 
Claes Jansen, ly years old 
(i err it hen' 1 , 15 years old 
Gijs h Arentscn, 22 years old. 

70 Loaded also 
Z i, one barrel 
^ of pitch, well hooped, 
2 barrels of tar, together 


( )n Saturday, with the goods, went: 
Jacob A rent sen, 25 years old 

Together six persons, who are recommended to your honor and 
whom, with my goods, you will please cause to reach the manatans 
at the earliest opportunity that circumstances will allow. From 
there I hope they will get further. I wish your honor good luck 
on the voyage. 

00 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.96b. 

70 This marginal note in handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 71 

[December 29, 163/] 

Willem Kijeft, commander in New Netherland 

Heer Commandcur: Time presses me so that I can not even 
write to my nephew woutter van twiller nor to my commis Jacob 
plane k. I therefore trust all my affairs to your honor. Enclosed 
1 send the invoice at length of all that I have sent your honor and 
in brief also the conditions and contracts with my people, from 
which your honor may see how sincerely I mean not to defraud 
the Company in the least, neither by sending questionable goods 
thither, nor by making contracts which may prejudice their trade, 
yet in everything saving my rights in the matter, as I do not at all 
consider that all the people of my colony but only the patroon or 
his agents have the said rights of article 15. 72 Please hand the 
enclosed papers to my nephew ivoutter van twiller to send them 
under his cover with my people and goods to my colony to the 
commis Iacob plane k, with orders to distribute the people where 
they are most needed, recommending especially my cousin Arent 
van Corler as assistant of Jacob plane k, that he may make note of 
everything; also, that of these young fellows some or most of them 
may be assigned to tobacco planting with Albert andricsen if he has 
had good success, but if the planting of tobacco should not suc- 
ceed well in my colony these people must be distributed among the 
farmers. At all events, please let Jacob planck have the enclosed 
copies, to record them. Please, Sir, after humble salutation to be 
graciously commended to Almighty God and together with my 
nephew woutter van twiller to be heartily saluted. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 73 

December 29, 1637 

This day, 29 December 1637, in Amsterdam 
Jacob planck: 

In addition to what I wrote you of before, I liave also shipped 
the following: 

71 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.97. 

72 Article 15 of the Freedoms and Exemptions. 
7 » V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.o 7 b. 



No. i. an old mate's chest containing 

30 Hainault scythes at 30 st f45 

14 scythes at £4 f56 

Zl 12 iron spades at 14^ st f 8 14 74 


>W fi09 14 

one barrel of pitch, well hooped, costs. . f 18 

two barrels of tar, cost f 15 

There are also 2 barrels of salt, No. K. L., cost each f6, together 
fi2; I do not know whether they are entered in the preceding- 

Herewith go also 6 persons : 

1 Arcnt van Coder, to serve you as assistant 

2 Jacob arisch van wttrecht ) can do farm work 

3 Ghysbert aertsen van Bunnick ) 

these 3 fellows 
are intended 
for the tobacco 
planting under 
Albert andriescn, 
if he succeeds, 
otherwise to serve 
with the farmers. 

Elbert elbersz van nieukarck, weaver 
clacs Jansen van nieukerck, tailor 
Gcrrit Hendrickss van nieukerck, 

The agreements with these people, for how many years they are 
engaged and what they are to receive, I have on account of lack 
of time sent to the director of the Company, Will em Kyejt, to 
hand the same with the invoice of the goods to my nephew woutter 
van twill er or to you. If I have still time I shall enclose them 
herein. This doubtful weather makes us quite confused. I com- 
mend you to God. 

S r . Adam Bessels, coparticipant in my colony, writes the two 
enclosed letters to you to have the slate hill, 75 which I assigned to 
Ghysbert op den dyck in the presence of Minnuyt, named Bessels 
Berth. Please favor him therein if it is at all promising, otherwise 
call one of the farms of Syman walkhsz and Cornells maesen, 
Bessels Berch, as aforesaid, and the other Tripcburch, also after 
one of my participants. 

The tobacco must be sent over not rolled up but in the leaf. 

74 The Letter Book has f8:i9- 

75 schalien Berch oftc leyberch. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 70 

December 29, 1637 

Wouttcr Van Twiller 

This day, 29 December 1637, in Amsterdam 

Mon Cousyn: This uncertain weather and the tarrying of my 

people makes me so stupid that I hardly know what I am doing. 

I have sent to the commander willem Kycft my invoice of all my 

goods, also the agreements and names of my people, with request 

to hand the same to your honor or to Jacob planck. The people 

are six in number, among them our cousin Arent van Corler as 

assistant in my colony to Jacob planck. Please give him a little 

instruction and information as I have not time to do so. My 

people are these : 

Arent van Corler, assistant 

Jacob ariaenss van Wttrecht ~\ . 

„, , ... I farm servants 

(jliysbcrt arcntsz van bunnick j 

r tobacco planters under __ 
Elbert elbcrsen van Nieukerck albert Andricsscn, if 

Claes Jansen van nieuivkerck -s it [the planting] has 

Gerritt Hendricxsz van nyckcrck succeeded well, other- 
wise with the farmers. 
I urge your honor to help dispatch these people and my goods 
to my colony at the first opportunity in order that they may still 
plant tobacco this year. I thank your honor for the roll of 
tobacco sent to me through Arent Corssen, which your honor's 
brother hendrick and others have shared also. I shall supply your 
honor with people; please demand of the director willem Kyeft 
the contracts and invoice sent him with the request to hand them to 
your honor and let Jacob planck have all the copies so that he may 
record them. If before your departure you could find time to 
inspect my colony from one end to the other and examine every- 
thing as carefully as possible and then report to me, I should be 
pleased. Your honor is warned that tobacco in the leaf is in better 
demand and more readily sold here than rolled up. 

Please have the enclosed handed to Jacob planck with the goods 
and, if you think fit, feel free to open it, but said planck" must not 
come home yet by the first ship. 

79 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Booh, f.98. 
77 The words "but said planck" are crossed out in the Letter Book. See p. 401. 


Inventory of goods consigned to Jacob Albertsz Planck by the 
ship het Wapen van Noorwegen 78 

April 28, 1638 

Honor be to God, this day, 28 April 1638, in Amsterdam 
Loaded in the ship called hct waepen van noorweegen 79 for the 
colony of Rensselaerswyck, these following goods, consigned to 
Jacob albertsz planck, or whoever may fill his place in 
^-f« his absence, marked as in the margin and numbered as 
i^ follows, sailing as supercargo on said ship; 80 may God 
\^^ watch over the same and bring it to its place of destina- 

1 an East India chest in which Norwegian 81 kerseys, canvases, 

linen and divers other goods for the needs of the human body. 

2 an oblong chest in which stockings, blankets, divers articles for 

the care of horses, lead and axes 

3 an oblong chest in which kerseys, pewter dishes, goblets, shoes 

and other articles 

4 a ditto chest in which 29 blankets 

5 a ditto chest in which iron, grass scythes, Hainault scythes, Eng- 

lish coin, wooden handles 82 for Hainault scythes and fish 
hoop nets 

6 a ditto cbest in which 120 shirts, blankets and a few small pack- 

ages which must be delivered at the manhatans, wherefore 
this cbest must be opened there 

7 a ditto cbest in which 13 firelocks and 12 powder horns 

8 6 winnowing baskets 

9 a packing box 83 filled with soil in which some plants are planted 

also . . . , 84 
10 a small barrel with dried currants 
n one half quarter [hogshead] of oil 

12 a barrel with various spices 

13 20 Edam cheeses in a box 

14 9 Leyden cheeses in a box 

s /'. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.oob. 
711 The Arms of Norway. 

* u Name of Cornelis Melyn, the supercargo, not given in Letter Book, nor any blank 

sl noortse. 

»' werven. • ! ' 

s3 Cargcsocn kist. 

84 Ulank in Letter Book. i I" 1 ; j ;: 


15 one oil barrel 85 in which 4 firkins of soap 

also 2 casks of pitch and 2 casks of tar, 20 bundles of rods 
from Liege, 10 bundles of French rods, 13 bundles of iron 
bars, 27 pieces of sheet iron, 12 pieces of ploughshare iron and 
5 hoct 86 of smith's coal, one hogshead of vinegar and 4 kegs 
of salt, 8850 hard bricks and 1000 red bricks, a keg of gun- 

18 young mares with their feed and casks and troughs with 

also a rope, 30 fathoms long 

a copper pot and a long gun for Jan la montangie 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Wouter van Twiller 87 

May 6, 1638 
wouter van twiller 

Honor be to God, in Amsterdam, this day, 6 May 1638 

Monsieur mon Coitsyn : Enclosed herein are copies of the letters 
sent to your honor by den Harinck and later in the winter by the 
ship de Calmer sleutel. I hope that the people and the goods sent 
therewith have come over safely and have at this time, by the grace 
of God, arrived in my colony of Rensselaerswyck so that I may still 
this year reap the fruits of their labor either in farming or planting 
of tobacco. This letter goes to your honor while I am again in 
uncertainty whether your honor will still be there or will have left 
when this letter arrives, since the commander willem Kijeft, who is 
to relieve your honor, was to leave the Barrilnudes 88 about the 4th 
of February and could have joined you in a few days, but it is 
still uncertain whether he left that exact day ; also, because the 
skipper lange willem? 9 who in return for having hurried your honor 
so was obliged to wait here a year before he could put to sea, will 
now perhaps not make much haste. However, if this should still 
come to hand, you will in answer to yours sent by Martten gerritsz 
under date of 20 November please understand the following : 

First, that I have received your honor's draft for f3OO0 and have 
presented it to some gentlemen'' who gave me little hope of paying 
the same before your arrival here, and as the question between 

85 olicaem = 120 mengelcn = 37 .98 gallons. 
80 hoet = 33.35 bushels. 

87 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.98. 

88 Bermudas. 

80 Long William. 

80 Referring to the directors of the W. I. Co. 


the Chambers concerning an open trade to Brazil has caused much 
trouble since usually most of the directors are out of town and oc- 
cupied, I have not been able to press the matter very hard. It 
seems that the matter is now settled that the trade to Brazil will be 
carried on by the participants jointly, each in proportion to his in- 
vestment, which is well if the money is used properly and not mis- 
used. What they will do with New Netherland, we shall see in 
course of time. I imagine that they are only waiting for advice 
from the new director Kyeft ; as far as I am concerned they may do 
as they please. I expect to carry on my colony with all courage and 
vigor and send therefore in God's name, by this ship het zvaepen van 
noortweegen, of which Cornells melyn is supercargo and in the 
equipment of which the colony of Rensselaer swyck shares one half, 
in addition, on payment of freight, 18 mares with several farmers, 
their wives and laborers and a quantity of goods for the separate 
account of the said colony, although three of the aforesaid 18 horses 
belong to Jacob wolphersz, as we do not know whether we shall 
divide them or let them go there together. 

Clacs rainaeckcr had also three horses among them, but these I 
have taken over from him and paid for so that there are 15 horses 
for the colony among them. May God Almighty watch over them. 
I recommend your honor to do your best to have them sent up at 
the first opportunity, agreeable to my orders and instructions given 
to Jacob plane k, whom for good reasons I have asked to stay there 
for the present. As to Martten gerritsz? 1 he has begun to make me 
some propositions, but as he is in gelderlant and not in the city very 
little has been done. I shall expect your honor's arrival, God willing, 
by the first ship and then take hold of the matter with more vigor. 
Icronimns La Croix has also communicated to me the circumstances 
of his journeys 02 through the inaquans land to the Sinnekens and 
to the Fresh River where the English come much too high up and 
too near to us. The Company must open their eyes. I think, or they 
will lose the best part of that fair region. As for yourself, you 
would better be careful and well prepared ; all calumnies will disap- 
pear and the curse change to a blessing. Salomon van solderbeeck 
lias been an evil instrument. 

I have received a roll of tobacco of which your honor makes no 
mention in his letter and I have divided it among the friends here 

81 Formerly commis at Fort Orange. See p. 3 2 9- 

w The accounts of these journeys were not among the collection when placed in the 
hands of the present editor. See note about the account of the journey to the Senecas, 
p. 271 of this volume. 


and at nyckerck and thank your honor for the remembrance. 
When you come here, God willing, you may still have a taste thereof. 
I hope that ours in the colony has succeeded well too under albert 
diterinck,' 3 although they write from there that it is somewhat hot 
for the reason that it has been picked early. I recommend to you 
to advance and instruct our cousin Arent van Corlcr as much as 
time and place will allow ; only, let him be diligent and record and 
note down everything and advise me on all occasions, not sparingly 
but as fully as he can. 

The animals which are already in the colony, together with the 
horses and the people who go over now, are also recommended 
to you for the time that your honor stays there. In chest No. 6 
are put three packages belonging to your farm servants, with letters 
tied on top of them, which must be taken out at the manhataiis and 
the chest closed again. I do not know whether there are any among 
them from your father, brother or other friends, as your brother 
brought them here as they are from nyckerck. The friends at 
nyckerck as well as here are well, God be praised, except my 
brother in law thomas ran JVccly, who has a fluxion to his thigh so 
that he can not walk. I hope that he will soon be better. Your 
honor's sister Grietgen has had fever several times but was getting 
better. They all send you many greetings. I would write more at 
length, but fear that you will have left before this letter arrives. If 
not, make as much haste as possible to come hither and to defend 
your affairs before the Company ; wherewith ending, I commend 
your honor to the gracious protection of God Almighty and with 
hearty salutations from my wife, our children, mother van weeley 
and all her family, I remain . 

I urge you to keep the farm at the mahhatans for me ; also to 
see that I get some cows from some one or other as I am propor- 
tionately least provided with them. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Willem Kieft 04 

May 7, 1638 
S r : Willem Kieft 

This day, 7 May 1638 
1 1< movable, prudent Sir : As shortly after your honor's departure 
from the Texel my small vessel arrived here from New Nethcrland 

m Probably a mistake for albert andriesa 

84 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.ioo. 


bringing me advice of some things needed by my people there and 
it so happened that the ship dc Calmer Slutel, commander fitter 
minict in the service of the crown of Sweden, was obliged to seek 
shelter here at the Texel on account of storm, I did not want to neg- 
lect this opportunity, though in midwinter and in freezing weather, 
of supplying my people as far as possible with necessaries and of 
improving the condition of New Netherland as much as possible a^ 
to population, and, trusting to God's mercy, I have also sent over 
six persons, though his destination was unknown to me. I could 
make out only this much, that he expected to go to Virginia, from 
which region I have asked him to try to find opportunity to send 
my goods and people to the Company's settlement. As I had to 
do this, hesitating between hope and fear, immediately before and 
during the Christmas holidays, when I could ask no letters to 
lepolcfi 5 of the West India Company, I have consigned my aforesaid 
goods and people with all the papers and instructions to your honor. 
I hope that the same have arrived safely and been sent by your 
honor to the proper place. I shall not fail to show myself grateful 
on all occasions where I can do your honor a kindness and if there 
is anything in my colony which your honor might desire, all you 
have to do is to speak to my com 111 is. Also, if there should be any- 
thing among the goods or necessaries which I send over, which your 
honor needs or can use, you have but to request it of him, as I seek in 
every way to keep on good terms not only with the lords directors 
in this country but more especially with their officers and servants 
on your side, in order that the region of New Netherland may not 
decline through discord (with which it has for many years been 
cursed but too much) but may, through harmony, each respecting 
the rights of others, by God's gracious blessing be changed to a 
flourishing and useful state, toward which I on my part do and 
will continue to do all I can. As Claes Cornelisz rademacckcr and 
Jacob zvolfersen van amersfoortt, according to the enclosed extract, 
had obtained consent to send over a ship with cattle, about which 
they did not just know what course to take, I helped them out and 
filled the vacant room with horses and other goods, as you will 
sec from the copy of the manifest signed by the lords directors, 
the original of which is in possession of Cornells melyn, supercargo 
of this present skip het waepen van ndorwegen, in which are 15 
horses for the account of my colony and three for Jacob wolphersen; 
Claes Coriielissen sends over none because there was not room 

■ lepolycke brieven; perhaps intended for bchoorlyckc brieven, proper letters. 


enough. We had expected to put in many more horses, but the 
water, hay and oats for the horses and the salt and other things 
for the fishery have taken up too much room. 

I urge you in the most friendly manner to lend my people the 
helping hand as much as is possible without detriment to the Com- 
pany, that with the said horses, their baggage and other goods, 
they may be sent to the colony at the earliest moment to perform, 
in God's name, with courage their agreed service and labor. If 
among my horses there should be a particularly fine one which you 
would like, you can take it for yourself and in its stead provide the 
farmers with another or poorer one. 

I shall also be much pleased if detailed lists and accounts are 
sent to me of the goods which my commis furnishes to the Com- 
pany and receives in return, in order that there may arise no mis- 
understanding ; also, if the payment for my grain, which beyond all 
contradiction is a product of the soil, might take place in peltries 
to the satisfaction of both sides and if my people in conformity 
with the Freedoms granted may be allowed to trade and sell what 
the Company does not need — provided they pay for the goods so 
traded such duty or freight as the aforesaid Freedoms prescribe ; 
also, if it could be done without hurting the congregation at the 
manhatans, as the people of the Company at Fort Orange and my 
people in the colony have thus far no minister, though I hope to 
procure one for them at the earliest opportunity, that for a time the 
minister at the manhatans might occasionally go thither to console 
and admonish them and to celebrate the Lord's supper with them, 
which would be an agreeable service to me and undoubtedly also 
to the Company as far as their people are concerned, wherewith 
ending for this time. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Ulrich Lupoltt 96 

May 8, 1638 
S r Vlrich Leopoldtt 

Amsterdam, this 8th of May 1638 
Honorable, prudent very discreet Sir: Some weeks ago in con- 
versation with s r . Guilliame momma, my very good and intimate 
friend, your honor's person happened to be mentioned in connection 
with my colony and T was very glad to learn of the good relations 
between you, as on the strength thereof I may with your permission 

V. R. B. Mss, Letter Booh, f.ioi. 


avail myself of your services, as far as your situation and the ser- 
vice of the West India Company will allow. To this end I send 
enclosed the letter of s r . momma to your honor by this our ship het 
waepen van noorwegen, whose cargo is largely composed of horses 
for my colony named Rensselaerswyck and some goods and neces- 
saries for my people who are already there or now going over, and 
herewith I make the following request of you. In case my nephew 
W outer van Wilier, formerly director there, shall have left before 
the arrival of this ship, as I suppose he will have done, I would re- 
quest you very kindly, as I do not know what arrangements he may 
have made in the absence of my commis about the affairs of my 
colony or to whom he has entrusted the forwarding and despatch 
of my animals and goods which might come there meanwhile, to look 
after this matter with the person whom he may have ordered to do 
so or with the commis of my colony, if he should be present, ami 
to help along my people as much as possible that they may get up 
the river with the horses and their goods as soon as there is an op- 
portunity by a vessel sailing thither, the like of which I also recom- 
mend to and request of Director willeni kieft and promise grate- 
fully to repay all favors received on any occasion, as it is my in- 
tention, God willing, to avail myself of every opportunity of pro- 
viding the said regions and my colony with as many people and 
animals as possible. Of this I have already made a good beginning 
and have lately, in the heart of winter and by a ship that came here 
on account of storm, sent six persons with some necessaries who 
have, I hope, arrived there in one way or another, though the said 
ship, which sailed in the service of the crown of Sweden, our ally, 
had another and to me unknown destination but as far as I could 
understand was bound for Virginia, or in case of need would seek 
some fresh supplies in our regions. Although by reason of my not 
knowing your honor, I was then unable to recommend my affairs 
to you, I hope nevertheless that for the sake of promoting the popu- 
lation of the commonwealth you have of your own accord helped 
matters along, if the people have arrived; wherewith, from lack of 
further matter and of knowledge of your honor's person and in 
order not to trouble you too much at the very first, I shall leave off 
and should be much pleased to receive a few words in reply. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Pieter Cornelisz van Munnickendam 97 

May 8, 1638 
Picttcr Cornelijsen, master millwright 

This day, 8 May, in Amsterdam, 1638 

The aforewritten is a copy of our last letter sent to you by the 
ship den harinck, which I hope your honor has received; if not, 
your honor can use the said copy. 

Since then, on the 7th of April last, I received by martten Ger- 
ritsen your letter of November 9, 1637, which made me feel some- 
what better again, for I was dissatisfied not to have received any 
writing from you during the whole voyage of my small vessel in 
which your honor sailed when I long so intensely to know how 
everything goes there, whether successfully or unsuccessfully ; [may 
it be] as the Lord wills, if only we fail not to do our part. I was 
much pleased to learn from your honor's letter that the sawmill 
was in operation and with one frame could saw 30 boards a day 
and that your honor would put another frame in it to saw as many 
more ; also, that your honor had built a house near the aforesaid 
mill and intended to establish a brewery and a farm near it and also 
to build a small yacht to sail out on the ocean and make a trip to 
Canada. The zeal is good but the execution lias its difficulties. 
One must not undertake too much at a time in order not to confuse 
one thing with the other. Your son in law Symon Janscn accord- 
ing to your request goes over herewith to be employed by you where 
he can be of most service to me and to you. I should be pleased if 
you remained as much as possible within the limits of the contract 
made with each other in order that no disorder occur, albart an- 
dris. separated from you ; I hear that he is a strange character and it 
is therefore no wonder that he could not get along with you, but 
I hope that you will be able to agree the better with your other 
partner Claes Janse van naerden so as the better to advance the saw- 
mill and the house building. As to the grist-mill and the brewery 
of which you write, I bad already another plan and await but the 
arrival of my nephew wouter van twitter to draw a general order 
regarding them, for you know well enough that all wind and water 
milling [privileges] go with the juris diction, but your honor will 
do well to note down the expenses of the carpenter work with the 
millstones, hardware and other necessaries in order that we may 

" V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.ioib. 


have the benefit thereof. And as to the brewery, it must be under 
the management of the one who has the supreme command in the 
colony or the person who will enter into a special contract regarding 
it ; the various affairs must be kept separate and not be mixed, in 
order that many people may make a living thereby, one under- 
taking this and another something else, for I hope to send over 
people from time to time as I do now once more. This costs me 
a great deal, especially for the number of horses, which with the 
expenses and freight, besides the risk, become incredibly dear ; but 
God willing, they will in time reimburse me for the outlay. As to 
what you write about taking a trip to Canada, I do not know whether 
you are fully aware of the condition of trade [in that region] ; 
the French have several charters respecting it, especially along the 
river of canada, and if you or any one else of our people went there 
they would be attacked as enemies ; but I imagine that you refer to 
the coast of cadic situate between capo brcton and the bayc fran- 
coysc, from whose governor hendrick de foreest has had a letter 
which is now in my hands and of which I send you enclosed here- 
with a copy. His residence is for the present still too far from our 
colony to [go] with such a . . .* 18 

but as a provisional measure it would not seem bad to me if in con- 
formity with my freedoms you took care to trade with the English 
at the south and to the north, if you see any profit in it, taking with 
you such planks and boards and grain as there might be on hand in 
my colony, but this should be done in conjunction with my commis 
and officer of the colony in order not to keep a double account 
thereof, which in the end leads to nothing but confusion. I be- 
lieve that Jacob planch is not best fitted for that [work] but I can 
not do anything in the matter before I have talked with my nephew 
wouter van twitter in order then to make a definite decision about it. 
I can not understand very well either from your letter or from that 
of planch how it is about the servants who have been engaged 
together for the mill company, whether they are still together in the 
service of the said mill company or whether they have been distrib- 
uted. Do not forget to write me about everything in detail and at 
length. I am ready to support your zeal, which I notice is so 
satisfactory, but not being sufficiently informed and in ignorance, 
I stand perplexed. The pen must convey to me what personal 
speech can not, and let me hope that you will get along better with 
Clacs Jansc than with albart andrise, etc. Do your best to think of 

88 At this point a line or more appears to have been omitted in the Letter Book. 


means to support a minister there; I will do my share to that end 
also. Jacob planck writes about £300 a year, but nobody cares to 
go for that. 

N.B. Forget not to send me yearly our account or settle with 
Jacob planck that he send it to me in order that we may know 
definitely where we stand and what profit we make yearly. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Maurits Jansz van Broeckhuysen" 

May 10, 1638 

Maurits Jansen van brockhuijsen 

10 May 1638 

Honorable, discreet cousin Maurits Jansen : These few lines 
will serve to let you know that I duly received your letters from 
England, as also those from the colony, and forwarded the enclosed 
to your uncle wynnant van bylaer but received no reply from him. 
In the expectation of good behavior I have procured your advance- 
ment, namely that you are to have a farm on the conditions of all 
the other farmers, to be established near Pacp Sickenes Island, as 
the commis Jacob planck or whoever shall occupy his place will 
show you more definitely. And in order that you may not be in 
want of servants or animals, I have engaged adriaen cornelysen van 
barsingcrhoom, who is a prudent young man and knows all about 
farming, to be your foreman for the space of three years ; after 
the said three years I have promised in case of good behavior to 
make him farmer for himself. Now, with the advice of my officer 
and commis you might take also one of the boys who go over 
herewith. As to the horses for the farm, I have assigned to you 
four gray mares which are going across in this ship, which I hope 
the Lord will preserve, in order that for the sake of our relation- 
ship you may bave four horses of nearly one color ; and as for 
your house and other necessaries, you will have to address yourself 
to the aforesaid commis that he assist you according to circum- 
stances in getting under cover with your people and horses, while 
provisionally you will also try with the consent [of the farmers] 
to obtain a cow or two from some farm or other, so as to get started. 

I have no doubt, now that I have made you farmer so long be- 
fore your appointed time, that you will deserve the favor by doing 

•» V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.io2b. 


right, by advising me of everything in writing and also by using 
and treating properly this young man Adriaen cornelysen, who is 
to be your foreman, for the reason that his years far exceed yours. 
Regarding the fur trade and the delivery of grain you must regu- 
late yourself according to the contracts and common justice and 
not trespass as I understand others have done. Trusting that you 
will do this, I commend you to the gracious protection of God. 
Do not forget as a graceful requital to advise me of everything 
that happens in my colony. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Albert Andriesz 1 

May io, 1638 

Albart andriescn, tobacco planter 

This day, io May 1638 

albart corncliscn: 2 This -will serve to advise you that I duly re- 
ceived your letter in which you wrote that the tobacco looked fine, 
but I received no news on the arrival of marten gcertscn, although 
by that time it ought already to have been prepared, much less did 
I receive any sample thereof, for which I long very much, as well 
as for full advice of all the particulars as to how it has turned out. 

I have sent some servants and some boys before this and am send- 
ing some now, but I must have but one head in the colony to make 
the distribution of the people and the servants, so you must address 
yourself to him who at the time is my commis there, to whom I 
must send general directions about everything and not particular 
directions to each one. I hear that you have not only parted with 
pittcr Coornclisscn, but have also had a dispute with planck and his 
son, the cause of which I should like to know ; for I must in every 
way uphold my officers whom you, I take it, must obey, as is cus- 
tomary in all places of justice, and if you meet with any harm you 
have yourself to blame for it. Tf you behave well, I will certainly 
stand by you and cause you to be provided with everything, but 
bad behavior I will not suffer. It also seems to me from what not 
a few but many have said that you are very unmerciful to your 
children and very cruel to your wife; this you must avoid and in 
all things have the fear of the Lord before your eyes and not follow 
so much your own inclinations. I understand also that not only 
have you traded beaver furs with dirrick cortssen contrary to your 

1 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.103. 
J So in Letter Book. 


contract but also defrauded and cheated him and for seven pieces 
of duffel have given him but the value of 25 merchantable beavers. 
Either you have cheated him and me or else he has cheated me very 
badly. Let me know what the truth of the matter is ; meanwhile, 
do not pay anything to dircck corsscn or to any one in his name, 
as he has been but our servant, but write me all the particulars 
that I may see whether you are belied or whether what is said is 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Arent van Curler 3 

May io, 1638 

Arent van Coorlcr, assistant 

This day, 10 May 

Honorable, discreet cousin arent van coorlcr: I hope that by 
this time, with God's help you have arrived in my colony and duly 
delivered there the goods which you took with you and that accord- 
ing to my wish you have already begun noting everything down 
exactly and writing me of it, that I may know how things stand 
there, especially as to the increase of the animals, horses, cows, 
etc. ; also, that you kept a correct account of all the goods which 
I sent heretofore and now send herewith, and where they may be 
sold with profit. In all things, however, you will have to submit 
yourself to your coin 111 is with whom you serve so that he will not 
have to complain of you ; but aside from that you may write me of 
every detail and if you take good care of your affairs and write 
and advise me at length I will, when the opportunity offers itself 
and in proportion to your capacity, also take care of your promotion 
and advancement, but one has to be servant before one can be 
master. Write me also definitely about the tobacco planting, how 
it has succeeded there, and of the farms and of the saw and grist- 
mills and what further there may be of interest, and do not let any 
opportunity for writing me go by as we long very much for news 
here. Your father is still well and your brother is at present 
staying at my house; both send many greetings, etc. 

3 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.io3b. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 4 

May io, 1638 
Jacob Albersen planck 

The 10th of May 1638 
Yours sent by my small boat called Renselaers wyck as well as 
(he other sent by marten gerretsen, I have duly received. All I 
ask for is to have but half as much v/riting from you as you 
have from me; this is certainly reasonable, for if everything does 
not come to your mind, all you have to do is to place my letters 
and papers before you, examine everything and do as I do, advis- 
ing me of each matter separately. I send you the names of the 
people whom I send over, each one by itself, and you write but in 
general that there have arrived 24 persons besides the women. 
That is not enough ; it is important to me to know who has arrived 
and who has not, as I thought that I had many more people, and in 
order that in the future you may make more careful note of every- 
thing I have sent my cousin Arcnt van coder, by dc Calmer Slutcl, 
to be your assistant, as he can serve and assist you in noting down 
everything. I send enclosed a list of the goods sent by the said 
slutel, as also copies of the letters. You must do this too, that is, 
send me each time a copy to serve if the original letter should not 
come. I hope that the people whom I sent have arrived where 
you are and have been distributed either among the farmers or 
among the tobacco planters. I write to albart andrisen that he 
must have more respect for my officers and commiscn or that he 
will rue it. Contrary to his promise, he has traded beavers with 
dircck Coortse and moreover according to the statement of direck 
Coortscn has given but the value of 25 merchantable beavers for 
7 pieces of duffel, so that he must have cheated dircck Coortse as 
well as our commis or dirrech Coortssen must have cheated his 
employers. Therefore, notify albart and all others living in the 
colony not to engage in such detrimental fur trade, conformable 
to their respective agreements, and to make [no] general payments 
to direck Coortse or his agent as he has treated us very badly : 
for I do not care to suffer in my colony those who have their eye 
mainly on the fur trade. That some trifles should be overlooked 
is a different matter, but those who make purely a business of it, 
I do not care to have. He who is my officer and commis knows 

* V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.104. 


how far my freedoms go, but it is not the business of others. 
These people not only cheat their patroon and master but also 
defraud the West India Company of the duties, and I am firmly 
resolved not knowingly and intentionally to injure the West India 
Company in their rights in the least, as my principal object is 
directed toward farming and things connected therewith. Enclosed 
I send you in God's name the invoice of all the goods which I am 
now sending over for the account of the colony, as well as a record 
of the payments made here to the people, with which together with 
the board during the passage you must not neglect to debit those 
who have to pay it. I send herewith 18 mares, mostly two years 
old, all of which except two are covered. Three of these belong 
to Jacob volpersen, according to the memorandum which he has 
thereof. The other 15 are for the colony, to be distributed as 
follows, namely: 

Four gray mares for marrits Jansen van brockhuysen, my cousin, 
who is to be made head farmer, and adriaen cornelisen van bar- 
singerzvout,** who goes over herewith also, and is to be his foreman 
for the period of three years according to his contract. This farm 
will have its plowed land beyond paep Sickences Island, across the 
Rul opposite Symon walichss and Cornells maessen. 5 

From the seven remaining horses, Tunes Jansc, also called 
dirccksc van rcchten? may choose four horses to establish there- 
with a farm south of the farm of manris Jansen, where there is 
room enough. 

As to the three remaining horses, if with God's help they arrive, 
you will distribute them where they are needed and if possible 
establish a fourth farm therewith. 

The houses and stables of these farms you will push forward 
as much as possible. I hope, now that does Jansen van naerden 
must have arrived there, that better arrangements will be made 
for the building of houses so that the farmers may be better ac- 
commodated. And as these new farms have no cows, you will see 
that the others give each of them some of the young calves to 
make shift for a while, 7 or you will find out whether there are any 

J " In other places referred tn as Adriaen Corneliss van Barsingerhorn and in the 
account books among the Rensselaerswyck Mss also as Adriaen Corneliss Berghoorn. 
Barsingerhorn is a village in the province of North Holland, about 12 miles northeast 
of Alkmaar. 

5 deese bouwerije sal syn bouwlant hebben buyten paep Sickenees eylant ouer de R><! 
tegen oner Symon walichss en Cornells maessen. 

6 Should he ion vechten. 

7 om haer by provisic wat te Connen bchclpen. 


to be bought at the mauhatans or to be traded for the remaining 
horses, always remembering that in my opinion one of these mares 
is worth considerably more than two cows. 

You must not fail to send me all accounts in perfect order in- 
cluding your own account. You have not done this very carefully 
as I understand that you have a goodly quantity of beavers and 
have sent but 200 of them by my ship. As you wrote me long ago 
that you had then already 150 skins and the goods of my small 
vessel have been added since, I had expected at least 500, on which 
I insured 300 skins and now but 200 appear, of which I was to 
give one half to your wife without having the account thereof. 1 
have therefore given her provisionally f/oo as I had to pay f200 
duty to the Company because you did not send any paper showing 
that it had been paid. She also had to bear one half of the in- 
surance, as you had not written me that you had a share therein ; 
therefore, you must henceforth send me better and fuller advice, 
which you can do better now that you have as assistant arent van 
Corler, who is pretty good with the pen. In selling the merchan- 
dise, you must not only take into account the first purchase price, 
but all sorts of expenses of ship, boat and lighter freight, also the 
boxes and hauling, etc., for which you must raise the price at least 
one stiver, for example, what cost 20 stivers you must count as 
having cost 21 stivers. Herewith goes again a goodly quantity 
of iron and smith's coal, so that the smith will be well provided. 
I should have liked to have had a helper for the smith and wheel- 
wright but on account of the mortality here I have not been able 
to secure any. It is possible that the Company will throw open 
the beaver trade to some extent; if they should do that, I do not 
intend nor shall I allow any but those of the Company, to whom 
I can not forbid it, to trade furs in my colony; to private indi- 
viduals I do not wish to permit it. With my own people some 
discretion will have to be used, provided that they deliver the skins 
to you at a reasonable price for my account, so that they may have 
some profit and I also and the Company receive its duty. They 
must do likewise with the grain and other products. 

Piter Comelisen writes me that he will put up a grist-mill and 
a brewery; that is all right as far as the building is concerned, 
but respecting milling and beer brewing I intend to make some 
further regulation at the first opportunity, as one man must not 
have too much. This much I would allow to p r . Corneles, now hi< 
son in law Symon Jansen henypot comes over too, that with your 


advice as the keeper of my place and rights, since I can not be 
present in person, he may build a small yacht to send his planks 
and boards where they may be sold to best advantage and also to 
trade down the river or elsewhere the grain and wheat that is to 
spare in the colony ; all this if there is any profit for me connected 
with it, otherwise it serves but to do damage. To this end I send 
over pitch and tar, also materials and tools to make sails, but you 
must take care of my rights that I may be defrauded by no one. 
When arent van corler has not too much to do, let him occupy 
himself in shooting game and catching fish so as to reduce some- 
what the expense of his board; have him also look after things 
here and there and send him all over the colony to arrange things, 
to note down the grain and animals and especially to look after 
the planting of vines. Jeronimus la Croix believes that above 
broedcr Cornells on the west side of the maquars Kil there are 
suitable hills, which slope to the south and are treeless, that would 
be desirable for the raising of apples, pears, cherries and similar 
fruits. This should be looked after but especially the planting of 
tobacco, whether that will succeed. I am not well satisfied that 
albeert has not sent me a sample of his tobacco by marten Gerritscn 
nor reported how many pounds he expected to have. The said 
albert has a servant, Johan lebattij, who is a carpenter. You can, 
by paying him, employ him also on the building of the houses, so 
that the farms, from which in time the greatest profit is to be ex- 
pected, may be gotten ready. In your last letter, you write nothing 
of your plan, mentioned in an earlier letter, of putting up a building 
for a church, the loft of which could if needed be used for the 
storing of grain. Whether this has been contracted for or not, I 
urge you to promote godliness in every way and to give me some 
further idea of the means of supporting a minister. 

You write me that these may amount to f300 a year ; something 
must be added to that, for no one will care to go there for as much 
again as that amount. However, let me see the list of those who 
would pay the aforesaid f300, and now that more people are 
coming the amount will increase. Lay this matter before the 
schepens some day and have them discuss the means and write 
to me about it. Do not forget to send me at the earliest oppor- 
tunity all the accounts, especially that of the Company and what 
they owe me, as I have furnished them things for years and never 
received anything. Send me also the account of the returns of my 
merchandise, sent at various times by my small boat as well as bv 


aren't van corler, and also in due course, that of the goods which 
go herewith. May the Lord graciously watch over them and allow 
goods, people and animals to arrive at your place without accident. 
I should also like to have the instrument of purchase of paep 
Sickiels Island. Henceforth it will not be necessary for the grant- 
ors to appear before the director and council of New Netherland, 
but it will be sufficient that they appear before the officer and 
council of the colony of Rensselaer swyck to make the transfer, 
making the same declaration as is put in the former deeds. Please 
to greet bastiacn Jansc Croll, conwiis at Fort Orange, heartily 
from me. I request you to live with him and the Company in all 
friendship and as good neighbors and that you assist each other 
on all occasions with words and deeds and with life and limb 
against all those who would injure the servants or subjects of my 
colony, as the Company on its side has promised to do by the 25th 
article of the Freedoms of New Netherland. 

1 have noticed that the farmers and others without my knowl- 
edge and consent have traded with derreck coortsen and the crew 
of my boat; they must avoid this or I shall punish it with con- 
fiscation. If they have any skins, let them deliver them to you 
for my account, so that I may have something too for my heavy 
expenses, as I have now for seven or eight years received little 
or nothing but always paid out large sums. Take care that the 
servants and others who receive wages are paid there, so that 
I am not bothered about that here. Let the farmers pay the wages 
of their servants in full and debit me for one half of the amount 
which I will pay them and let them not charge me with the full 
wages of the servants so that I must recover one half from the 
masters. In this way I am rid of that for a while and they musr 
find means to satisfy their servants. The councilors whom you 
have chosen are approved by me, but in order that the charges 
do not become too great at least two schepens must retire each 
year and the vacancies be filled by others from among the ablest, 
as is done here in this country. You must see to it that the 
aforesaid schepens hold session at least once a month or if need 
be every week to consider all things touching the administration 
of the colony and to settle all questions and disputes. Each time 
the schepens meet, a prayer must be offered up by the most suitable 
person in order that the blessing of the Lord may rest upon you 
and grant you wisdom and understanding; the fear of the Lord 
and justice I commend to you most highly and before all things. 


The account of Seegen Jansen must not be put off any longer 
and do not forget to send us a sample of a few muddes of the best 
wheat and rye, which should have been done already. 

With regard to the indemnity of the . . . 8 discretion should be 
used, without being too severe you should by constant admonition 
cause them to entertain a lively sense of their duty and what they 
Owe the colony on account of the damage which they have done. I 
see that Gerret de reux wants to come over some time to make new 
terms. He may then at the same time seek himself a wife. The 
terms must be such that I shall get some return from my land and 
finally enjoy the fruits of the great expenses which I have had. 
With God's help it will no doubt improve each year if I do not 
spare money and pains. Do not neglect to read over this letter 
and my previous letters once in a while to refresh your memory. 

If Cornells melyn, supercargo of the ship het zvdpen van nor- 
wcg n , who must have fiooo for the passage of our people and 
the freight of goods and 15 horses, should load some grain at the 
manhatans, at the current price there, you will replace the same 
and send receipt therefor. 

If you should happen to be at the manhatans and have any 
skins for the colony, you might send by this ship some 100 or 
200 beavers, provided you enter them with the director and take 
a receipt for them, as well as a bill of lading from the supercargo. 

And as direck Coortsen has thus far given me no detailed ac- 
count of the board of my people who went over in my ship, do not 
forget to send me the account thereof at once and to let me know 
what the amount is. 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Jacob Albertsz Planck 9 

May 12, 1638 

Jacob Albcrtsen planck, officer and com in is in the colony of Rens- 

12 May 1638 
Yesterday afternoon all the papers and documents were sent to 
you and now it is discovered that dirck corss., who has deceived 
the inhabitants of my colony in every way and incited and induced 
them to private trading, has declared today that the following- 
persons are guilty and have traded with him, to wit : 

8 Word omitted in Letter Book. Sie p. 243, 267, 270. 
• V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book, f.io6b. 


Pieter Cornelisz van munnikendam, he alleges owes him 155 
£155:16:8 guilders, 16 stivers and 8 pence, but he does not say for 
what. You will therefore ask the said pieter Cornelisz what this 
debt is for, whether for goods which he has received from him 
or for passage money and board of his men. Let him be frank 
about it, I shall not take it ill of him this time, even if it is different 
from what I think, provided he pay you the said amount to send 
to me for the account of the person whom it may concern. Sijmon, 
jansz. henypot has asked me whether he should pay the said sum 
to dirck corss, but I have forbidden him to do so as I did not 
know what this debt arose from, whether from goods delivered 
or from passage money of his men. Said henypot now goes over 
again; he has told me about some small casks of brandy but, from 
what I hear, it seems that he takes with him several pieces of 
duffel among his beet sacks or other baggage. He should not do 
this without telling me about it. Speak to him about it in a dis- 
creet way, for I do not propose to have people cheat me in this 
underhand fashion and would rather that such traders stayed 
away from there, as these people not only deprive me of my 
returns from my colony but in addition defraud the West India 
Company of its duties, which must be paid first and before every- 
thing else. After that, I must . . . . 10 such expenses not 
profit some one else and I have the dishonor. 

{179:17:0 Jan jansz van Ilpendam, under date of August 5, 1637, 
at the inanJiatans. This man is in the service of the Company. 
If he pays you, I have nothing to say about him. 
£359:0:0 Jacobus van corlacr, under date of August 7, 1637. As 
he is a relative of mine, I shall not accuse him if he pays you. 
f 4 io:o:o Hermanns Minardi abogardy, 11 July 22, 1637, at Fort 

43 % beavers Lubbert Gysbcrtsc, a note of hand for 43^ beavers, 
15 pa ' d dated May 26, 1637, on which 15 beavers have been 

28 % beavers " paid. If this is our wheelwright, you will tell him 
to pay you and to be careful not to do it again. The beavers you 
will send to me, like those which follow, but you will enter them 
with the director of the Company so that the duty may be paid 

10 At this point a line is apparently omitted in the Letter Book. 

11 Surgeon Harmen Meyndertsz van den Bogaert, commis at Fort Orange, who signs 
his name in the N.Y. Col Mss, Harmannus:A:Booghardij. 



Brocr Cornells, per balance of account of 20 May 
29 beavers on which 5^2 beavers have been paid. 
60 yards Albert adrvesen, 60 yards of seawan. Let him also 

of seawan . . , . . . . ... 

pay this to you and beware of doing anything like 
it again without my knowledge and consent. 

1221:8 Willem adriaenss. van els scneur, cooper, account against 
the lords directors of Groningen signed by Tyaert brougers, 11 * 
supercargo. Whether this sum is paid I do not know. You must 
find out how this is. There was a power of attorney with it. At 
all events I have received nothing of it. Let this willem adriaensz 
pay you and in case it should be paid to him here, he will be 
fisgiio st notified. Cort pietersz. from the lords directors of 
Groningen with a power of attorney. Hereof I have received 

These aforesaid matters you will quietly investigate one after 
the other and advise me what answer and satisfaction each person 
gives you. If they refer to their note of hand, you will in my 
name reply that I shall indemnify them for all future calls upon 
them, and in case of refusal you will tell those who are in my 
colony that I shall know how and where to recover the money, 
but if they appear willing, I shall smooth things over so that this 
time they need expect no trouble. In the future they must carry 
on such dealings as they have had with dick Corsz or may have 
with others, with my knowledge or at least with yours or that of 
the person who at the time shall be commis of my colony, in order 
that I may have my share and the Company its trade. I could 
not help sending this to you ; and in order that you may be com- 
pensated for your trouble, make every one pay you a small fine 
of one stiver in the guilder or one skin in twenty; wherewith I 
commend you to God. Vale. 

12 Herewith I send also eight small books 
^■-f* called de Practijcke der Godtsalichcyt, 13 very 

N°. ^, 16 useful for the families. Cost 18 st a piece, 

^^(f amounting to lj\\. 

118 This should be Tyaert brongcrs. See p. 289. 

" Note in the handwriting of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 

18 The Practice of Godliness. 


Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Cornells Melyn 14 

May 12, 1638 

Cornells melyn, supercargo of the ship hct wapen van noorweegen 
Honor be to God; in Amsterdam 12 May 1638 

Monsieur Melijn: Enclosed is a letter to be delivered to Jacob 
plane, as I had forgotten to write him something. Advise me at 
your convenience of the receipt of this letter as it is of great im- 
portance. Further, do your best to sail in the name of the Lord as 
soon as possible, to deliver our people, goods and horses as safely 
as possible and to treat them well. Keeping the fear of the Lord 
before your eyes, He will undoubtedly through His divine grace 
grant you a happy and speedy voyage, wherewith, commending 
you to His faithful protection, I remain, with hearty greetings — 
de zvilde sailed on this boat and although I have not seen him — 15 

Herewith also a package of eight very useful books, No. X, 
also to be handed to Jacob planck with the aforesaid letter. Enter 
them also at the end of your bill of lading so as not to forget 
them and keep them in your chest or somewhere else where they 
do not get wet. It would not be bad either to read them on the 
ship; you might take them all out and then wrap them up again 
when you get on land. 

Petition of the officers and crew of het Wapen van Noorwegen 
to lighten the ship 10 


Request to Cornells Melijn and Jackop tvolfcrscn 

We, the underwritten, officers and sailors who have hired our- 
selves out to sail with the ship named hct wapen van noonucgen on 
the voyage to Virginia or New Netherland and tecra noua and 
who have come here to proceed on our voyage with the first favor- 
able wind which God may grant, find on the ship so much obstruc- 
tion that we deem it not advisable to gfo to sea in a vessel which is 

14 V. R. B. Mss, Letter Book,;b, 

15 The Dutch of this incomplete sentence which seems to have no connection with th" 
letter reads as follows: de wilde is los geracckt p des-a cage ende hoe wel ick hem niet 
gesien hebben. The meaning is uncertain; de wilde may be a personal name, but may 
also be translated " the savage;" cage probably stands for kaag, a one-masted boat for 
inland navigation. 

" V. R. B. Mss, 14. 


so encumbered with boxes, trunks and forage for the horses, that 
it is impossible to use or move a single piece, yes, we do not know 
where to turn to go to belay a sheet or bowline ; on the other hand 
it is impossible for the ship to sail or float on account of the en- 
cumbrance and heavy weight, as we found out between Amsterdam 
and the Texel. We are therefore resolved rather to leave the 
vessel than to go to sea with such a ship, for no matter who or 
what persons come aboard they are astonished to find so encum- 
bered a ship, and, as moreover the pilot and the bargemaster express 
the same opinion, we now kindly request that you will do your best 
and relieve us from such heavy burden and lighten the vessel so 
that we may cross the ocean in the usual way ; and in order to 
accomplish such lightening at least six horses must be taken out 
and our boxes, chests, casks and other goods put in their place : 
and if you do not please to lighten the vessel, we will not consent 
to go to sea in the ship under any consideration, but first it must 
be lightened ; and if you take six horses out, we will not do as our 
carpenter and another man have done but, with God's help, will 
faithfully accomplish the voyage. 

[signed] skipper IVycUcm ras 

mate Pauivcls mattyscus 
second mate Jan clacsscn 
Cornells bisschop, boatswain's mate 
17 > oyer licndcrickscn, constable 
17 JuirJan Janscn 
17 frans viarscn, cook 
17 f rans simmensen 
Reijer Janscn, pilot 
Sccrck Jones, bargemaster 

Kiliaen van Rensselaer to Joost van Sandwech 1S 

May or June 1638 

Joost van Sandtwegh, at Leyden 

Mons r Sen 1 til wegh: I have received your letter with the power 
of attorney. 1811 It will be necessary for one or both o\ you 18b to 

17 Names in same handwriting as the document. 

18 V. R. B. MsSj Loiter Booh, f.\ojh. The carelessness with which this letter 1ms been 
entered in the Letter Book makes it impossible to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion 
as to tlic meaning of certain passages or to vouch for the accuracy of the translation. 

""> See letter to van Sandwech, June _•;. 1637, p. 348. 

lsb Van Sandwech and Tortarolis? See letters to Cerrard dc Forest, Nov. 28, and 
Dec. 18, 1636, p. 344. 


come here to make a preliminary settlement as I do not like to 
keep any one waiting. I should be pleased if you could come on 
Friday, as I intend to go away from home next week; otherwise 
it would have to be after Pinkster. I have shown the power of 
attorney to my confraters; [they] think it all right and will not 
keep [us] waiting if it is possible. 

Today dirck Corse demanded [payment] and presented the note 
of hand if we would pay him at once [his wages?] and the 
amount of the barrels, etc., to which I have replied briefly, but 
I expect that [the order?] has been drawn. 

We must think of some means whereby we can settle our ac- 
counts. Please [obtain consent?] to having psople deal with us. 
We will [advise?] them [your associates?] of everything that I 
offered to dirck corse in the name of the shipowners. He there- 
upon decided to think the matter over but instead of that . . . 19 
the aforesaid protest which speaks of the directors, most of whom 
are out of the Netherlands. It is now too late to settle this matter, 
especially as we have not yet the note of hand. However, I wrote 
today at length about it to those who are out of the country and 
made a provisional arrangement which I shall communicate to you. 
Commending you to God. 

Willem Kieft to Kiliaen van Rensselaer 20 

August 14, 1638 

While sailing to the Bay to dispatch the ship den Haringh, 
wc encountered your ship 't wapen van noorwegen and received 
your honor's letter of the 7th of May, to which I reply but briefly 
owing to the circumstances of the moment. The bearer hereof is 
Mr Cor net is melyn who goes to terra neuf or Canada to trade for 
fish or peltries ; the Lord grant him a profitable and safe journey. 

Your honor's goods have been unloaded, except some things 
which they kept in the ship or which were not sent with it, in 
regard to which Jacob wolpertsen, who has the invoice, writes to 
your honor. 

I have had a shallop loaded and it has gone up the river with the 
people ; the horses are still here in charge of a man and a boy ; all 
the bricks, coal and iron are also here yet but will be sent by the 

19 At this point a few words seem to have been omitted in the Letter Book. 

-" /'. R. P: Mss, 15. 


next shallop. I am troubled about how to get the horses up the 
river, as we have no vessel in which they can be sent, the bark going 
to the West Indies. 

The yacht s*- merten has gone to the south and does not 
come here till autumn. There are no other vessels by which horses 
can be sent. It is not possible to transport them in the scow, so 
that I shall send them up in an open lighter, which however 
will hardly hold two and oblige us to make many trips, which at 
the moment is very inconvenient, the more so as we have but few 
people and I desire to discharge some in order to lessen the Com- 
pany's burden. Your honor will therefore in the future need a 
vessel or two, especially if the grain is sent to the English, for we 
shall as a rule be able to help ourselves. f2/0 a last is too much. 
It will not bring nearly as much among the English, who have 
also but little cash to pay for the goods on which a duty of two or 
three per cent must be paid, but this will show itself when the trial 
is made. As the population increases here, the price will likely 
for some time remain the same. 

Some time ago I sent a shallop up the river expressly with the 
goods that came with minuyt; now another has gone expressly for 
you; and the lighter will have to do likewise, as we have no busi- 
ness whatever up above. I shall make a note of the trips and of 
the circumstances (your officers in the colony ought to do the same) 
so that later on I can show the directors what I have done with 
their things and servants. 

I thank your honor heartily for your honor's offer of the horses 
and goods; I do not